Spring 2013 Poster Presentations

Western Celebration of Scholarship Undergraduate Research Symposium

Thursday, April 25, 2013, 12:30 – 4 pm

University Center Ballroom

12:30 Opening Remarks Dr. Maria-Claudia Tomany, Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs



The posters are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the submitting author. The discipline and supervising instructor are listed after the authors. Because a central goal of the event is to explore the practices of communication and critical inquiry across disciplines in the tradition of the liberal arts, the disciplines and course levels (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) are intentionally mixed. We hope this encourages cross disciplinary interactions as well as providing opportunities for cross class communication and role modeling. Where a poster is part of a specific course, the course number is indicated at the end of the abstract.


1.      Abbott, Ryan and Torin Power. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Short Term Deterioration Processes of Archaelogical Sites in the Gunnison Valley


This study will explore short-term deterioration processes of an archaeological site in the Gunnison Valley.  By analyzing wood, bone, stone, and the stratigraphy of the wikiup site located next to the Aspinall-Wilson Center building in the southeast corner of campus we will gain a better understanding of how sites change annually.  By using different excavation techniques such as test pits, examining nitrogen levels of bone using the electron scanning microscope, and using polar mapping techniques to show movement of structural features, we will be able to determine site formation processes over time.  The main goals of this project will be to show a continuum of change by expanding on this project in future archaeology labs or senior seminar projects, and to allow for archaeologists to interpret their site with more accuracy. ANTH 465


2.      Aldridge, Steven. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel.  Division II Coaches Experience with stress and their coping mechanisms.


Research that has focused on stress in sports has traditionally looked at its effects on the athlete (Lu et al. 2012). However, there has been a growing concern over the stress process of the coach (Frey, 2007). Coaches are known to help their athletes solve problems but like every other human being they have problems of their own. The purpose of this study is to identify specific stressors that coaches experience and how they cope with these stressors here at Western State Colorado University. Six male and female coaches from track and field, football, women’s basketball, volleyball, cross country, and swimming will be asked to participate. Stressors will be identified through a modified version of the Coaching Issues Survey developed by Kelley (2003), which will be given to each athletic team’s head coach. Results will be analyzed using SPSS and discussed in relation to previous research in the field. ESS 495


3.      Alleman, Alexander and Maxwell Crino. Biology. Shan Hays. Dimer Skew Method of Discovering Viral Origin of Replication


Finding the position of the origin of replication is an essential tool in studying of any organisms. We set out to determine the origin of replication in viral genomes with double stranded DNA. This has been a difficulty previously with many of the previous method giving no results. We took our dimer skew function to ten different herpes viruses to plot the origin versus the known experimental. Using the tent function in order to find the most noticeable skew we plotted all the dimer pairs. Our results gave little useful information with only finding one origin of replication. This origin, of human herpes virus 6, has not been found before using traditional bioinformatics. We also saw many patterns in the other viruses but none that matched the know origins. In all we cannot prove that our method works on finding origins but does open more questions about entire genome patterns. BIOL 397


4.      Andersen, Rhawnie, Rachel Francis, Rebecca Ingram-Bryant, Miranda Johnson, Kaitlyn McKnight, Torrie Nickel, Alicia Ortiz, Elise Picard, Zachary Schaller, Victorya Spiller, William Susterich, Katie Thompson, and Patricia Wheeler Larson. Interdisciplinary Studies/LA. Shelley Read. Fifty Shades of Gray: Color as Communication

The purpose of this project is to identify what the implications would be if we woke up tomorrow unable to see color. In particular, this project focuses on color’s impact as a means of communication and cultural interpretation. Without color, current associations would digress to memory and be replaced with new meanings dependent on the grayscale world according to each individual culture. The presentation analyzes the connotations of color by examining history, marketing, and science through a psychology-driven color theory model. The three categories interact with each other to create the color associations observed on a daily basis. A world without color would create a great challenge to interpretation and communication, requiring humans to adapt. HNRS 200


5.      Anderson, Ian. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Broken Shards Along a Ancient Road

This poster examines the distribution of ceramic debris and how it correlates to data for the prehistoric Chacoan Road system leading out of Chaco Canyon, NM. The poster addresses the question of how the pottery shards that line these roads got there; were they placed there on purpose or are they simply the product of years of trash accumulation? The paper will accomplish this by looking at a set of contemporary pots, half of which were smashed in situ, and the other half were smashed and then spread along a path. These were then mapped and left for a period of a month and a half. The distribution will then be compared to data gathered from the Chacoan Roads. This experiment will give us a starting point to examine the motivations of the people utilizing these roads and how they saw this transportation system. ANTH 465


6.      Anderson, Nathan. Anthropology.  Lynn Sikkink. West Gas Lithic Analysis

This paper explores how surface debitage collected between the West Gas sites (five of six) in the late 1980’s can be used to determine the best places for further subsurface excavation. By statistically analyzing the data collected, one would be able to find key differences that pertain to each site as well as between sites. Additionally, statistical manipulation would further enhance our understanding of the data collected and compiled by previous field school students by creating a larger data set for further research in this area. Another consideration will focus on the lithic analysis itself, taking into account various discrepancies in the lab methodologies for recording and measuring of data. ANTH 465


7.      Baran, Andrew and Abi Rike. Suzanne Taylor. Hurricane History

With the increase in attention to climate change, scientists are also becoming more interested in other possible connections that are tied in with global temperature. Wide news coverage of tropical storms and hurricanes such as Hurricane Katrina has led to different conclusions by research papers that the intensity of these storms is connected with climate change. We decided to look into the history of tropical storms and hurricanes from 1988 to 2012 to see whether or not there is a change in certain storm attributes such as wind speed or air pressure. We focused on two areas, the East Pacific as well as the North Atlantic as these areas are the most local. Our results showed that there is no obvious correlation (possibly even a negative one) between tropical storm intensity over the last 20 years.

PHYS 120


8.      Bennets, Corbin, Emma Bridges, Linsey Freeburn, Anna Marshall, Dylan Nicholson, Reeve Sanders, Karlie Schultz, and Alex Winter. Interdisciplinary Studies/LA. Shelley Read. Agricultural Sustainability: A Look into Environmental, Individual, and Economic Health

Agriculture and food are increasingly hot topics. Unfortunately, many sources provide contradicting information on best agricultural practices and what products should be consumed. The Honors 200 Forum class chose to dig into this topic with a neutral stand point to provide the information necessary to answer questions regarding the sustainability of our current agricultural practices, specifically in regards to individual, economic, and environmental health. In order for consumers to support the agriculture methods they believe in, it is important to know where our food comes from and the processes it goes through before it reaches our tables. Our study included broad academic research, films, Michael Pollan’s text The Omnivore’s Dilemma, and multi-disciplinary panel discussions with Western professors. Our study concluded that consuming an equal balance of mass-produced, local, and organic food would provide a more sustainable agricultural system. HNRS 200


9.      Bentz, Karey and Erin Paige Vigil. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Alternative Medicine and its Practice in the Gunnison Valley

The world of alternative medicine is a mystery people have little interest in exploring; however, many health seekers find it to be quite rewarding. Thankfully, within the Gunnison Valley, many individuals have the opportunity to pursue the traditional medical practices through various forms. Residents are able to experience a variety of unconventional treatments that have allowed them to integrate themselves in a setting that strays from their Western counterpart. To gain understanding in a specific culture, we turned to David Eisenberg and Thomas Lee Wright’s Encounters with Qi: Exploring Chinese Medicine. We expect that this cross cultural analysis will produce results that mirror positive experiences from both Chinese and Gunnison Valley practitioners. Our final product will serve as evidence about the beliefs, practices and overall knowledge of alternative medicine and how it is integrated with Western standards of health. ANTH 465


10.  Burgess, Parker, Remington Reynolds, Natalie Tarasar, Nicanor Garcia, and Michael Feng. Politicals and Government. Maria Struble. Food and Foreign Aid-the Lessons


Our project is centered around the humanitarian issues—aid and food distribution specifically—surrounding both Madagascar and Somalia.  Problems such as these have been noticed and addressed by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals created in 1990.  Somalia and Madagascar fit into the category of Goal #1 Target #2 which hopes to “Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.”  Due to a predisposition of volatile climates and high rent, populations are already on the brink of starvation.  This situation is further exacerbated by an inherent lack of government structure, Non-Government Organization priority structure, geography, and internal-conflict.  These are factors that the UN has limited to no control over, and therefore this Millennium Development Goal is unrealistic.  In order to support our hypothesis we will by analyzing and synthesizing research found from both current news media and scholarly articles.  POLS 260


