Fall 2013 Poster Presentations

Western Celebration of Scholarship Undergraduate Research Symposium

Poster Session

Thursday, December 12, 2013 12:15 – 2 pm

University Center Ballroom

12:30 Opening Remarks Dr. Bill Niemi, Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs


The posters are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the submitting author. The discipline and supervising instructor are listed after the authors. Because a central goal of the event is to explore the practices of communication and critical inquiry across disciplines in the tradition of the liberal arts, the disciplines and course levels (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) are intentionally mixed. We hope this encourages cross disciplinary interactions as well as providing opportunities for cross class communication and role modeling. Where a poster is part of a specific course, the course number is indicated at the end of the abstract.

1. Alleman, Alexander, Patrica Wheeler Larsen. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter, Zachary Via. Analysis of Diacteyl in Beer produced by GM brewers Yeast.        

Diacetyl is a metabolite found in beer; too much diacetyl gives the beer an undesirable buttery flavor. We compared the beer produced by three different yeast, one of which is a yeast which is modifed to produce less diacteyl.  Reacting diacetyl with o-phenylenediamine produces 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline which can be detected with HPLC at a certain wave length. The amount of diacetyl in each sample can then be quantified by taking the integral of the peak. We will look at multiple steps in the fermentation process. We hypothesis that the modified yeast will perform better and produce less diacteyl throughout, while the other two yeast should perform normally with a high amount of diacteyl in the beginning and the low at the end. The yeast can then be used as a brewers yeast for further taste test.     CHEM 306

2. Anderson, Rhawnie, Drew Calabrese, Miranda Johnson, Kayla Justice, Kyle Krawczak, Kevin McCall, Kaitlyn McKnight, Beau Milton, Dylan Nicolson, Torrie Nickel, Tepora Sua. Honors. Shelley Read. Individualism and Community in Modern America.        

How has individualism influenced the modern American sense of community?  For the purpose of this study, individualism is defined as: the value of the individual’s self-interests as a source of power.  This suggests the individual is naturally self-interested and uses this as a means of interacting with the world.  Our research stems from three areas of study: social interactions, history and politics, and public health.  Area one focuses on the mechanics behind interpersonal relations as well as the influence of media on individualism versus community.  Area two highlights the historical and political contexts which gave rise to the struggle between the individual and institutions. Area three explores how individual and societal means impact public health by examining government healthcare reforms, public infrastructure, and interactions of the exerciser.  This interdisciplinary analysis seeks to understand the development of individualism and community in modern America and incorporate these ideas to empower our communities. HNRS     200     

3. Andrews, Nina, Madi Samblaat, Hanna Riepl, Marina Meneakis, Emma, Griffon. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Bluebird Monitoring Project

An existing cavity nesting bird monitoring project in Gunnison Country CO, is in need of annual maintenance. This project aims to restore organization of research methods and prepare boxes for next year’s inhabitants. We simultaneously record data on bird species activity and use of the boxes from the previous season. We hope that in an annual data collection plan that utilizes the methods we establish this season bird activity can be statistically monitored for years to come. The study hopes to see an incline in cavity nesting bird species populations where the boxes are functional as artificial tree cavity niches. For each box we replace each old tag with a new mileage based number. Each box is then photographed, emptied and restored for next season. Lastly we record the UTM indicating the exact location of each box for the purpose of creating an interactive map of bluebird highway. ENVS 390    

4. Bradley Archer. Communication and Theater. Jack Lucido. PSA: Feed the Children     

A storyboard is a pre-production element used in planning for production. This storyboard is for a thirty-second public service television announcement for Feed The Children. Feed The Children is a non-profit that mission is to provide hope and resources for those without life’s essentials. This storyboard will convey both the technical and contextual elements of proposed PSA. The concept of the story is about two families, one that is very wealthy, and one that is very poor. Both families have two children and two parents. There is an interaction between two of the children (one from each family), which shows the true power of caring for our fellow humans, through the eyes of children. COTH 205

5. Arel, Christian, Matt Poiesz, Sara George, Scott Phelps, Christian Arel.  Environmental Studies            . Jonathan Coop. Patterns of Doulas-fir Beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugaeo) kill in the Gunnison Basin.      

Our objective is to study the effects of the Douglas-fir Beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) on the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) population in the Gunnison Basin. The Douglas-fir beetle is the most common and damaging parasite to the Douglas-fir tree (Hadfield, et al., 1996). It has been found that prolonged drought, associated with climate change, is resulting in the spread of the Douglas-fir beetle and an increase in damage and vulnerability to the Douglas-fir tree species (Anderson, Palik, 2013). We are assessing the state of twenty Douglas-fir stands by measuring their size, altitude, disturbance history, stand structure and overall health. A statistical analysis will be performed to determine if any relationships exist between the categories of data collected and beetle damage to the Douglas-fir stands. ENVS 390

6. Barr, Justin. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Western  Mountain Sports Dryland.

The purpose of this dry land training endeavor was to develop, design and implement a dry land training program for the Western Mountain Sports Team. Methods: A big part of the program was to set reasonable goals for dry land training specifically, as well as for the ski season as a whole, through competitions and otherwise. To gauge improvement through pre-season training, many sport specific workouts were repeated during the Fall, results during and post exercise were recorded, and used to determine measurable improvement during this period of time. Results: During Phase 1 of training, cardiovascular and power exercises led to better overall performance during workouts. Phase 2 was comprised of heavy lifting and more power work, as well as hip stabilization and balance work. Phase 3 will be the maintenance process once on-snow training begins.         ESS 495         

7. Beerebom, Zachary. Anthropology            . Mark Stiger. Lithic Analysis of Clovis Point Arrowheads.

This project will attempt to analyze the methodology used in creating Clovis point arrowheads. Comparing the methods used by Dr. Lewis Binford to the methods used by Alfred Garcia. Looking for variations in technique by examining the debitage, and the final product. This should give us some insight into the various techniques, that could have been used traditionally to create Clovis point arrowheads. ANTH 497 

8. Brennan, Colin, Jeremy Pagel, Aaron Reuter, Skylar Reinecke. Politics and Government. Maria Struble.            Russia, America: Two Sides, One Coin?       