11.  Burrows, Laura. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Polish Immigration in the Gunnison Valley

This paper explores the small but growing Polish community in and around Gunnison, Colorado. Examining their assimilation into mainstream American culture as they maintain particular subcultural features and attitudes, this paper will address their relationship to the existing culture around them (mountain culture) of the Gunnison Valley and explore how these immigrants came to Gunnison. Drawing on Alfred Krober’s super organic theory of culture, in which culture is passed along by individuals rather than determined by nature, the theoretical foundation of this paper will also draw on psychological anthropology, in which culture shapes individual personalities and creates an overall cultural ethos. This paper contributes to an overall understanding of ethnic diversity in the Gunnison Valley by looking at a recently-arrived local subculture. This study may also provide a glimpse into understanding different subcultures of recent immigrants across the United States and the culture that they have manufactured around the point of a community. ANTH 465


12.  Chalberg, Mark and Adam Lassell. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Endangered Species of Coldharbour Sustainable Living Center


Our project entails the creation of a low-budget, easily adaptable, interpretive program centered on the endangered and threatened species found at Coldharbour Sustainable Living Center. The project will take the form of a brochure, which will be available on the Coldharbour website (once it becomes active) for people to print out and bring with them to the site. Our brochures will cover a variety of both flora and fauna. The overall goal for the project is to educate interested visitors about these species so they hopefully recognize their importance to the ecosystem, as well as presenting that ecosystem and the species habitat. ROE 230


13. Clawson, Corey, Matthew Hamilton, and Joseph Carpenter. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Mark Gibson. Restructuring of Recreation and Outdoor Education Field Based Courses


For our senior capstone project, we are proposing to restructure the Western State Colorado University catalog for the activities based courses in the Recreation and Outdoor Education (ROE) Program in order to encompass a much wider range of experiential education activities. The courses we restructured are ROE 293 Outdoor Pursuits Education—Waterbased (with laboratory), 295 Outdoor Pursuits Education—Snowbased (with laboratory), and 296 Outdoor Pursuits Education—Landbased (with laboratory). This revamping allows our eclectically qualified professional staff to select from a wider range of activities that pertain to their specialized skill sets. Additionally, this will allow for our diverse student population to pursue a broader range of recreational interests. This will greatly enhance the field based courses as well as the ROE Program as a whole. ROE 491


14. Comeau, Jeremy. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Gunnison Whitewater Park Interpretation Project


The theme of this interpretation project is relating the importance of water resources, particularly river systems, and how human civilization has come to value this natural resource.  The location of the site is the Gunnison Whitewater Park, which currently does not contain any elements of interpretation that focus on the Gunnison River.  The purpose is to add an educational resource to the Gunnison Whitewater Park for all visitors to enjoy, from the novice to the experienced, and for all ages.  By utilizing the Gunnison River the project will provide visitors with an experience into the value of water, by exploring local history, wildlife, plants, and human culture.  Visitors will develop an understanding about the Gunnison River systems contribution to the prosperity of the entire southwest region.  The project will research the benefits, costs, and design of adding interpretive signs along the existing river trail system within the Gunnison Whitewater Park. ROE 230


15. Condon, Brenden. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The Motivational Qualities of Music During Exercise


Many people find it difficult to train and/or workout without listening to their playlist of favorite songs. In this study, I will explore the various reasons individuals choose to use music to listen when engaging in physical activity. To get an idea of what motivates people when exercising, the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 will be given out to 6 male and female participants who consider themselves active exercisers. The purpose of the Inventory is to assess the extent to which the piece of music the participants listen to would motivate them during exercise.  After collecting data I will have a better idea as to what aspects of music are taken into consideration when choosing music for physical activity. This data collection will then educate and inform people better ways to select music before they engage in their physical activity. ESS 495


16. Cooke, Jonathan, George Berling, Jordan Adams, Jacob Braddy, and Cody Cole. Business Administration. Michail Vieregge. Willingness to Pay of Tourist for Locally Produced Food at Restaurants in the Gunnison Valley


The business problem at hand is the lack of sufficient information on the willingness to pay for local produce at restaurants in the Gunnison Valley by tourists.  The literature used as research materials in the study suggests that consumers are more willing to pay for locally produced food/beverages at restaurants.  The research method that will be used is a validated questionnaire to be administered to a sample of the population of tourists in the Gunnison Valley.  The anticipated findings are that tourists are more willing to pay for locally produced food and beverages at restaurants than otherwise by a fairly substantial amount.  Restaurants in the Gunnison Valley should add some, if not change the entire menu to include locally produced food and beverages. Further research is also recommended to gain more information on this topic. BAUD 425


17. Daley, Anne, Spezialetti, Steel, and Stone. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Do meteorological similarities exist at similar latitudes?


Temperature data was collected from cities in various countries of similar latitude and elevation and compared to Gunnison, CO to look for correlations between temperatures. There were not any significant similarities seen between the cities, though the transition of the earth’s tilt was seen in the raw data. There are various factors attributed to global weather, demonstrating that similarities in altitude and latitude cannot lead to a generalization of weather. PHYS 120


18. Dautrich, Alyssa, and Sam Moore. Physics. Suzanne Taylor.  Barometric Pressure at Home


The goal of this project was to test if atmospheric pressure trends could be observed with a homemade water barometer or a homemade aneroid barometer. We constructed both a water and aneroid barometer out of household materials and set them up with a store bought barometer. For fourteen days we took measurements from all three barometers every 12 hours, then graphed the data. The water barometer showed highs and lows which were similar to the store bought barometer but there was a steady downward trend seen. This can likely be attributed to the amount of water which evaporated during the 14 days (about 3/4 cup). The aneroid barometer showed very similar highs and lows to the store bought barometer, although the highs and lows were exaggerated. We concluded that a homemade aneroid barometer is much better at estimating changes in atmospheric pressure then a homemade water barometer. PHYS 120


19. DeFillippo, Chris, Elliot Copeland, Nick Dermer, and Alex Jenks. Politics and Government. Maria Struble. Who’s Poor? Who’s Not?


The very first of the eight-millennium goals of the United Nations was to decrease poverty around the world. According to the United Nations a person is considered to be living in poverty if they have a daily income of less than one dollar a day. Our project is focusing on the states of Somalia and China and their differences concerning poverty and what have been successful and unsuccessful in preventing it. Over forty three percent of the people in Somalia are living under the poverty line. This is caused by numerous factors, primarily orbiting around the fact that Somalia is a failed state, meaning that they have no central government to help balance the economy. China, on the other hand, has turned their economy around between starting in 1981. During this time china has brought their poverty levels from eighty five percent down to fifteen percent. They have accomplished this through various economic strategies that have helped stabilize and expand their economy. In our project we will take a closer look at the ways in which China has been successful in there climb out of poverty and what has caused such a drastic decrease in Somalia’s economic wellbeing and how it can possibly be overcome.  POLS 260


20. Degenstein, Alexandrea, Brendan Dutton, Leslie Lauck. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Spruce beetle tree selection and impact on Engelmann Spruce at Slumgullian Pass near Lake City, Colorado


Recently throughout Colorado, beetle infestations have increased substantially because of fire suppression and warmer temperatures.  This study discusses the linkages between Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) tree age and the increasing spruce beetle impact in the San Juan Mountains. Ten 5.64m diameter plots were randomly selected at the summit of Slumgullian Pass twenty miles outside of Lake City, Colorado where the most recent spruce beetle infestation has occurred. All trees within each plot were counted and categorized by varying degrees of health using a tree health index. Trees that had a DBH (diameter breast height) over one hundred centimeters were cored in order to determine age up to twenty years. Our study will show whether or not there is a correlation between the age of the trees in Engelmann spruce stands and the impact from the spruce beetle in that area. ENVS 390


21. Dirksen, Kristen. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. The Effect of Pickle Juice on Blood Lactate Levels, Hydration and Exercise Induced Muscle Cramping for Cyclists


The ingestion of acetic acid solution (pickle juice), a popular trend in the cycling community, is anecdotally said to reduce lactate levels, improve hydration and reduce cramping.  The purpose of this quantitative study is to better understand this assertion by supplementing pickle juice into the diet of highly trained cyclists prior to strenuous activity.   A lactate test was executed in the HAP Lab, during a 10K protocol of race day effort cycling.  Urinary specific gravity was tested prior to and after the lactate test. Subjects also answered specific questions regarding exercise-induced muscle cramping during testing.  The initial test was performed without the ingestion of pickle juice, and each subject was tested a second time, one week later with the ingestion of pickle juice.  The second test followed the same protocol.  The results of this study will provide more insight into the anecdotal trend of supplementing pickle juice in cycling. ESS 495


22. Ditmore, Mark, Graham Montgomery, Jeremiah Tyrey, and Douglas Shaw. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Robotics Challenge


This semester we assembled a team and designed, manufactured, and programmed a robot to participate in the Colorado Space Grant Robotics Challenge.  Our robot is programmed using Arduino Uno microcontrollers to go towards a beacon that is transmitting a signal while avoiding obstacles and navigating varied terrain.  The Colorado Space Grant Robotics Challenge is a challenge that is presented by the Colorado Space Grant Consortium to further the development of autonomous robot missions just like the NASA mission sending a robot to Mars to collect samples. PHYS 492


23. Ditmore, Mark, Graham Montgomery, and Quinn Bryant. Computer Science. John Peterson. Computer Vision and Tracking


We are doing research in vision tracking using a xBox 360 kinect and integrating that vision tracking in to elementary games like pong to make them more exciting. CIS 492


24. Formichella, Christopher, Eric Barker, and Preston Foote. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran.  Sustainable Gardening at Altitude: A Hope for the Future


The purpose of our project is to look at two different solutions to the problems associated with producing sustainable food in high alpine environments, specifically the Coldharbour Sustainable Living Center in the Gunnison Valley. One of our proposed solutions is aquaponics, a symbiotic system where fish produce nutrients for plants, through their waste, for a hydroponic garden. This method produces both edible fish and vegetation. Our second solution involves gardens with carefully chosen vegetables proven to be successful in the Gunnison Valley climate. Our project includes an aquaponics model to show how the system works, and an informational flyer that explains aquaponics, as well as how to pick plants and prepare a garden bed in the Gunnison Valley climate. We hope to use our project to inspire the target audience to consider alternatives to purchasing food that has been commercially grown and transported to the Gunnison Valley. ROE 230


25. Formichella, Christopher, Jake Rainer, and Ryan Meyer. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer.  Bag It Premier


Our semester project for the Western’s ROE Department Program planning class was to host a screening of the new, award-winning environmental documentary Bag It at the South Ballroom of the University Center at Western on April 22nd, 2013 (Earth Day). We chose to host this premier in an effort to build public awareness for the environmental harms of single-use plastics. The film explores these issues and identifies how our daily reliance on plastic threatens not only waterways and marine life, but human health, too. Western’s ROE Department recognizes the importance of reducing single-use plastic use for the safety of our community and environment. In addition to building a more environmentally conscious community, all proceeds from the event are being donated to the Kelly Kai Recovery Fund in an effort to help the Tokunaga family. ROE 398


26. Franke, Trevor, Madi Samblanet, and Derek Warner. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer.  Gunnison Sage Grouse Festival Running Events


The Gunnison Sage-grouse Festival 5k & 10k is a running event in the town of Gunnison Colorado. The 5k is an out and back that starts and finishes on the campus of Western State Colorado University. The 10k will also start on the campus of Western and travel around the outskirts of Gunnison ending back at Western. There will also be a 1500m race for children that goes around the campus of Western. All proceeds go to helping the native endangered Gunnison Sage-grouse. Our project was to plan and facilitate these events. ROE 398


27. Gale, Jade. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. DDT and Malaria


The question of using DDT to combat Malaria is creating much controversy worldwide. Many supporters of DDT say the ban and removal of DDT since the release of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson has caused the deaths of millions in countries who are ravaged by the disease. However, according to studies, all of Rachel Carson's evidence on the negative effects of DDT on the environment and humans has proved to be true which makes its use a clear disregard of health to all. Thus, the argument has become simply to use it, save lives, and try to make the effects minimal or use other ways to combat malaria carrying mosquitoes, spare the harm of DDT, and see if it's a better choice. ENVS 360


28. Gann, John, Pat Donahue, Carter Freericks, Tim Juul, Sierra Halverson. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran.Voices of the Past: Coldharbour Sustainable Living Facility


This project will be an interpretive video that will focus on the Coldharbour Sustainable Living facility and the aspects that include the past, present, and future of the property. The short film will include shots and video footage of the property that will put on display the rugged natural setting of the area as well as structures that have been erected over time leading up to the present. Interviews by a resident of the area s well as students of the university that have spent time volunteering and designing projects for the property will also be interviewed on their personal experiences, hopes for the future of the property, and ways that they have learned and grown personally due to their time on the site. The idea behind this project is to spread awareness of the facility and its sustainable living ideals throughout multiple demographics that reside within the Gunnison Valley.


29. Gibbs, Issac and Mary Goodwin. Biology. Shan Hays. Locating the Origin and Terminus of Replication in Bacteria

The sites of origin and termination of replication is known for some bacteria, but not all. There are multiple methods for determining theses regions, and we have developed a method that requires a function written with R Studio and the genome of the bacteria. The function splits the entire genome into dinucleotide pairs (dmers) and produces a cumulative sum plot. We produced cumulative sum plots for Rhodobacter capsulatus  and Bacillius subtilis. The plots produced have sharp peaks and troughs, indicating an origin or terminus, corresponding with the known origin and terminus of each bacteria. BIOL 397


30. Hall, Savannah. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Survey of Western State Colorado University faculty/staff’s physical activity levels during the working day


Employee wellness programs have been implemented in many corporations and university setting to improve morale and producitity during the workday (Essig et al., 2004). Employees who participate in worksite wellness are reported to show significant health benefits (Essig et al., 2004). Corporations with implemented employee wellness programs have incorporated incentives for employee participation. The basis of this study was to evauluate the physical activity levels of the faculty/staff on the Western State Colorado University (Western) campus during the working day. A survey was created through Survey Monkey from an adapted version of the San Diego Prevention Research Center's EPIC Physical Activity Questionnarie (2005) and distributed to full-time employees of Western through email. Results were analyzed using Survey Monkey data analysis software. The results of this survey will present that employees of Western are not highly active during the working day. ESS 495


31. Hambright, Emma, Evan Gaston, Keriann Conroy, Steph Scurka, and Nicky Hamontree. Politics and Government. Maria Struble. Operation Save the World


Based on Target #9 of the Millennium Development Goals' call for the reduction of carbon emissions, we will compare two global economic superpowers', the United States' and China's, success in setting a positive standard for environmental sustainability throughout the world. We will measure this through their respective proportion of land area covered by forest, ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area, energy use per $1 GDP, carbon dioxide emissions and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs, and finally, the proportion of their population using solid fuels. We have chosen these two countries because they are the leading contributors of carbon emissions around the world. China emits 25% of the world’s carbon, but also proportionately has 19.5% of the world’s population. The U.S. on the other hand, is only 4.3% of the world’s population, but releases 18% of all the carbon dioxide sent into the atmosphere. In 2011, China spent $52 billion in clean energy, making it the leader in renewable energy investment. They were responsible for almost 1/5 of the total global investment. The U.S., in comparison, spent $48 billion. They are 4th in the world, following China, Japan, and France. POLS 260


32. Hart, Lindsay. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Ceramics Analysis


This paper discusses ceramics analysis and its implications for understanding the usage patterns of different types of ceramics.  It suggests that by analyzing the size and shape of pottery – both fragmented and whole – along with the texture and design of the ceramics, we can understand the ways in which these artifacts were used in the past.   Several different pots collected from the southwest and currently deposited in the C.T. Hurst Museum were reconstructed and analyzed for this project.  These pots were analyzed according the aforementioned criteria.  This type of analysis and information sheds lights on future archaeological and anthropological questions about ceramics usage and design.

ANTH 322


33. Herbert, Emily, Andy Mrkvicka, and George Mott. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. For Locals Only: A Study of Sustainable Restaurants in Crested Butte


Sustainability in the Gunnison Valley is not always the easiest goal to achieve.  Based on recent research, isolated areas have been able to sustain themselves through the use of local foods.  Because of this, it was hypothesized that Crested Butte restaurants would have utilized local farmers and ranchers to supply their businesses.  Using a non-experimental, validated questionnaire, the authors created a census compiling the sustainable food use in the Gunnison Valley.  Based on the current information, the authors can expect to find the secluded Crested Butte to be susceptible to the use of local foods but not completely dependent on the industry. BUAD 331


34. Hinricher, Marcus and Shannon Shaw. Biology. Shan Hays. Alternative Method to GC Skew for Locating Origin of Replication


Abstract:  Because traditional G-C skew methods of analyzing genomes to find the origin of replication have historically been inconclusive for a number of organisms we have developed an alternative method of dinucleotide skew analysis to find the origin in organism where traditional G-C skew has failed.  We wrote a function that splits the genetic sequence into windows of a few thousand base pairs each, building a null distribution of a sampling of the frequencies of each dimer in each window.  It then splits the table into a given number of windows, and in each window, it scores the percentile rank of each possible dimer in each window along the sequence.  By graphing this information we were able to determine if a pattern was present.  For one of our organisms we were able to find a distinct pattern indicating an origin of replication, for the other two organisms studied our results were inconclusive. BIOL 397