We will demonstrate that the powerful abuse the disenfranchised, reinforced by protest suppression. We will utilize the lens of Marxism, which offers some of the most compelling explanations for these realities. We will explore the ways in which Russia and America exert political and social controls over their citizens that create systemic oppression. We contrast American and Russian ideologies to their realities, as well as the nature of inequality maintaining economic hierarchy dominating every level of both of these nations. We differentiate the ways in which American and Russian systems deviate, and the depth of these deviations. We examine the ways in which the youth and the poor are treated, and how individuals in secondary education are being controlled by their governments. Our supposition is that there will be fewer differences than similarities. Each country paints the other as a terrible enemy, but there is much that they share. POLS 260

9. Bryant, Quinn, Bendix Cunnynham, Lucas Vandenbergh. Computer Information Science. John Peterson.            Robitic Localization   

Localization:  Because the sensors on the Neeto are able to detect obstacles, we are able to teach it how to follow along walls. Using this nifty wall-following technology, we are able to log the changes in surroundings into a data structure.  By comparing this data structure to a pre-made map, we are able to make the Neeto navigate hallways and corridors. We hope to be able to teach the robot to localize, by using data structure maps in Hurst hall to teach the Neeto how to find its exact position and the direction it is facing.  

10. Buckwalter, Adam , Holden Rexius, Anthony Romero.  Politics and Government. Maria Struble         . Drones and Smart Weapons: An Immoral Advantage or the Next Trend of War?     

Drones are being used by the United States military as weapons against both states and non-state enemies. These drones can be controlled from the U.S. and used to kill people thousands of miles away. This relatively new technology enables a disconnect between the enemy on the screen and the human in reality. Drone warfare is problematic in that it changes the way war is conducted. The evidence given of this change will explain the morality of the drones, then will break down the reasons that they will change the whole field of war into something that we may not even be able to call war. War as it is now has changed drastically from when it started, but human life is still the center of it despite the way drones enable us to view it otherwise. POLS 260  

11. Burkholder, Avery, Blaise Jaros, Daniel Mercier, Evan Basinger,  Aveen Ver Ploeg. Amy Honan. The Fitness Cost of Herbicide Resistance in Brassica rapa           

Development of herbicide resistance in Brassica rapa, a species of mustard plant, could have an adverse effect on other traits of the organism: namely growth rate, photosynthetic rate, and resistance to herbivory. To test this, three experiments were conducted. The first tested for photosynthetic rate of leaves taken from each different plant (herbicide resistant and nonresistant), while the second tracked herbivory rates using caterpillars on each type of plant. During growth, the heights of each plant were measured as well, and averaged over the course of three weeks. It was found that while there was no significant difference in herbivory rate or photosynthetic rate, nonresistant Brassica rapa tended to grow higher and be taller at full maturity. This suggests that developing a trait such as herbicide resistance in plants could have negative effects on other elements of the organism, which has serious implications in the world of genetic modification for agricultural purposes. BIOL 151      

12. Butero, Cody, John Kesler, Brian Sampson, Nicole Stone, Matt Martinez. Biology. Jonathan Coop. Characterizing Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Forest Health in Relation to Infestation by Douglas Fir Beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugaeo) within Gunnison Basin, CO USA.

Recent pine, spruce, and fir-beetle outbreaks have reached epidemic levels and much of Colorado’s forests are experiencing widespread, large-scale mortalities. Insofar only the Douglas fir forests (Pseudotsuga menziesii) have come under attack by the Douglas fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugaeo) within the Gunnison Basin. The severity and location of the Douglas fir beetle epidemic is variable in the basin. In this study we attempt to find a correlation between affected Douglas fir stands within the basin. This study takes into account defining stand characteristics as well as individual tree health diagnostics within affected stands. We look for a positive indication leading to understanding why certain stands are infected, to what extent they are infected, and which trees are being targeted within infected stands.  In order to understand and effectively manage our forests we use disturbance as an opportunity to learn about the Douglas fir and Douglas fir beetle interaction. BIOL 481   

13. Cary, Brandon, Naomi Cazares, Pamela King. Biology.  Robin Bingham. Investigation of the mutualistic relationship between Yucca and Yucca Moths in Gunnison County (Colorado)       

The Yucca-Yucca Moth relationship has become one of the classic study models of coevolution through a mutualistic relationship, but conflicts of interest are naturally occurring in mutualistic partnerships.  Over time, one species will find an advantage to increase fitness at the expense of another.  If the species being exploited does not evolve a solution quickly enough, it could result in a collapse of the mutualistic relationship system altogether, resulting in the extinction of both species (Pellmyr and Huth 1994).  Our study looked to compare populations of Yucca within Gunnison County.  Data were collected from three sites around Gunnison and consisted of number of 1) larvae, 2) whole viable seeds, 3) whole non-viable seeds, 4) damaged viable seeds, and 5) damaged non-viable seed per fruit.  The three sites were then compared to see if there were significant differences between the populations in the county.       BIOL  302

14. Cernoia, Michael, Adam Friedel. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Analysis of Mercury Levels in Fish 

Fish is an important aspect of a person’s diet.  Fish contains important vitamins and oils which our bodies need in order to survive.  However, mercury has also been discovered in fish and too much mercury intake can lead to extreme side effects.  This study looks into how much mercury is safe to consume for people of different ages.  The study will consist of both fish samples from a local grocery store as well as fish taken for local rivers, lakes or streams.  There will be multiple species of fish involved in this experiment including oceanic fish.  The goal of this study is to educate the public about how much fish can safely be consumed each week without having the possibility of consuming too much mercury for various age ranges. CHEM 306          

15. Colburn, Paige, Cale Fry, and Todd Van Noord. Biology. Robin Bingham. Habitat Partitioning on the Cochetopa Dome.

Qualitative knowledge suggests coyotes in high elevations follow their prey to lower elevations in the winter.  By contrast, the territorial nature of coyotes suggests that summer territory selection incorporates winter survival. This study investigates coyote populations on Cochetopa Dome to determine if seasonal movement occurred along an altitudinal gradient.  We hypothesized that some coyotes remain at high elevations due to territoriality while younger transient individuals follow prey to lower elevations.  Two sets of transects were established on Cochetopa Dome, one at low elevation, and one at high elevation.  Within these transects, tracks, scat, and game cameras were examined on a weekly basis from September to November.  Data were insufficient to analyze coyotes or seasonality. An excess of non-coyote specific collected data could indicate an interaction between ungulates and lagomorphs. BIOL 302

16. Coleman, Mike, Kit Haven, Lance Kittle, and Holly Reycraft. Biology. Robin Bingham. Examining the facultative hemiparasitic root relationship between Castilleja spp. and Artemisia tridentata on north and south facing aspects in the Gunnison Basin           

Indian paintbrush (Castilleja linariifolia) is a hemiparasitic plant that uses sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to obtain water through their roots. We hypothesized that south facing slopes would have more Indian paintbrush associated with sagebrush because of increased water stress. In order to measure the abundance of sagebrush and Indian paintbrush, we utilized three sites containing one north facing and one south facing 10x10m transect in Antelope Hills, Lost Canyon, and signal Peak. Our hypothesis was rejected. Both sagebrush and Indian paintbrush occurred in higher numbers on north facing slopes than south facing slopes. This indicates that growth patterns are more favorable on north slopes, possibly due to a more moist and mesic environment. Our study is one of few in hemiparasitic response to water abundance on directional slopes. BIOL 302

17. Crabtree, Jessica. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Gatorade vs. water in preventing dehydration during prolonged physical activity.    

Gatorade claims to help prevent dehydration better than water alone during prolonged physical activity. To examine hydration levels after prolonged physical activity when drinking water vs. drinking Gatorade. Methods: Five subjects, male and female, (> 18 yrs. old) and participated in two, one hour-long indoor high intensity interval cycling classes.  The first class, while drinking water the second class drinking Gatorade, (8oz every 15 minutes). Urine samples were collected at the end of class to test for hydration levels. ESS 495

18. Didericksen, Brent. Chemistry. Griggs Stephen.  Identity and Concentration of Dye in a Commercial Drink   

We wanted to determine concentration of blue and red dye in our purple Powerade. We created five different known concentrations of dye to help us figure out concentration. We then used the spectrometer to test light absorbency of each known dye concentration. At that point we were able to make a standard curve with absorbance vs. concentration of both dyes. We then used a paper chromatography to determine the dyes present; we put the paper in with concentrated beverage and saw blue and red dyes separated out. We used the Vernier scanning visible spectrometer to test our Powerade sample; we then compared results to known standards of each dye. To determine the dye concentration we scanned the beverage at each λ max that corresponded to the red and blue dyes. Then we calculated the concentration of each dye using a measured absorbance with the equation of the trend line. CHEM 112     

19. Dodge, Jessie, Sarah McClernan and Ashley Woolman. Biology. Jonathan Coop. Using Satellite Imaging to Determine Post-Fire Regrowth          

The Jemez Mountains, which are primarily composed of Ponderosa pine forests are thought to have frequently undergone low-severity fires before the fire suppression, but since 1977 they have been burned by multiple high-severity fires, the last being the Las Conchas fire in 2011. It is important to study the Jemez Mountain’s adaption to the relatively recent change from high-frequency, low-severity fires to low-frequency, high-severity fires because of the recent increase in high-severity, frequent fires throughout the West.  We will use Landsat maps from USGS to obtain multiple images before and after the Las Conchas fire in 2011 to compare the vegetation. Images will be from April through September of year 2009, using Landsat 7, and from April through September of 2013, using Landsat 8. To distinguish between green vegetation, and bare ground, we will use GIS to calculate the NDVI of plots used from a previous study in eastern Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. We hope to demonstrate the change in vegetation from predominately ponderosa pines before a high-severity fire to large areas of shrubs and grasslands after a high-severity fire. BIOL 491

20. Donaldson, Kevin. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Metal Composition of Ice Hockey Skate Blades.    

The composition of ice hockey skate blades is unknown amongst consumers due to a lack of desire to know.  However, it is known that an ice hockey skate blade must be composed of metals which have good thermal conductivity and are of relatively high strength.  This experiment analyzed ice hockey skate blades for the presence of the metals chromium, manganese and silicon due to their high thermal conductivity and strength.         CHEM 306     

21. Elder, Caitlin, Meneakis, Marina, Conway, Sean, Tomlinson, Ned. Environmental Studies. David Marchetti. Water quality analysis of Tomichi Creek        

We will present water chemistry data for several collection sites along Tomichi Creek. These data include nitrite, sulfate, pH, TDS, temperature and presence or absence of coliform bacteria. Our data, collected in Fall 2013, will be compared against similar data collected at the same sites in Fall 2009 and Spring 2012.      ENVS 373     

22. Evans, Sam, Harrison Voegeli, Josh Lamphere, and Ben Hawthorne. Biology. Robin Bingham. The Relationship Between Asymmetry, Gender, and Parasite Load Among Cottontail Rabbits.          

This experiment tested if parasite load among Cottontail Rabbits is correlated with ear asymmetry and if parasite load significantly differs between genders. We hypothesized that parasite load will be greater among individuals with asymmetric ears and that parasite load will be significantly different between males and females. We calculated the asymmetry of the rabbit ears and the number of external parasites among 20 individual Cottontail Rabbits in the greater Gunnison, Co valley. We all used small game licenses and our hunting backgrounds to the collect data. We used a fine-picked comb and a water bath to remove external parasites from each Cottontail Rabbit. Each ear of the Cottontail Rabbit was measured in centimeters and the parasites were counted individually for each individual. There were no relationship between the asymmetry of Cottontail Rabbit ears and the number of parasites that each individual contained (r=-0.25) and no significant difference between parasite load and gender (p>0.05).  BIOL 302

23. Fry, Cale. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Temperature and Elevation in the Gunnison Valley           

While large scale climate models show variation at a geographic level, data regarding topoclimates, variations across 0.01 km to 1 km scales in latitude and longitude, is limited. The Gunnison Valley provides an interesting opportunity for study because these small climates can be affected by slope aspect, elevation, exposure  to sun and wind, and cold air drainage.   In order to study the effects of these small scale temperature changes, 20 iButton temperature data loggers were placed along a northeastern transect of Tenderfoot Mountain. Eight loggers were placed on the southwestern side of the mountain, 100 feet in elevation apart, and eight loggers were placed on the northeastern side at the same interval with two loggers at the top of the mountain and two at the bottom near the river. The loggers will collect data for one month then the information will be evaluated by making comparisons with past climate data from the area. ENVS     390     

24. Gale, Jade. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Biowaste     

In the U.S alone, there are over 3,000 active landfills and over 10000 old municipal landfills. Of these, 82% have had reported leaks and 41% of those have had leaks 1 square foot or more. Essentially, landfills are becoming a major environmental issue as our population continues to grow year by year. However, much of the waste that is thrown into these dumps are biodegradable material that can be used for energy production, fertilizers, and many other uses. In fact, according to the EPA, 62.4 percent of the material thrown away is biodegradable. With these staggering numbers it's hard to believe that further steps haven't been taken to address the exponential growth of waste dumps and why nobody has tried to harness the biodegradable waste potential on a large scale. The solution is biowaste energy.         ENVS 350     

25. Gallagher,Luke, Quinn Bryant,Jaden Terry, Lindsey Yoast,Rob Gaston,Blake Todd,Patrick Holabird,James Holaday. Computer Information Science. John Peterson. Western Network Map

The Computer Networking class set out to learn how the Western's network functioned. We have created a poster that describes the technology used in Western’s computer network and explains how it works.  We discovered the Western Network is a diverse system that has to deal with everything from network congestion and security to the physical cooling of the servers. CIS 235       

26. Golightly, Grant, Cooper, Andrew. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Return to Sport Concerns Following Injury: Fear of Reinjury    