35. Hughes, Andy. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. How do Climbers Master 5.12 and Above? A Qualitative Study


                 The purpose of this study was to better understand the process of successful climbing from elite level climbers. According to Coley Gentzel (2012) a climber must have excellent endurance, to successfully climb a difficult route that lasts all day. Franchini et al. (2007) stresses the importance of power and explosiveness required for climbs that are 5.12 and above. These attributes can be trained, on a small scale, through the use of bouldering, sport climbing, traditional climbing and training in a gym setting. This study aims to investigate how 5.12 climbers train, what they eat, and how they live.   
   Questionnaires were given to three, elite level, male, climbers to better understand the processes involved with a successful 5.12 ascent. Each of the three climbers involved with the study are masters at their respective climbing style. This variety of styles between the subjects will allow me to gain a more in-depth understanding regarding the holistic process of elite level climbing. This information will be useful to anyone who is interested in improving their performance in rock climbing. ESS 495


36. James, Jarred. Business Administration. Rosemary Carroll. The Ganges: Politics, Economics, and Culture


The Ganges River is the most populated river system in the world, and as such it obviously carries many weights concerning economics, politics and general wellbeing. Yet arguable one of its greatest contributions would be the spiritual aspects this waterway holds for millions.  Understanding how both the spiritual and economic aspects work within this river is crucial for the overall future of this river basin and the societies that rely on it. Through examining each side from varying perspectives including pollution, boundary conflicts, and hydrology, a better balanced perception can be taken on the system and effective management tools can be proposed. HNRS 397


37. Jaros, Blaise. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Legends of the Ute Indians


Long before settlers came to this valley, Ute Indians thrived off of the many resources this land still has to offer. Today Coldharbour Sustainable Living Center shares this same land, and they seek to create an environment where people can learn the importance of living in place. Through telling the traditional legends of the Ute Indians in a small workbook, I plan to demonstrate how the tribes expressed morals and values. Through research, I discovered three main legends that focus on respect, hard work, and wisdom. The project will show the audience how the same morals of the Indians can be transferred into our lives to help us learn to live in place and respect the land. I hope to have many copies of the book for the sustainable living center, and/or have a PDF document available on their website. ROE 230


38. Kettles, M. Joy. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Mentoring Initiative for Underprivileged Children in Rural Kiowa County, Colorado


The influence of mentoring and positive role models in a child’s life have proven to increase the child’s ability to go on to live a productive life that benefits themselves and society. This project based thesis developed program content for the implementation of a child mentoring program for the rural community of Kiowa County, Colorado, for underprivileged and at risk elementary age children; with the hope that it would grow to encompass middle and high school aged children as well. The development of the content for the mentoring program and the plan for implementation is guided by Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring, 3rd Edition. The content of this mentoring program is to address the issues that children in rural communities face often without the support that is available to children in cities and towns in the United States of America. ROE 491


39. King, Pamela. Biology. Robin Bingham and Andy Keck.  An investigation of tradeoffs in herbicide resistant Brassica rapa: effects on pollen and ovule production, biomass, and



Herbicides are widely used to increase crop yields and as a result herbicide resistant weeds have become a global issue. A better understanding of the biology of herbicide resistance can provide insight into associated tradeoffs and help inform management strategies. We hypothesized that herbicide resistance in Brassica rapa is costly, and predicted that atrazine resistant B. rapa (AR) would be less vigorous than atrazine susceptible B. rapa (AS). A study comparing growth and reproduction of AR and AS plants at two different temperatures regimes was conducted to test this hypothesis. We predicted that: 1) AR individuals would have less above ground biomass, 2) AR individuals would develop slower on average, 3) AR individuals would produce fewer ovules, and 4) AR individuals would produce fewer pollen grains as compared to AS plants. We hypothesized that effects would be more pronounced at the colder temperatures. Between the strains, tradeoffs were evident for pollen production and development. Higher production of pollen occurred in AS individuals than AR plants. Development was significantly delayed in AR as compared to AS plants. Biomass, ovule count, and pollen count were all greater in the cool treatment, however growth was significantly delayed. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies on costs of herbicide resistance to quantify effects on pollen production.



40. Larson, Brian, Steven Culhane, Rabeka Lampton, and Sean Krakel. Michael Vieregge. Local Food Use by Restaurants within the town of Crested Butte


The purpose of this research was to explore local food use by restaurants within the town of Crested Butte through a survey, and in other North American mountain communities through a literature review. This research will help determine trends in which local foods are used and where, and to what extent restaurants feature them in their menu. Our hypothesis is that local food use is limited within the valley due to geographic restrictions. To test this, a non-experimental, person-to-person census is used to collect the data from local restaurants, where current trends show the majority of local food is Colorado grown meat from large commercial suppliers. Minimal use of local fruits and vegetables found due to seasonal limitations. This ongoing research will be completed in a few short weeks, and findings are expected to shed light on actual local food use and examine its benefits to our local community. BAUD 331


41. Latka, Chad and Heather Bradford. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer. Getting’ After It


Gettin' After It will be held Thursday, April 25th in the ballroom of Western State Colorado University. It is open to all students and community members. The short film competition will be followed by the premiere of the Winter Wildlands Backcountry Film Festival with tons of prizes in our ticketed giveaway! All proceeds from the evening will go towards supporting Colorado Avalanche Information Center! ROE 398


42. Lauridsen, Danielle, Matthew Byrne, Benjamin Jackson, Jeremiah Tyrey. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Chemistry in the Mountains


The students of Western State Colorado University practice chemistry in a remote mountain town of Colorado. Our chapter hosts an annual chemistry "magic" show for the community, as well as travelling to perform demonstrations at local schools. Our popular fundraisers include "Waffle Wednesday" where we serve breakfast and coffee to the students of Western, as well as raffling tickets for the annual "shower the professor" event in which one lucky student demonstrates the effectiveness of a laboratory emergency shower on a professor of their choice. The Student Government Association recently chose the chemistry club for the best booth at the fall club fair for appeal to new students. At a small university in a small town, we represent chemistry in a big way.


43. Lavell, Sean. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel.  Influence of Food Habits on Western State Rugby Players


Looking at the food habits and nutritional consumption of rugby players has been a growing even among researchers (Lako, Sotheeswaran, & Christi, 2010). The nutrients that the human body needs in order to perform at the highest level are crucial for most athletes. It’s a concept which is particularly true for those athletes in an optimally healthy state. The study is going to focus on understanding the eating habits of elite athletes, and how it affects them. Specifically, the principal investigator wants to assess Western rugby player’s nutritional status and dietary habits to better understand the energy demands experienced during a match. A modified version of the USA rugby nutrition survey (Zinn, Schofield, and Wall) will be given to 10 members of the Western rugby team. These questions include the following information: normal food intake, knowledge of protein, carbohydrates and fat consumption. Additionally, they will be asked to complete a 3 day food log to better understand what they consume during in-season. Results will be analyzed to better understand if they are getting enough nutritional intakes to sustain energy during an 80 minute game. ESS 495


44. Leal, Amber. Psychology. Roger Drake. An Excellent Insight into Long-term Memory


The topic of this paper is about long-term memory and its relationship with working memory. There are two different studies which both show a correlation between the two memories. One study shows how the repetition of information helps to land that information in long-term memory, while the other shows how emotions affect our long-term memories and working memories. As read in the chapters on long-term memory, it is evident that long-term memory and working memory are consecutively working together at all times. This paper discusses the ways in which the two memory areas do this. Also, by taking a look into two different areas of long term memory, we can truly see and appreciate the different workings of our brains when assessing memory. PSY 338


45. Lee, Zachary and Torrie Nickel. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Living in Place


An interpretive exhibit of past generations’ sense of place is on exhibit at the Leslie J. Savage Library entitled Living in Place. Through the research performed by Interpretation of Cultural and Natural History students on the structures of the Coldharbour property, Western State students and faculty have the opportunity to compare past generations’ sense of place to a modern day sense of living. On display are artifacts, historical information, and photography revealing the modern state of Coldharbour. The exhibit builds meaning behind the Coldharbour property to inspire viewers to increase interest in past lifestyles, and gain a better understanding of how Living in Place can have a positive impact on their modern lives. ROE 230


46. Lockard, Brooke and Robin Bingham. Biology. Robin Bingham.  Incidence Of Ustillago Bullata And Pyrenophora Semeniperda In Populations Of Bromus Tectorum Within The Gunnison Basin, Colorado


Recent studies have explored the use of two naturally occurring fungal pathogens, Ustillago
bullata, and Pyrenophora semeniperda, as biocontrol agents for B. tectorum. The goal of the
present study was to survey populations of B. tectorum in the Gunnison Basin across a variety
of elevations and habitats to determine whether these fungal pathogens are present as well as
the extent of B. tectorum population infection. The survey included a total of ten sites located
throughout the Gunnison basin. For U. bullata we utilized a 50 m transect in order to quantify
the prevalence of the fungus. The survey for P. seneniperda required the germination of seeds
collected from each site. Both pathogens were found to occupy the Gunnison Basin. Out of the
ten sites, U. bullata was found at one site and P. semeniperda was found at six sites. This work
contributes to efforts aimed at finding a naturally occurring biocontrol agent for this invasive
winter annual grass.


47. Lockwood, Ryan and Megan Bastian. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer. Invisible Children Dance

For the celebration of scholarship the Western program council class is putting on many events held around the area.  My group member and I have decided to put on a dance that will act as a fundraiser for the non-profit organization Invisible Children.  This organization is to help children that have been involved with the horrors of war in Uganda.  By hosting this event we have reached out to the community as well as businesses for sponsors to help make our event the most fun it can be.  We will have a ticketed give away which will be a primary source for fundraising for our organization.  Our small donation will help in any way it can and we are happy to put on this event to help fundraise for those in need. ROE 398


48. Lovell, Zachary, Chase Ryan, and Elias Goutos. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer. Wilderness Medicine Seminar


Many students of Western and residents of the Gunnison Valley travel in the backcountry. Although the wilderness is a world of wonder and mystery, it also holds dangers. Learning how to treat a friend or family member while enjoying nature can mean the difference of life or death, which is why we have created the Wilderness Medicine Seminar. With an instructor from the NOLS Wilderness Medicine Institute, we have been able to provide a free evening of hands-on backcountry medical instruction. Our two-hour program is foundational, which serves as an introduction and as a refresher for those already certified in wilderness medicine. By covering the patient assessment system, wound management, and CPR, our event arms attendees with knowledge that will aid in both personal and professional situations encountered in the backcountry. ROE 391


49. Maggert, Renee. Psychology. Roger Drake. Remembering Me When Remembering


Memory encoding and retrieval are important skills especially for students. Students have to learn material presented, retrieve it for test and retain it for future use. Making a connection in some valuable way increases encoding and memory retrieval. One of the most successful ways to achieve these tasks is to make the connection relevant to oneself. By making the association about you makes learning or encoding, retrieving and applying the material easier. There is nothing else we know better than ourselves, so making the connection personal is all that much easier. PSY 338


50. Martin, Charles. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Living and Skiing Sustainably


My interpretive project consists of educating an audience of outdoor-loving individuals of all ages about nearby ski resorts and their efforts to better the environment. With an audience of outdoorsmen, I will compare and contrast the positive and negative aspects of nearby ski resorts in terms of their environmental impact. I will also discuss positive and negative habits and actions that individuals have that affect the environment of Gunnison Valley.  After a brief discussion I hope the audience will expand their efforts to benefit the valley and lessen their actions that have a negative impact on the environment. I also hope to educate individuals about what ski resorts do and don’t do to protect the environment. I hope to inspire some people to take action and push the two nearby ski resorts to improve their sustainability efforts. ROE 230


51. Martinez, Paula. Psychology. Roger Drake. The Constructive Nature of the Mind’s Manipulated Confabulations


Memories cannot always be considered reliable and are considered to be fragile in nature. There tends to be a level of error in the facts of the element when a subject is asked to recall perhaps for example, an event in their life. These mistakes can be determined to be confabulations or the replacement of a gap in a person’s memory by inferences that they may believe to be true when in fact they are not. These confabulations can be demonstrated by performing the simple task of free recall of a short story that they recently heard. Two academic articles that explore confabulation where reviewed to understand how different elements impact confabulation. It was concluded that confabulations can be manipulated to occur in normal healthy participants and that it also occurs naturally by the mere influence of past knowledge and experience that a subject might have had. PSY 338


52. McClernan, Sarah. Interdisciplinary Studies/LA. Rosemary Carroll. Regeneration of Iraqi Marshlands


The water crisis in the Tigris and Euphrates River Basin has been in conflict since the beginning of civilization.  Modern crisis have mainly involved Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey all vying for the limited water resources.  The water problems compound the farther from the headwater source the water flows.  Iraqi marshlands are at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates reflects the health of the system and the human influences that dictate environmental changes.  By examining the region’s history, water politics, culture, hydrology, ecology, engineering, and climate change I will examine how the marshlands are being revived since their decline in the first Gulf War. HNRS 397


53. McGeorge, Brianna. Psychology. Roger Drake. Eliminating the Poste-identification feedback effect


The post-identification feedback effect is very influential when dealing with eyewitness identification. The main problem with this effect is that it can create over and under confident eyewitnesses, which can lead to wrongful or no convictions based solely on the jury’s and investigators’ confidence in the eyewitness identification. In the first experiment factors such as lighting, visibility, or overall confidence that they can identify the suspect, were introduced as factors. The result of the study was that these situations had no effect on the post-identification feedback effect. The second experiments purpose was to eliminate or reduce the post-identification feedback effect by using a warning after the identification, and feedback was given. The warning was found to eliminate the effect completely. The problem of post-identification feedback can be eliminated by using this simple method. PSY 338


54. McGeorge, Brianna. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Gunnison Valley Ranching Through the Generations


This project seeks to discover the importance of ranching in the Gunnison Valley and how it has changed on a regional as well as within household and families. It also seeks to look at the changes that have happened in the last hundred years or so in the valley and how that relates to ranching. The various traditions, stories, morals and values as well as stigmas and ideas surrounding the idea of ranching will help piece together the overall significance of ranching in this valley and how different generations portray the significance of ranching. The methods used will include analysis of literary resources, conducting oral histories/interviews and participant observation. The combination of this research will help us understand the complete cycle that ranching has gone through past, present and its possible future. By combining historical and ethnographic approaches this study will help us understand where ranching in our valley is heading and what modern day ranching encompasses. ANTH 465


55. McVay, Brittani. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The Effect of Mental Training on the Rehabilitation Process


Psychological skills can be used during sport injury rehabilitation to motivate athletes to adhere to rehabilitation, to increase speed of recovery, to control anxiety levels, and to enhance self-confidence (Hamson-Utley, 2008). The purpose of this exploratory study was to learn more about athletes who have used mental training during the rehabilitation process in an attempt to return to sport. Six participants were asked to complete an online survey on www.surveymonkey.com, where they completed a 15-20 minute survey requiring them to reflect on their time of injury and how mental training influenced their rehabilitation experience. The survey questions were modeled and qualitatively analyzed following the study Psychological Response to Injury, Recovery, and Social Support: A Survey of Athletes at an NCAA Division I University (Klenk, 2006). After the results were collected, surveys were carefully looked over and compared against one another following Klenk’s (2006) protocol. ESS 495


56. Meyer, Stephanie and Alicia Berrens. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Mark Gibson. Skateboard Racks for a Sustainable Future


Western State Colorado University (Western) values sustainability. As students, seeing the commitment Western has to the environment motivates us to act and challenges us to think more critically and creatively on ways we can become more sustainable. Installing skateboard racks at Western around campus will help foster this value of sustainability. These racks are very practical for our campus due to the skate culture we have. Providing secure places for students to keep their boards during class, meetings, and meals encourages alternate forms of transportation. ROE 491


57. Mincey, Kaitlyn. Rosemary Carroll. Nile River Basin


The Nile River Basin has been examined, researched and explored in many different pieces including: physical description, hydrology, history, quality/ecology, engineering/science, and policy. This information has in return been put into a comprehension level for a fifth grade classroom. With the use of this material, two, in-depth lesson plans have been developed and created that involve hands-on activities, research, worksheets, and discussions. Students have time to digest, explore, and investigate the information taught, researched, and seen through the various lessons. Students will also be achieving Colorado Education standards through the process in the five main subjects of reading, writing, history, math, and science. This information related to the students will be useful for understanding how water basins work here in the United States, as well as here in our own state of Colorado. HNRS 397


58. Mincey, Kaitlyn, Cherish Womack, Garrett Musson, and Jade Gale. Politics and Government. Maria Struble. Gender Inequality as a Challenge to Development


Goal three of the Millennium Development Goals focuses on the elimination of gender inequality in primary and secondary schools to promote gender equality and empower women. The target ideally was to be met by 2005, but no later than 2015. According to the “Millennium Development Goals: 2012 Progress Chart,” the ratio of girls to boys in primary education in Sun-Saharan Africa is on track to meet the 2015 goal. However, secondary and tertiary education seems to show a lack of progress and is not expected to meet the 2015 objective. In both women’s share of non-agricultural paid employment and equal representation in national parliaments, the progress is projected to come up short of the end goal of 2015 if trends continue. We will compare the progress of Rwanda and the Congo on the Development Goals. POLS 260