Background: An athlete’s return to sport after injury can be a strenuous experience both physically and mentally. Purpose: To examine the level of Kinesiophobia among athletes and the difference between genders, type of sport and number of injuries an athlete has experienced. This knowledge is important so injury rehabilitation can also focus on psychological aspects. Methods: 50 Exercise Sport Science students were given a self-administered 22 item survey using the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK).  A total score is calculated after inversion of the individual scores of items 4, 8, 12 and 16. A high value greater than 37 on the TSK indicates a high degree of kinesiophobia, scores below 37 are considered as low scores. A Pearson R correlation was used to analyze the data between genders, type of sport, and number of injuries. Results & Conclusion: Will be completed by December 2nd.ESS            495     


Colorado forests could change from recent years of drought and hotter temperatures.  Tree growth is limited by soil temperature, moisture availability, and by abiotic conditions that could create additional stress.  However, the response of climate change is dependent on tree species and on the abiotic conditions at each site.  We examined the affect a warmer, drier climate had on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) along an elevational gradient through tree ring growth analysis of trees at low and high elevations by comparing how the trees at different elevations responded to known hot, drought years in the past.  We hypothesized that growth in lodgepole pine at lower elevations will respond negatively to a warmer climate due to higher stress from lower water availability. However lodgepole pine growth at higher elevations will respond positively to warmer climate due to the limits cold soil temperatures has on trees at or near treeline. BIOL            481

28. Griffin, Emma, Gigliotti, Sam; Gale, Jade; Campbell, Zach. Environmental Studies. David Marchetti. Gunnison River water chemistry

The Gunnison River begins at Almont where the East and Taylor Rivers merge. In November 2013 we will collect and analyze water samples from multiple sites along the Gunnison River. We will present the results of these water analyses to understand possible factors influencing water chemistry of this important water resource in the Gunnison area. We will compare our data from 2013 with data collected during this class in 2009 and 2012 to look for any changes with time. ENVS 373          

29. Hall, Zack . Anthropology. Mark Stiger, David Hyde. An Examination of Variability Within the Folsom Tradition in the American Southwest          

I suggest that the Folsom Tradition be categorized more clearly by individual groupings, rather than by era, as it has been in the past. Certain variables (Ecology, geology, material remains) must be examined and qualified to better distinguish each group. By reorganizing the data collected on various Folsom sites, we can begin to build a cultural framework to be compounded upon with further studies. Indeed, the examination of these variables reveal a trend; namely, that groups of Folsom people (for my purposes, I will use those in the mountainous regions of Colorado vs. those of the New Mexico Plateaus) have substantially different means of subsistence from one another. ANTH 397           

30. Hirota, Alex. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. The Effect of Altitude on Performance in Men’s Collegiate Club Soccer          

Background: There has been much discussion of altitude’s effect on performance in professional soccer stemming from the 2007 FIFA ban on international soccer matches above 8,200 feet. These discussions have focused on professional athletes whereas amateur soccer players have not factored into this conversation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of altitude on performance in men’s collegiate club soccer. Methods: Four men’s teams, approximately 35 athletes, from the Rocky Mountain Colligate Soccer League voluntarily participated in a 12 question survey with open ended questions asking them to describe their performance at altitude. The surveys were given directly after performance, at the site of performance. The data received from these surveys was analysis qualitatively. Data was coded for themes to compare and contrast any significant findings. Results and conclusion to be completed by November 15th, 2013.         ESS 495         

31. Houle, Dorothy. Anthropology. Mark Stiger. Lithic Scatter analysis                  

Lithic Scatters are the most common sites in Colorado, and they are the least understood, many Archaeologist struggle to understand what lithic scatters represent. The purpose of this paper is to study lithic material in Colorado Archaeology; this will be done by using a specific site in Colorado as well as exploratory archaeology. The data that will be collected from is from a site between Leadville and Buena Vista C.O. the rest of the data will include the amount of material found, spatial coordination, and types of material. The themes of this paper will include; the data, the specific site used, the material found, and the discussion. The implications will indicate the practical uses of lithic scatter analysis in the Archaeological context. ANTH 397     

32. Howard, Jodie, Hannah Forester, Ryan Gatson, Marty Fischlein. Politics and Government. Maria Struble. Genocide: Bosnia and Rwanda in perspective           

Genocide by definition is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, esp. those of a particular ethnic group or nation (Webster Definitions). There is a long history of genocides all over the world, but what causes genocide and why is it as prevalent as it is? This paper will examine why genocides happen with specific reference to Bosnia and Rwanda. For example, the Bosnia genocide elicited a very big response from the world, while the Rwanda one, happening almost at the same time, did not provoke the world’s reaction.  Why was that the case?  In order to answer this question, we will address the moral implications as to when a foreign country feels compelled to give aide and military assistance to the genocidal country. POLS 260

33. Huse, Mike. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Substance Use in Action Sports Athletes           

Purpose:  The purpose this mixed methods qualitative study is to examine substance abuse and use in action sports and free-ride athletes. This knowledge is important in gaining an understanding of athletes and self-destructive behaviors and patterns as well as examining any athletic benefit that may come as a result of substance use. Methods: A qualitative examination was conducted, examining 10 athletes from amateur to professional status in the sports of downhill mt. biking, freestyle/free-ride skiing and snowboarding, kayaking, and moto-cross. The surveys, interviews, and an open discussion were then coded for themes. Results: Will be available December 1st 2013.Conclusion: Available December 1st 2013        ESS 495         

34. Jacobs, Brennan, Taylor, Kyla. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Determination of Theobromine and Caffeine Concentrations in Chocolate by HPLC         

In this experiment the concentrations of caffeine and theobromine were found  in different samples of chocolate using HPLC, and compared to everyday sources. Theobromine is found at higher concentrations in dark chocolate than in milk chocolate. Caffeine is also found at higher concentrations in dark chocolate than in milk chocolate. The different samples of chocolate were prepared and centrifuged to remove fat, leaving caffeine and theobromine in the chocolate residue. The chocolate residue was then dissolved and boiled, bringing out the analytes, which were then centrifuged again to remove particles. The solution was then inserted into a chromatography column where theobromine ran off first and had a large absorbance wavelength compared to caffeine. After running the samples and comparing them to standards, a calibration curve was made and the concentrations were found. CHEM 306           


35. Kittel, Lance. Haven, Kitt and Reycraft, Holly. Biology. Jonathan Coop. A Photographic Comparison of Natural Changes in the Gunnison Valley        

Our study compared the natural geography and ecology of Tenderfoot Mountain and the Palisades in the Gunnison valley. Photos dating over 50 years ago were scanned in high resolution and used to retake photos of the same areas. Development and expansion of the valley has changed the backgrounds and key features in the photographs. Pictures of the valley detail how the valley has grown and impacted the natural features that many of these pictures describe. Human interference can be contributed to the altered forest structure of Tenderfoot Mountain. The Palisades area seems to have less tree coverage than in the past, indicating a change in ecology of the area as well. A comparison such as ours has not yet been conducted, and this is but a starting point for understanding the changes in the valley. BIOL  481