59. Montoya, Brandon. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Mental Pressures of Wrestlers Prior to Competition: A Qualitative Investigation


Wrestling is a sport that has a high impact on a person’s body both mentally and physically. One such impact may be the thoughts running through a wrestlers’ mind prior to a competition. These thoughts can be either positive or negative for the wrestler. The purpose of this study was to examine what mental pressures are experienced by collegiate division II wrestlers prior to competition. Four division II collegiate wrestlers (ages ranging from 20-23) were asked a series of questions regarding the mental pressures they experience prior to competition. Each interview was analyzed separately and then together to see if any themes emerged (Machida, Ward, & Vealey 2012). Results were discussed in terms of how the wrestler dealt with mental pressures prior to competition. ESS 495


60. Mulcahy, Sean, Sean Conway, and Own Tulip. Environmental Studies. Jonathon Coop. Tomichi Creek Water Quality


Water Quality along Tomichi Creek

INTRODUCTION:  We as a group would like to test the Tomichi creek to make sure that the river meets Colorado’s criteria for water quality, and if there is a difference between winter water quality and summer water quality. 
METHODS:  We will sample ten test sights and compare them to past data from similar sights. Using a hydro lab we will be gathering data on general water quality during the spring. Upon gathering our data we will run tests comparing the data we collected and already existing data. Next we will enter our sampling sights into GIS and create a map that others can use to do follow up tests. 
RESULTS: For our results we hope to find that there is a difference in water quality between spring and summer along the Tomichi Creek. ENVS 390


61. Myers, Dax, Jackie Webb, Marianne Robinson, and Mike Napoli. Politics and Government. Maria Struble. Education, Gender, and Development


Education can be regarded as the foundation for personal development in the modern world. Across the globe, around 61 million are deprived of access to basic education and around 60% of these children are women. An additional hundred million girls worldwide that begin primary school do not finish. Naturally, the levels of educated females vary from country to country. From a comparative perspective of the liberal tradition, the feminine condition in the United States is higher than underdeveloped and undeveloped states, such as India and Afghanistan. Our research has indicated that women in the US have better access to education (primary, secondary, higher) than the latter and the former. Not only is education not an option in these countries, women are discouraged from seeking any form of self-development. On the macro scale, the lack of opportunity for women in these respective countries hinders national development as a result. POLS 260


62. Nilius, Amy. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Historic study of Women’s Health in the United States


This study will explore current and historical women’s health in the United States, through the perspective of individual women. The approach is based mainly on interview of different generations. The women that were interviewed are from three different generations, the range in age will provide a detailed look into how women’s views have changed and in what ways have stayed the same. The issues that were examined in this study focus mainly on the health care that is available for women in the United States; such as abortion, birth control and other types of treatments that women need. It will also examine how the United States government and the current policies are affecting women from all generations, socioeconomic status, and different cultural backgrounds. The implications for this study will be useful for healthcare providers. ANTH 465


63. Ochoa, Josh. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Stories and Christianity an Idealistic Approach


This research projects seeks to explore the variety of religious stories conveyed in the many traditions of the Christian religion that are present in the Gunnison Valley. It expects to see variation in the type of story that is conveyed according to tradition, as well as a predominant theme. Anthropological idealist theory will then be employed in order to come to a greater understanding of the underlying values and norms that are conveyed through these stories. I hypothesize that each tradition will place different emphasis upon a wide range of values available in culture. The implications of this project will show how stories motivate practitioners to action. ANTH 465


64. Osborne, Henry. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Mark Gibson. Forever Mountains

For my capstone class I am researching and creating a business plan for a sustainable snowboard brand.  With the new trends today in the snow industry focusing on lowering our environmental impact, there has been a new demand for quality products made from sustainable materials.  Forever Mountains is a sustainable snowboard brand focusing on keeping our mountains beautiful for generations to come by investing in long lasting environmentally sound materials, while also giving back to the mountains by donating 5% of each product to Protect Our Winters.  It is important that we help protect our mountains, not just for environmental reasons, but also to help keep mountain towns thriving with businesses for years to come.  Forever Mountain Snowboards will set an environmental standard for other companies to follow. ROE 491


65. Ottman, Kyle. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Live in Place, Play in Place


This interpretation project focused on Living in Place and Playing in Place at the Coldharbour Sustainable Living Center. The history of Coldharbour is a long and magnificent one, there are thoughts that it hosted prohibition dances in the 1920's and 1930's. Information from the local law enforcement agencies and one on one interviews, have been conducted in hopes of reveling the rumors to be true. From there a plan to open a distillery that would be 100% local, will be enacted.


66. Parenti, Mitchell. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. World Fisheries: the Possibilities and the Challenges for a Sustainable Future


World fisheries are one of our most valuable resources and they are rapidly on the decline. The difficulty with ocean fisheries is they provide a commons area for the entire world to depend on. Some places in the world over-fish more than others and this causes environmental and social stress everywhere. Truly a resource sink we all depend on. Some issues that have arisen from over fishing are: rarity of species and our interest in eating them, depletion of gene pools, habitat destruction from fishing practices, less fish, less catch, less money for fisherman. In this paper I intend to address the difficulty and possibilities of policy concerning fisheries and the future of sustainability. ENVS 360


67. Parker, Mitchell. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Psycholgocial Demands of Performing Musicians: before, during, and after performance

High level musicians’ performances have similar psychological demands to other elite level performers (Sternbach, D., 2008). The purpose of this study was to better understand the psychological demands or concerns that may be on the forefront. ESS 495


68. Parker, Abigail, Vegard Olstad, Carter Murphey, Nicholas McCullough, James Trezise, Brandon May. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. Willingness to Pay for Locals Food by Students

The objective of this survey is to determine to what degree Western students will choose to eat at restaurants that sell food with local ingredients for a higher cost.  The literature suggests those students that are educated on the subject of locally produced foods are more likely to spend the extra money on it, but uninformed students are indifferent on the subject. The research method used is non-experimental and a survey was conducted using a validated questionnaire.  The participants selected were a random sample and there were 58 participants.  The results are not yet analyzed, but it is expected that with an anecdotal prediction results will determine that the majority of students are not willing to pay more of local foods.  Given these results, restaurants with predominate student customers may want to be careful in introducing local food items. BUAD 425


69. Pfenning, Kaeli. Computer Science. John Peterson. Theory of Neural Nets


A demonstration of the theory and application of Neural Networks. CIS 480


70. Pickle, Austin and Tyler Patterson. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Affects of Mosquito Spraying on Gunnison River


We will be conducting a macro invertebrate survey on the Gunnison River to study the effects of mosquito spraying. We will assess the effects by conducting a survey for a particular type of stonefly that seems to be the best indicator of the effects of spraying according to Kevin Alexander. Our sampling methods will include using nets to dredge the bottom of the river in a systematical manner in specified ripple and rock garden environments in order to collect and count these stoneflies effectively. Ten spots will be examined and recorded using GPS units and the stoneflies will be counted and the figures will be tested for statistical significance. Once this is established GIs layers of mosquito spray zones will be cross referenced using the GPS data we collected and the proposed results should show lower stonefly numbers in areas closer to mosquito spray zones. ENVS 390


71. Rabourn, Jacqui. Psychology. Roger Drake. Addictions: the Craving to Relieve Stress


Most people in our world today are overcome by cravings. Cravings are an intense desire for some particular thing that accompanies an unsatisfied state. This is the main case of motivation for drug use. It is often believed that drug cravings and withdrawal sooner or later cease in time, but by one simple, blind reminder, which can also be known as a conditioned stimulus, that craving can burn again in someone. These cravings can be brought up also by priming and for a wanted relief from stress. Two articles were chosen to prove these statements, one focused on cravings and withdrawal and the other on stress connected with drinking. It was found that when faced with associated items or even places, one can relapse back into their addictions. Also, stress and exposure to drug-related cues are common relapse triggers. Alcohol was used as an example of an addictive item to show the same with drugs. PSY 336


72. Ream, Jade and Jacob Powell. Biology. Shan Hays. Investigating the Differences in the Genomes of Eight Individual Streptococcus species


We are interested in investigating evolutionary similarities and differences seven streptococcus bacteria strains. By analyzing the genome of these bacteria we will be able to uncover the differences in their evolutionary history. Using R, a statistical analysis computer program, we have identified the origin of replication and prominent nucleotide skews throughout these seven strains of streptococcus. We found two interesting bacteria strains that have evolved an interesting mechanism for the replication of their DNA. BIOL 397


73. Reibling, Karley. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Mark Gibson. Therapeutic Horseback Riding

My project  is a Feasibility Study that examines all the necessary steps required to run a therapeutic horseback riding facility. It covers what kinds of qualifications and certifications the personnel and the clinic itself will need to deliver successful programs based on the types of special needs of its clients. It also  examines accessible facilities and equipment needed to provide services for a wide variety of special populations. Further, it details what is required of the horses and the special training required; it is known that horses must be very gentle, and not easily phased by anything out of the ordinary. I will use this project as a template to start my own business in Equine Therapy. ROE 491


74. Rhea, Kirsten. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Mark Gibson. The Afterschool Arts Opportunity


The objective of this project was to go through the process and gain the experience in developing an afterschool program. In addition, writing grant proposals was a primary focus that will ultimately apply to my future career. The Afterschool Arts Opportunity is a hypothetical program that could be implemented in the future, and focuses on helping music students further their education and individual development. All of the bases are covered in the planning stages, including a feasibility plan, location, staff, budget, grant proposals, and curriculum. I have also created sign-up sheets, advertising, and a logo. By developing this program, I am preparing myself for my career in youth programming, as well as learning the basics of writing grant proposals. ROE 491


75. Richardson, Tara. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Endurance Performance

Several studies have investigated the effects of the menstrual cycle on sports performance (Oosthuyse & Jackson, 2004; Nicklas, 1998; Kishali et al., 2006; Fazil et al., 2010).  However, due to conflicting results, the effects of the menstrual cycle on performance are not fully understood.  This study will attempt to gain a better understanding of how endurance performance is affected during the menstrual cycle.  Seven female collegiate cross country athletes are subjects in this study.  All subjects signed an informed consent and filled out a 24 question survey regarding symptoms experienced during menstruation, endurance performance while menstruating, and the effects of oral contraceptives on performance.  Themes and patterns found in the results will be used to analyze and make any correlations/interpretations of the effects of the menstrual cycle on endurance performance.  The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge concerning how menstruation may affect endurance performance.  The results of this study will provide insight on how female endurance athletes should train and allow for a more accurate estimation of when peak performance may occur. ESS 495


76. Riley, Benjamin. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Agricultural Equipment Through the Ages


This interpretation project entailed researching antique agricultural equipment used in the Gunnison Valley. Information for this project was garnered primarily from local farmers who are well versed in antique agricultural equipment, but book references from the local library were also used. The final project includes making a 2 by 3 poster that will be framed and hung in the Western State Library and in the Coldharbor Sustainable Living Center. It will have pictures of past agricultural equipment that was used at Coldharbor, along with a time-line explaining ways the machinery has progressed throughout the ages.


77. Rowe, Cody, Sidney Bare, and Ryan White. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer. Spring Away Market


We are doing a community yard sale which will be located on East Virginia Ave right next to IOOF Park.  The event will be going on from 8 am to 4 pm on Saturday April, 20th.  We will have small and large tables for sale to the community and businesses with sale items only. All proceeds from the bought tables are going to The Western Mountain Rescue Team.   We will have a couple food vendors as well as a local hot air balloon owner there with one of his balloon baskets selling rides. ROE 398


78. Rutledge, Edward. Environmental Studies. Sally Hays. Preservation of the Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District’s Documents


In the Gunnison Basin lies a depth of knowledge stored away in different agencies files that is not accessible to the public. These documents that are filed away may become damaged and thrown out as the years pass and agencies need more room in their office spaces. At Sustainable Development Strategies Group a non-profit in Gunnison, Co I have assisted in developing a website to preserve these precious documents and scan the various documents that agencies may have that would help further inform the public about issues in the valley. Currently my work has been focused at the Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, where we have designed a website and have been scanning their documents and putting them online for the public to view. The project will be complete by the end of the summer of 2013. ENVS 499


79. Sandhagen-Turner, Rachael. Heather Thiessen-Reily. Bookbinding


This work defends the position that hand bookbinding is a craft that is very worthy of preservation. This craft is still relevant in this digital age because of the irreplaceable emotional and cultural value of books as artifacts as well as receptacles of knowledge. One must also consider the power of books to create a deep connection between an artist and their audience in a multitude of ways. Evidence for the modern value of bookbinding will be presented from a historical perspective, as books yield great detail about the society for which they were written within their pages and in the details of their making. When books are recognized as an extension of ourselves - capable of holding, preserving, and sharing everything from memories to discoveries to pure expression, that is when a book is more than a book. That is why a book matters. HNRS 495


80.Saunders, Julia. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Psychological Stressors and Coping Strategies of Collegiate Endurance Athletes


The psychological and physical demands of competing in an endurance sport are well known to lead to possible increases in anxiety and stress levels of competing athletes (Hammermeister & Burton, 2001). The purpose of this study was to explore the individual stressors that collegiate endurance athletes encounter before and during a competitive effort as well as the specific coping mechanisms incorporated to combat such stressors. A semi-structured interview format was conducted with three men and three women collegiate distance runners at a Division II institution. Interview questions included: individual demographics, past experiences, and perceived psychological threats to endurance running endeavors. The results were analyzed according to Bogdan and Biklin (1998). The results of this study will be used in an attempt to further the field of knowledge encompassing endurance stress factors and coping strategies related to endurance athletes. ESS 495


81. Shortridge, Brooke, Bryan Meinert, Megan Purdy, and Amanda Simpson. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. Local Foods Abstract


The main research objective for this project deals with the current use of local food products by restaurants in Crested Butte.Reviewed articles mention time and cost constraints, and overall organizational philosophy as key factors for farm-to-table involvement.Data collection included all restaurants in Crested Butte involving person-to-person interviews with a validated questionnaire. The study is still ongoing; therefore, the data analysis has yet to be fully completed. Based on the gathered information, recommendations are expected to help local restaurants, farmers and growers to further develop farm-to-table efforts in the Gunnison Valley. BUAD 331


82. Stone, Justin. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Social Identification of Ex-College Football Players that Have Sustained a Career Ending Injury


Much of the focus on athletes who have experienced a career ending injury and are transitioning out of sport has been on professional athletes, specifically football, tennis, and skiing. However, there has not been much focus on the experiences of college athletes that have sustained a career ending injury. Social Identification of these athletes after they sustain that injury is a growing concern for not only the individual involved, but the organization that they were involved with. (Lotysz & Short, 2004) Five students that have sustained an injury during their collegiate careers were interviewed. Each of these athletes had to of stopped playing because of an injury related to their sport. The data gathered was analyzed using [Hatch 2002]. This study will serve as a platform for further investigation into this area. Suggestions will be made on how to better prepare college athletes that are going through this process. ESS 495


83. Stott, Shane. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Artifact Displacement Experiment: The Effects of Geological Forces on the Archaeological Record


The purpose of this project is to investigate the effects of geological forces on flaked stone artifacts, specifically how erosion from rainfall affects the displacement of artifacts on the surface of the ground. To test the geological forces of rain and erosion on artifact movement, I employ the use of experimental archaeology. The project consists of constructing a controlled experiment that replicates the geological force of rainfall on artifacts lying on top of a silty, sandy soil at different inclines. From the analysis of the data, I argue that rainfall will not have an effect on artifact displacement unless the artifact is on an incline greater than five degrees. The data could be useful for archaeologists by increasing the amount of information they have to analyze flaked stone artifact displacement within archaeological sites, thus, providing a more accurate account of the past activities that may have occurred at archeological sites. ANTH 465


84. Testroet, Nick, Natalie Markovich, Xander Coleman, Katie Bensko, and Destry Heide. Politics and Government. Maria Struble. AIDS and the challenge of development


The Millennium Development Goals show the spread of AIDS and how the number of incidences involving AIDS has declined through the use of vaccines, spread of knowledge, and advances in technology. The research question that is examined in this paper is whether or not the the number of AIDS has decreased. The methods that will be used to create the conclusion will be by primarily looking at statistics. Through looking at the decrease of HIV/Aids through the percentages of 15 to 24 year old pregnant women, since 1993 to 2015, in South Africa and Nigeria, it is clear people are becoming more aware of the problem. The number of cases of HIV and AIDs in less developed countries, such as South Africa and Nigeria, has come to a decline due to an increase in education, medicine, and new resources used in developing more advanced technology to help prevent and treat the virus. This can be shown by the reduction in the prevalence of HIV cases in young pregnant women, higher use of condom rate, along with fewer orphans within these countries over the past 20 years. POLS 260



85. Theisen, Peter, Sam Degenhard, Alex Sweeney, Jennifer Comstock, Polly Mcgrance, and Brian Chapel. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge.  Willingness to Pay: A Study of Local Food in the Gunnison Valley


The objective of this research is to measure the Gunnison valley population’s willingness to pay for locally grown, within the state of Colorado, food and beverages in restaurants.  Review of scholarly sources suggests that locals tend to purchase locally grown or produced products. Researchers used non-experimental survey method with a validated questionnaire.  At this point, the data collection is not complete, but first data suggests the valley population has a preference for locally grown or produced products.  Recommendations based on analysis of the collected data should help local restaurant owners and growers to better understand possibilities of local food use. BUAD 425