36. Knudsen, Michael, Weston Manter. Biology. Jarral Ryter. IBU Analysis of the Beers and Homebrews Using UV Spectrophotometry     

The objective of this experiment was to determine IBU (international bitterness units) for four beers; the microbrews 90 Minute IPA by Dogfish Head Brewing Co. and Dale’s Pale Ale by Oskar Blues Brewing Co., and two home brews. IBUs can tell you a lot about a beer including the potency of the hops, the consistency of hopping beers from the same recipe over time, the amount of alpha acids, the various oxidation products of beta-acids, and the ratio between these two acids. An IBU analysis was performed according to ASBC methods of Analysis, 8th Edition 1992, by measuring beer samples through a UV Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 275nm. CHEM 306

37. Lott, Przemek, Kade Skoglund. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Determining Sugar Content, Ethanol Content and Acidity of Homemade Wines  

The quality of the wine is determined by the sweetness, alcohol content and acid content. The amount of sugar in the grape juice will determine the alcohol and acid content of the wines. Sugar content of commercial grape juice was determined prior to testing wine. Both the sugar content of grape juice and wine were tested using a refractometer. Alcohol content and acidity were found for four various types of homemade wines. Alcohol content was determined through the distillation of ethanol and then measuring the viscosity. In addition, a vinometer was used as a second measurement of the alcohol content of the wines. Acidity was determined through a pH titration using sodium hydroxide. Three titrations were done for each of the four wines. The four wines were compared to the sugar, alcohol, and acid content of a high quality, store bought, wine.         CHEM  306   

38. Mansfield, Alison Dylan Irving and Taylor Denny. Politics and Government. Maria Struble. North Korea: the fallout from going nuclear      

The North Korean nuclear weapons program poses a significant threat to the national security of the United States. North Korea has no intentions of abiding by the standards established to regulate the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which it has demonstrated in 2003 by failing to follow the rules of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty.  We will argue in this paper North Korea is a significant threat to the well-being of diplomatic nations, because they do not abide by nonproliferation standards and are hostile to the United States and its allies. We will do this by illuminating different aspects involved with North Korea and their nuclear weapons. The first is looking further into to the nuclear weapons located in North Korea.  Second is the previous hostile interactions North Korea has engaged in with the United States. Third is the future plans North Korea has involving the United States and the weapons. POLS 260

39. McGeorge, Brianna. Anthropology. Hyde David. Analysis of ADHD Prevalence in the USA  

The rates of ADHD diagnoses in America are steadily increasing every year. An ADHD diagnosis can cause emotional, psychological and physical issues for the diagnosed and should be avoided at all cost. By looking at the research, ADHD in America has become a created problem for a variety of reasons, faulty and uneducated diagnosis from physicians; profit motivated medication pushing, and misdiagnosis/confusion with other mental health issues or other behavioral problems.  American culture has created culturally constructed ideas of what is “abnormal” and “normal” behavior. There is a need for stricter and more stringent guidelines of diagnosing ADHD that are not culturally based but scientifically tested and developed when it comes to ADHD diagnosis. ANTH 265

40. Milton, Beau, Cope, Dustyn and Debs, Alan. Biology. Robin Bingham. Pectoral Fin Asymmetry in Trout in Needle Creek Reservoir         

Our general ecology 302 lab group researched variances in pectoral fin asymmetry in trout species in Needle Creek reservoir. We investigated potential associations between pectoral fin asymmetry and discoloration and lesions, which may be an indication of parasite presence, in various species of trout. We acquired our data by any legal means, which primarily consisted of angling. We then measured the difference in length of pectoral fins on each individual in millimeters. The difference in the lengths of pectoral fins was the pectoral fin index (PFI). We identified fish in accordance with the Colorado fishing regulations guide and examined the fish internally and externally for discoloration or lesions. We found no significant differences in PFI between species or in relation to discoloration or lesions. A larger data set including large numbers for multiple species of trout would likely produce more dependable results. BIOL 302

41. Montgomery, Graham, Jazz Pool, Nathaniel Le. Computer Information Science. John Peterson. A Union of Art and Technology         

As an art form, Kinetic Sculpture employs aspects of computer and mechanical engineering with the aesthetic value of visual arts design to create sculptures that come to life with movement. Our project explores the union between art and computing through sculptures that combine visual aesthetics with the mechanical and computational ingenuity required to put each piece into motion.  We demonstrate a collaboration of artistry and engineering in a poster that displays images of individual pieces as well as short description of the methodologies, challenges, and significance of the project's development. CIS 492

42. Munro, Morgann, Lindsay, More. Sociology. Cress Daniel. Current Context in Egypt  

We will be presenting in the poster presentation section of Celebration of Scholarship. We were in Egypt this past May and were able to experience the political, military, social, and economic forces that were at work during that time. Since then, so much has changed in Egypt, and we have been keeping up on the current contexts through Egyptian student friends that we have made, and multiple news sources. Our poster presentation will include the current political, military, economic, and social context in Egypt now, after the military coup and ousting of former President Morsi in July this past summer. SOC 397 

43. Nilius, Amy. Anthropology. Mark Stiger. The Transition of Stone to Metal in North America  

This research based project is looking into the transition of stone to metal in terms of tool manufacturing and usage in North America. It concentrates on the timeline of Post European contact and the interactions, including trading, for the Native Americans to gain access to metal. I will be looking at the concentration and frequency of the appearance of metal projectile points in the archaeological record as well as the distribution throughout North America to identify how quickly metal replaced stone, or if stone was still more widely used. It will also focus on individual Native American groups as well as regions in which the transition occurred or did not occur based on resource accessibility and preferences. ANTH 397

44. Orosz, Gregory. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. The Psychological Effect of Sex on Performance. 

There are many opinions, both professional and personal, about whether having sexual intercourse before a sport competition is either good or bad for the outcome of the competition. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine if having sexual intercourse before a sport competition has a psychological influence on sport performance. Method: A 14 item closed and open ended survey will be handed out to 200 students, both current and former athletes, at a small university in Colorado. The survey will not only focus on partner intercourse, but of onanism, as well. Results: Coming soon. ESS 495    

45. Orth, Dale Braun, S.; Celania, L.; Cole, J.; Counts, M.; Dickerson, R.; Gill, C.; Hyyppa, T.; Johnson, A.; Johnson, C.; Mahoney, S.; Montano, E.; Pavillard-Cain, F.; Prochazka, K.; Schultz, K.; Schwaninger, A.; Simkins, K.; Waliczek, C.; Winkler, E.  Chemistry. Orth Dale. Do you know what dyes you are drinking?   

The objective of this lab was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in commercial drinks using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy using Beer’s Law. Paper chromatography was used to determine the possibility that more than one food dye was used in a known sample of a purple colored Gatorade. Visible spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of the dyes in our beverage using Beer’s Law.  The color wavelength from our visible spectroscopy revealed green was absorbed by the red dye #40 and the reddish orange was absorbed by the blue dye #1. Finally, we used Beer’s Law to produce a standard curve for each dye found in the drink. The concentration of red dye #40 in the purple Gatorade was 6.39 mg/L. The concentration of blue dye #1 in the purple Gatorade was 1.60 mg/L. CHEM         112     

46. Ortiz, Cassandra. Exercise and Sport Science. Lance Dalleck     Amy Honan. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in collegiate athletes        

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects approximately 33% of American adults and is a leading cause of death (Go et al., 2013). Many risk factors for CVD are modifiable, making early detection and awareness vital (Whayne, 2006). Research is lacking concerning CVD risk factors in collegiate athletes. Collegiate athletes are exposed to the same environment as all college students, where alcohol, smoke, stress, and a poor diet are common. Previous research has shown that 42.5% of college aged individuals have at least one CVD risk factor (Dalleck, 2012). The purpose of this study is to quantify the prevalence of CVD risk factors in collegiate athletes, and determine if there is a relationship between types of athletes and CVD risk factors. 50 student athletes participated: lifestyle factors were self-reported, while direct measurements were obtained for CVD risk factors. Data will be analyzed using a chi-squared analysis and t-tests (p.<0.05). Results and data TBA.  ESS 495

47. Pickett, Colin, Rob Orban, Mike Schmidt, Clark Prinster, Maddison Samblanet, Ryan Lockwood, Kyle Ottman. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Mark Gibson. ROE Program at Western State Colorado University  

This Semester the Recreation and Outdoor Education (ROE) 491 Capstone Class has been demonstrating skills in a multitude of projects, including, but not limited to, designing and developing a marketing campaign for the ROE Program.  Our class has created a website, a ROE commercial, alumni profiles, and also put together a creative display case to show what our major is all about.  With all of these projects we hope to promote a major that is very important to Western State Colorado University. ROE 491

48. Porter, Allyson, Saren Yater-Wallace. Sociology. Daniel Cress. Cultural Experiences from Egypt       

My name is Ally Porter and I went on a trip through Western to Egypt last May. Along with my classmate, Saren Yater-Wallace, we gave a presentation to the Board of Trustees last month speaking on our experiences we had while being in Egypt. We speak on the topics of their culture and religion and how it differs from America. We also had the privilege of meeting Egyptian students and getting their perspective on the political issues going on currently over there. Saren and I would like to be able to continue telling others in the community about our experiences and what we took away from the trip. SOC 397

49. Prize, Andrew, Angela Vitulli, Ben Sharp, Katie Johnson, Lawrence Norquist. Biology. Jonathan Coop         . Effects of canopy age structure and low-severity fire on aspen regeneration 

Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) are the only deciduous tree native to Colorado. Sudden aspen decline (SAD) has become a recent concern in some parts of the state. Researchers have concluded that extreme drought coupled with high temperatures have disrupted aspen ability to transport water, while others hold that weakened tress eventually fell to secondary insects or disease (Worrall et al 2011, Marchetti et al 2011).  Since aspen are a keynote species facing decline, it is important to understand what factors affect their regeneration (Campbell 2000).  We conducted our research in an area of SAD that had a low severity fire in 2012. What effects do age structure of canopy and low-severity fires have on regeneration after SAD?  BIOL 481           

50. Real, Nicole, Lindsey More, Paul Severson, Kevin Noreen, Sam, Saren, Allyson Porter, Morgan. Sociology. Daniel Cress. Egypt Travels   

WE are going to discuss what we saw in the country including religion, emerging democracy, and culture. SOC 397           

51. Richardson, Tara. Exercise and Sport Science. Lance Dalleck. Effect of a community evidence-based exercise program on the transition from metabolically abnormal obese to metabolically healthy obese        

The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine the transition from metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) to metabolically healthy obese (MHO) over the course of a fitness program, and (2) evaluate if the transformation from MAO to MHO was most likely to occur in the highest energy expenditure quartile. Transition from MAO to MHO was analyzed in 332 adults following a 14-week exercise program. The point prevalence of MAO individuals at baseline was found to be 68.4%.  The point prevalence of MAO individuals dropped significantly to 39.4% by post program.  The point prevalence of MHO individuals at baseline was 34.6% and climbed significantly to 60.6% post-program. Physical fitness as a lifestyle intervention is a remarkable contributing factor for the protection against CVD and metabolic syndrome observed in the favorable metabolic profiles of the MHO phenotype.  Likewise, greater energy expenditure may increase the likelihood of transitioning from MHO to MAO.  ESS 492   

52. Rike, Abi. Communication and Theatre. Jack Lucido. PSA: Clery Center for Security on Campus      

A storyboard is a pre-production element used in planning for film production. This is a storyboard for a 30 second public service television announcement base on the Clery Center for Security on Campus. The purpose of this project is to communicate visually, the intentions of a short television spot aimed at ending rape culture on college campuses. This storyboard will convey both the technical and contextual elements of the proposed PSA. The concept of the visual story displays a young man who is pulled into a flashback of being sexually assaulted after his friend makes a cavalier joke about rape. This will convey that rape is never humorous and that any person in a given situation might be a victim. Goals for this project are: raise awareness on about sexual assault on college campuses, empower viewers through education, and to be the voice of change concerning rape culture. COTH 205

53. Roberts, Sam. Anthropology. Mark Stiger. Difference in use-wear patterns between chert and obsidian flakes

For thousands of years humans have been making and using stone tools for a variety of tasks. When a stone tool is used for cutting, chopping, or scraping there is evidence left behind on the tool in the form of a use-wear pattern and these patterns can tell an archaeologist a lot about the history of a particular tool. Extensive research has been done on stone tools in the past by numerous archaeologists looking at the use-wear patterns, but not many researchers have looked at use-wear on utilized flakes. A flake is a fragment of a stone that is removed from the core of a stone during the flint-knapping process. This study will look at the difference in use-wear patterns between flakes made of obsidian and flakes made of chert after they have been used on a deer antler, hard wood, and leather. ANTH 397

54. Romero, Kelly. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. The Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors of Middle school and Freshman College Students in Colorado 