86. Tintera, Charles and Patrick Lykens. Biology. Andrew Keck. Predicting the Origin of Replication in Thermophiles Using Cumulative Dimer Frequency


This study aimed to predict the origin of replication for three species of thermophile using cumulative dimer  frequency analysis.  The origin site for the thermococcocales were confirmed or predicted, however, the origin for  Sulfolobus tokodaii could not be confirmed. BIOL 397


87. Toeper, Veronica. Psychology. Roger Drake. Measuring Stress of Undergraduate Students


The number of individuals looking to acquire a higher education has been steadily increasing over the years, but the success to failure rate is disappointing. Many of those who try do not succeed. A contributor to this may be the amount of stress undergraduates endure. Undergraduate students are often exposed to different levels of stress then the general population, making it difficult to effectively measure their stress. Personality type and coping strategies have been found to effect education success when dealing with stress. Efforts have been made to find an efficient measure of stress levels among this population. It is essential that we evaluate stress levels among undergraduate students to find a way to ensure higher educational success, and a higher quality of life. PSY 336


88. Turner, Samuel Adam. Exercise & Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Differences and Similarities Between Vertec and Jump Mat with Athletes Undergoing a Resistance Training Program


The Vertec and jump mat are used by coaches to determine an individual’s power output (Leard, Cirillo, Katsnelson, Kimiatek, Miller, Trebinevic & Garbalosa, 2007; Lees, Vanrenterghem and Clercq, 2006).  Vertical jump is supposed to measure the explosiveness of the lower body; however, the Vertec uses arm swing to measure vertical jump height so there must be a jump mat test with arm swing.  The subjects will have three jumping scenarios; jump mat with/without arm swing using an overhead goal and Vertec.  An overhead goal is used for the jump mat because the Vertec uses one.  Comparing the jump mat with and without arm swing should provide a solid base for jump height.  If jump mat heights remain similar with and without arm swing then the heights with arm swing will be used to compare the jump mat with the Vertec. ESS 495


89. Tyrey, Jeremiah. John Mason. Computational Model of Graphene’s Electronic Properties


The electronic properties of graphene were calculated using the hubbard model hamiltonian.  The dispersion relation was derived from this model.


90. Vannatta, Jennifer. Psychology. Roger Drake. When Life Gives You Lemons


Stress and crises are evitable in everyone's life. Human beings experience stress early, even before they are born. A certain amount of stress is normal and necessary for survival. We have many coping skills that we apply to different situations uniquely and to have the ability to assess the situations appropriately and react in a certain way is key to living a more controlled and less stressful life. PSY 336


91. Varga, Elliot. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel.  Motivations of Division II Track and Field Athletes Upon Reaching Nationals


In this study the author looked at how the motivation of a track and field athlete is affected by competing at DII Track and Field Nationals.  Previous researchers have looked at the motivation of elite level athletes using the self-determination theory, the hierarchal model of motivation and the achievement goal theory (Mallet & Hanarahan, 2004).  However, no studies have looked at what happens to an athlete’s motivation after reaching the pinnacle of competition at their level, in this case Division II Nationals. Methods: Four athletes who have gone to Nationals participated in a modified version of a semi-structured interview (Mallet & Hanarahan, 2004).  Results and Conclusion: Interviews were analyzed by hierarchical content analysis as adopted by Scanlan, Ravizza, and Stein, (1989) and Gould, Tuffey, Udry, and Loehr (1996).  Results will be discussed in terms of the self-determination theory. ESS 495


92. Walker, Anna. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Electronic Media Use, Nutrition, and Parent Concern in Preschool Children


Electronic media - television, movies, computer, phone, video games - is a consistent presence in many children's lives. Studies show that children watch over the recommended two hours per day and that there are a small percentage of parents who are concerned about this (Christakis, Ebel, Rivera & Zimmerman, 2004; Granich, Rosenber, Knuiman, & Timperio, 2011).  This study looked at the exact amount of screen time preschool children get, their nutrition during screen time, and parents attitudes towards their child's media use and nutrition. A survey asking about electronic media use, nutrition, and parent concern of media and nutrition was completed by 9 parents of children aged 4 & 5. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations as described in Hollingsworth, Collins, Smith, and Nelson (2011). The results will show children's exact media use, nutrition, their parent's concerns and the relationship between the three variables. ESS 495


93. Yoast, Lindsey. Computer Science. John Peterson. A Language of its Own Kind


The age of computing has grown throughout every year of it’s existence. Alonzo Church, a mathematician and philosopher thought computing in the 1930 was too complicated. In his attempt to create a more understanding programming language, Church created Lambda (λ) Calculus. Lambda Calculus was designed to substitute and bind variables to provide a easier computing language.


94. Zant, Timothy. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Mark Gibson. Recreational Options Program Study


The purpose of the study was to survey recreational programs and opportunities for current and prior military personnel in order to create a reference guide to facilitate the search of existing programs.  The study explores recreational options available, potential life improvements and potential future programs, including assessing ease of access depending on variables associated with location.  The result of the study includes a compilation of resources for service members and their families. ROE 491


95. Art 397 (Seasturm) and ENG 205 (Milbrodt). Art. Don Seastrum. Seeing Poetry


Students in Teresa Milbrodt’s ENG 205 (Intro to Creative Writing) classes submitted original poems to students in Don Seastrum’s ART 397 (Form and Content) class to use as inspiration for their art.  Seastrum’s students each selected two poems, and developed the form for their drawings based on the content, line, and stanza arrangement of the poem. Students were not to illustrate the poems literally, but rather depict their emotional responses to the poems in a visual means.

In the poster presentation, the art students will display their two-dimensional compositions and artist statements, and the English students will display their poetry. ART 397


96. Puent, Jacob, Ashley Woolman, Clay Moore, and Weston Manter. Biology. Amy Honan. The Influence of Varied Light Colors on the Growth and Development of Atrazine Resistant Brassica Rapa

This experiment aims to identify any variation on overall plant fitness on atrazine resistant and non-resistant B. rapa when different colored light filters are used. We measured three different variables: the number of leaves, the plant height, and the root mass. Sixty-six plants were grown under three light filters over a period of 20 days. The results show there is no significant difference between non-resistant and resistant B. rapa number of leaves and height under the different lights, but there is a significant difference between the non-resistant and resistant B. rapa root mass under blue and white light. BIOL 151

97. Gann, John, Ashlynn Hugill, Daniel Mercier, Robert Spear. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer. Big Air on Elk.


Our semester project for Program Planning was Big Air on Elk, in Crested Butte.  The event took place March 9th, and is one of the premier events to kick off spring break.  This year’s event was open to the public, but participants were invite only to ensure quality competition and entertainment.  The purpose of Big Air on Elk is to raise money for the Crested Butte Snowsports Foundation, a local non-profit that provides merit-based and need based scholarships to local youth as well as funding for the Crested Butte Mountain Sports team and Nordic Team.  Our purpose for the class was to organize and facilitate the event. ROE 398.


98. Ammons, Caden,  Jordan Higgins, Ellyn Moss, and Dakota Swinehart. Biology. Robin Bingham. Herbivore preference and growth in herbicide resistant and susceptible Brassica rapa.


The objective of this experiment was to determine if there is a preference by herbivores for either herbicide resistant (HR) or herbicide susceptible (HS) Brassica rapa. We also investigated differences in growth rate and flower production between HR and HS. Two groups of plants were used, plants resistant to atrazine herbicide and plants susceptible to it, for a choice test to discover if one was preferred over the other. Both groups of plants were fully grown and their height and bud production was recorded. The plants were then used in a choice test with Pieris rapae caterpillars. We found no significant difference in the amount eaten for each type of plant. In relation to height and bud production the results showed HR B. rapa to be significantly shorter, but there was no significant difference in bud production. This does not support our hypothesis that the caterpillars prefer HR B. rapa plants over HS B. rapa plants, however, the results did support our hypothesis that susceptible B. rapaplants would grow taller. BIOL 151.






99. Bennetts, Corbin. Honors. Rosemary Carroll. Effects of Engineering the Mississippi Watershed


The Mississippi River watershed is a complicated system deeply rooted in America’s history and culture. Although it has shaped much of America’s society, we have also greatly shaped the river. Massive engineering feats have altered the hydrology, water quality, ecology, and economics of its entire basin. Some aspects of the altercations are beneficial while others are destructive. Consequently, many policies have been implemented in order to regulate the quality and quantity of this vital resource. These policies are important and relatively successful at maintaining acceptable river conditions to fit the multiple needs of the river basin. HNRS 397.