Colorado claims to be the “fittest state” in the U.S; surprisingly its childhood obesity in Colorado increased by 23% between 2003 and 2007, which was the second-fastest rate of increase in the nation (Bellows & Moore, 2013). Purpose: The purpose of this mixed methods phenomenological study was to examine the dietary and physical activity behaviors of middle school, and college students in a Colorado mountain town. Methods: A mixed method 30 item survey was administered to freshman college students, and middle school students, which consisted of three open-ended, and 27 closed ended questions. The majority of the dietary and physical activity close ended questions were from the dietary and physical activity portions of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data was analyzed descriptively, and using a Pearson’s r correlation coefficient, and coded for themes. Results & Conclusion: Results and conclusions will be completed by 12/10/13.  ESS 495      

55. Ryter, Anne,Cassidy, L; Chartowich, J; Ditzenberger, M; Dyer, M; Garcia, D; Girard, E; Goettel, G; Hagar, J; Harris, R; Holmes-Sullivan, J; Markham, C; Medina, J; Parr, R; Sander, C; Santorno, J; Shafer, O; Snellstrom, A; Suljak, B; Todd, B; Truchard, B.        Chemistry. Anne Ryter. Crushing Concentration     

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in commercial drinks using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy. Using paper chromatography, we found the drink separated into two different colors of dye, blue #1 and red #40. Using a UV/VIS- scanning spectrometer, we determined the maximum wavelength and absorbance of each of the two dyes. We used this information to prepare a visible spectroscopy test in order to determine the percent transmittance and then calculate the absorbance of the two dyes. From Beer’s Law we were then able to calculate concentrations. The average concentrations of red and blue dye in the purple soda were 3.81x10-5M and 6.16x10-6M respectively. Comparing our results for soda to those for sports drinks, we found that in general, grape soda had higher concentrations of the dyes than grape sports drinks.            CHEM 112    

56. Russell, Katelynn. Biology. Robin Bingham. Prairie Dog Alarm Calls in Response to Color   

In this experiment I tested the hypothesis that prairie dogs have different alarm calls for each different color of predator. The questions I answered were do prairie dogs see color and if so, do they have different alarm calls for each color. To test this, I went out to a prairie dog colony wearing a certain color shirt. I then recorded the number of alarm calls the prairie dog made in response to the color shirt I had on. I repeated this method with different color shirts like white, black, red, blue, green, and yellow. The results were inconclusive due to the fact that the prairie dogs did not make any kind of alarm call when I walked by. This experiment is being continued to see if the prairie dogs will make an alarm call. BIOL 302       

57. Ryter, Anne, Buniger, A; Claunch, S; Cordova, M; Croop, K; Cunningham, J; Dale, A; Ferraro, A ;Forbord, K; Gozzola, S; Hwang, Y; Lambert, P; Lopez, J; Maggard, AJ;Mull, A; Poe, M; Seghetti, C; Smith, C ; Sossi, M; Spiller, V; Walter, K; Wands, S; Weprin, T.. Chemistry. Anne Ryter. Time to Dye 

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identity, concentration, and the extinction coefficient of the dyes present in the Green Apple Jones soda.  We used chromatography paper to identify the dye colors present and visible spectroscopy to identify their concentrations.  The colors present were identified as blue #1 and yellow #5.  The wavelength of maximum absorbance was found to be 631nm for blue #1 and 426nm for yellow #5.  The Spectronic 20 was then used to find the percent transmissions of the solutions and then the absorbance was calculated using beer’s law: a=Ñ”lc.  Using the standards of each dye solution the average concentration of Green Apple Jones soda was found to be 3.35x10-6 ±3.23x10-7M for blue #1 and 2.55x10-5 ±9.0540x10-6M for yellow #5. The extinction coefficient was calculated to be 74828 for blue #1 and 28550 for yellow #5.    CHEM  112     

58. Ryter, Jarral. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Determination and concentration of dyes in Fruit Rush drink      Food dyes are present in many common foods, however the concentrations and effects of them are largely unknown. Given Grape Fruit Rush, the dyes and concentration were found using chromatography and visible spectroscopy. We compared the known absorption spectra for the dyes to identify the maximum absorption of standardized concentrations. We made standard dilutions for both dyes and used these along with a Bausch and Lomb Spec 20 to create a standard curve for each dye. We found the average concentration of Red #40 to be 5.42 x 10-5 M and Blue #1 to be 4.24 x 10-6 M. Although, these are relatively small concentrations, prolonged or high consumption of any food dyes can be detrimental to human health. CHEM  112           

59. Sabatka, Jeff. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Respiratory Muscle Training and its Effects on Performance in Trained Distance Runners    

Background: Gaiam claims that by using their product, the POWERBreathe, one’s breathing will feel easier, and their sports performance will increase in only a four week period. Purpose: The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to test the claims stated by Gaiam. Methods: Subjects: Four male, former collegiate cross country runners (  21.5 yrs) ran a pre-post 3200 meter time trial protocol. During each time trial, after each lap, the subject reported heart rate and rate of perceived. Between the time trials, subjects then used the POWERBreathe for the recommended amount from Gaiam, 30 inhalations twice a day, for six weeks. Data collected from each time trial was analyzed using a paired sample t-test (p<.05). ESS 495

60. Schaller, Landan,  Ashley Kechter. Anthropology. Mark Stiger. Biface reduction strategies of the Folsom and Archaic periods: A cross-cultural analysis     

In the archaeological study of prehistoric stone tools, a tendency to focus on product over process often clouds the view of lithic technology, and gives us an illusion that technological processes are the same between cultures or eras simply because the result achieved was the same.  While this is not necessarily incorrect, a more thorough cross-cultural examination with lithic analysis is necessary to determine continuity or the lack thereof.  In this project, we examine the biface reduction strategies of both Folsom and Archaic components from the Colorado high country; and compare the techniques, processes, technology, and morphology of the tools to see if there is significant deviation in strategy between the two eras.  By the examination of biface cores, primary, secondary, and tertiary thinning flakes, and debitage, we hope to demonstrate where in the reduction process are cultures consistent and where they may deviate from each other.  ANTH 397         

61. Schenk-Wasson, Spencer. Communication and Theatre. John Lucido.   PSA: Camp Kesem    

A storyboard is a pre-production element used in planning for production. This storyboard is for a thirty-second public service television announcement for the Camp Kesem Foundation. Camp Kesem is a free, week-long summer camp for children aged 6-16 who have a parent with cancer. This storyboard depicts both technical and contextual elements of the proposed public service announcement. The story follows a boy whose family is stricken with cancer, but is thankfully whisked away by a Kesem counselor. The video uses striking imagery to invoke strong emotion in the viewer to illicit support and to encourage participation from cancer stricken families. The ultimate goal of Camp Kesem is to ensure every child alienated by parental cancer has a place where they feel safe, and among friends. COTH  205   

62. Spezialetti, Ryan. Anthropology. Mark Stiger. Alteration in the lithic record           

 Evidence of heat alteration in the archaeological lithic record is a controversial and somewhat misunderstood aspect of the lithic record.  While evidence of heat alteration does undeniably exist, the full significance of this attribute has rarely been explored to any great depths or conclusions.  The aim of this presentation is to explore the potential uses of this practice, which appears worldwide.  In addition to exploring the uses of heat alteration in the lithic record I will explore some of the ways that heat alteration on rock may have been performed by attempting to reproduce and document the proposed methods of heat alteration.  ANTH            397    

63. Stephens, Brandon, Ashwin Patel, Scott Cantril. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan, Ashwin Patel. Hour of Power           

Hour of Power is a swimming relay in honor of Carleton College swimmer Ted Mullin, who passed away in 2006 from a soft-tissue cancer known as sarcoma.  The funds raised during this event help support research at the University of Chicago on the causes and treatment of sarcoma in young people.  The event has raised over $410,000 in its first seven years.  Purpose: To raise and spread awareness on pediatric sarcoma, as well as to raise money for pediatric sarcoma research.  Methods:  Collaborated with five other students for nine weeks to outline, plan, and organize details for the event.  The six of us brainstormed and divided tasks to carry out such as talking with higher authorities, collecting donations, collecting items to raffle, setting up the event location, etc.  Results/Conclusions: Results and conclusions to be determined and completed by November 12th, 2013.           ESS 495         

64. Theisen, Jeremy, Skinner, Adam. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. The Effect of yoga practice and slow breathing on the hypoxic ventilatory response and arterial oxygen saturation       

Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship of yoga practice and slow breathing on the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) during exercise. HVR is a physiological response to diminished SaO2 , in which breathing rate increases to provide more oxygen to the body.  This knowledge is important for athletes and coaches alike who strive to decrease psychological stress during exercise while maintaining proper blood oxygen levels. Methods: In this study, 6 active and healthy adults (3 yoga practicing, 3 non-yoga practicing) underwent exercise testing in two sessions.  The first session was to determine VO2 MAX for all subjects.  Subjects then returned on a separate day for the second session, in which BR and SaO2 were recorded during steady state exercise (at 90% VO2 MAX).  The data was analyzed using a T-test (p<.05).  Results & conclusion: To be completed by December 2013.  ESS    495     

65. Thompson, Katie,  Evan Barson, Anthony Jump, James Williamson, Justin Dobbie, Skylar Stypulczak. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. Business Plan for  Coffee Shop in Western’s  Savage Library   

The purpose of this applied research project was to develop a Business Plan for, and to examine the feasibility of a coffee shop in Western’s Savage library.  For the Marketing Plan, the team utilized a self-developed and validated questionnaire and a demand survey (n=176) to establish demand levels and product preferences, plus archival research for competitive pricing. For the Operational Plan, equipment and furniture needs and costs were established while considering health department and safety regulations. Next, the team established staffing and management needs to calculate labor costs.  The Financial Plan summarized all financial and forecast information for pro-forma operational and capital budgets. An Executive Summary combined all findings and proposed different viable options to the library management as a decision basis. BUAD          321     

66. Twaddell, Erin, Hannah Erickson, Autumn Fenwick, Madison Miller, Kevin Alexander. The Effects of Herbivory and Atrazine Resistance on Brassica rapa Growth, Biomass, and Seed Production 

We hypothesized that Atrazine resistant (AR) strains would experience biological costs such as stunted growth and bud production because of their ability to resist herbicides. Each team planted six AR and six Atrazine susceptible (AS) plants in separate containers using the same amount of soil and fertilizer while watering them equally once a week with constant exposure to light. Each plant was equally exposed to the same chance of herbivory for the same amount of time before being weighed. The AS individuals ultimately produced more seeds than the AR individuals (3.08 versus 2.39) while the AR individuals weighed more overall compared to the AS individuals (0.501g versus 0.496g). However, the two strains of B. rapa grew to the same average height (cm) overall (4.48 cm and 4.55cm). We concluded that both AR and AS individuals prioritized their energy towards either survival against herbivory or successful reproduction rather than growth.  BIOL 151       

67. Via, Zachary. Chemistry. Ryter, Anne. Dye It    

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in commercial drinks using paper chromatography, and visible spectroscopy. First, we took a sample of the Grape soda and ran it through the SpectroVis to determine which dyes were present in the drink. We found that there was Red #40 and Blue #1 in the grape soda. We used this information for the Spec20. After this the class performed paper chromatography experiments. In this experiment, the purple dot separated into a blue and a red line. By using Beer’s Law we determined the concentration of Red 40 and Blue 1 in the Grape Soda, which was 1.81x10-5 M for Red #40 and 4.50x10-5 M for Blue #1.       CHEM 112    

68. Via, Zachary. Chemistry. Ryter Anne. Don't Dye...        

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in the commercial drink, Lemon-Lime Fruit Rush, using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy. To start, we used the chromatography paper in the drink to show the presence of blue and yellow dyes. Next, we placed a sample of the diluted Lemon-Lime Fruit Rush in to the SpectroVis to determine the absorption of Blue #1 dye and Yellow #5 dye. From the SpectroVis, we were able to determine the wavelengths for maximum absorption for the Blue #1 and Yellow #5 dye. We then used a spectrometer to determine the concentrations of each dye within the Lemon-Lime Fruit Rush. The average concentration for blue dye in the Lemon-Lime Fruit Rush was 1.52x10-6 M and the average concentration for the yellow dye was 6.25 x10-6 M. CHEM111    

69. Montgomery, Graham. Mathematics. Andy Keck and Bob Cohen. Stabilizing an Inverted Pendulum.

The inverted pendulum on a cart is a classic example of an optimal control theory problem. I will be deriving the equations of motion and investigating stabilization of the system using control theory techniques. This project includes topics in Physics, Differential Equations, Linear Algebra, and Calculus of Variations. MATH 495

70. Ammon, Ben and Cody Johnson. Biology. Amy Honan. Trade-offs in Herbicide Resistant Brassica rapa.

The overarching problem of herbicide resistant Brassica rapa plant is what is the trade-off for being herbicide resistant.  What was observed from the fully grown plants is the resistant plants appear to have longer stems, more leaves, and more blooms.  With this observation it can be seen that something important to protect or provide for the plant was lost or gained to allow it to be resistant.  What has been found so far from other sources is that, “In the absence of the herbicide, resistant organisms may be disadvantaged.  Reduction of photosynthesis will lead to reduced biomass accumulation and may negatively affect competitive ability and fitness (Warwick, 1991; Warwick & Black, 1994).  The use of, “Brassica rapa, in the form of Wisconsin Fast PlantsTM (Hafner, 1990), is ideal for studying the cost of herbicide resistance,” because they have a 3 week life span which is very essential for study in lab.  Knowing what we have observed will the herbicide resistant plants grow more leaves, taller and more blooms?  BIOL 151