Program of Fall 2010 Poster Presentations
1. Anderson, Ian. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Is Gunnison, CO preferable to a town of the same latitude but a lower elevation?
Is Gunnison, CO preferable to a town of the same latitude but a
lower elevation? Yes, it is. It is more preferable
because within a certain area surrounding the town, there are more recreation opportunities as opposed to a
similar town on the plains. I plan to test this by identifying how many national parks, recreation areas, camp ground,
and movie theaters are within a certain distance of each and then comparing this to the results from a survey that
asks people what it is they prefer to do. This will show me if Gunnison really would be preferable to the people of the
2. Cervantes, Mark. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Irrigation and crop yield differeces in high elevation basins versus the low elevation plains
There has always been the question whether a high elevation town
like Gunnison is a more preferable
place to live than a town on the same latitude, at a lower elevation. Well, it is in fact true that higher elevations
(mountain valleys) are a more preferable place to live than the plains. This is due to the availability and proximity
to surface water, it also relates to how the water is distributed amongst the town. The plains of Colorado have less
water availability, and therefore they must manipulate how the water is distributed to the people. This is different
than the mountain valley towns because they have the first right to the water. Due to these factors the plains and
mountain regions use their landscape differently, from how the land is distributed, to whom gets the water. After
gathering information from the Nation Agriculture Statistics Service, the Colorado Division of Water Resources, and
the Colorado Water Conservation Board the evidence will show that mountainous regions are a more preferable
place to live than the plains.
3. Ewing, Gaia. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Plains or Mountains.
Using tool type frequencies to assess location desirability for
residential housing: The problem of whether
high elevation areas such as Gunnison are a more preferable place to live, than similar towns on the same latitude
at lower elevation will be analyzed. Using the hypothesis that the diverse tool kit at the Mountaineer Folsom sit
and the reliance on local raw materials shows a thriving community, as well as a location where people do not need
to travel as frequently. Lower elevation sites such as Agate Basin and Hell Gap (I) will have a less diverse tool kit,
and show use of more non-local raw materials, and therefore is a less convenient and preferable place to live. In
order to test the hypothesis, research will be done on both assemblages comparing tool types, and raw materials
used at each site. The diversity of the tool types will be used to decipher what types of activities took place at each
site. From the location on procurement of raw materials, one will be able to see which occupation had the opportunity to utilize their surroundings more to better their lives.
4. Gibbs, Amanda. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Comparing Crime Rates Between Higher and Lower Elevated Towns in the Same Latitude
When comparing two towns
of similar size and economy, but at different elevations, the town with less
crime is a more desirable location to live. Gunnison is a town at an elevation of 7,703 feet, with a population
of 5,468. To test how desirable Gunnison, Colorado is compared to lower elevated towns, the town Smithfield, Virginia was examined. This town stands at 30 feet above sea level, at the same latitude of Gunnison. Its population is 7,115. These towns are ideal to compare to one another, as they both are located near a vacation spot; Gunnison near a ski resort, Smithfield near the beach. The data used to compare these towns will be the violent crime rates in 2009. To test this data, T-score tests will be created to show how close they are to one another in regards to crime. Also, a survey will be conducted to find out what makes a place desirable, and if crime rates influence this at all. If the survey results shows that high crime rates have a large impact on desirability, than the hypothesis will be supported. It is suspected that the higher elevated town will have a statistically higher crime rate than the town at sea level, and the evidence will support that it is a less desirable town to live in.
5. Redzinak, Kira. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Are people living in high elevation basins healthier than those living in the lower elevation plains?
This paper will discuss the differences in living at higher or
lower altitudes at the same latitude. The question is,
is it healthier to live at a higher altitude or lower altitude? Doing research to find people’s blood pressures at
higher and lower altitudes using Channel 9 news and birth rate information from the census this paper will
prove that people living in a higher altitude at the same latitude as a lower altitude than they will be healthier.
6. Smith, Collin. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Modern day large game population and prevalence of archaeological sites:
The Gunnison valley was a popular place to live in prehistoric
times which is evident through the remaining
archaeological sites. In looking at archaeological sites of the southwest, it is predicted that areas with abundant
large game populations will also harness more archaeological sites. There are thousands of archaeological sites
around the Gunnison basin as well as plentiful populations of large game. To find correlations between
archaeological site prevalence and large game population, population samples will be taken from areas across
Colorado in comparison to Gunnison Colorado. The density of archeological sites will be used in correlation
with large game population in areas across Colorado. The results will support whether or not the abundance
of archaeological sites in Gunnison is influenced by abundance of large game populations.
7. Winter, Mike, Marrisa Markus, Mike Tarantino, John Logan. Biology, Patrick Magee . BROWN TROUT (Salmo trutta) INFECTED WITH WHIRLING DISEASE (Myxobolus cerebralis) IN THE EAST RIVER OF GUNNISON, CO
Whirling disease is a parasitic invasion of trout by Myxobolus
cerebralis. Oligochaeta digest the parasite and
release microspores into the water. The microspores attach to the fish and feeds on the bone and spinal
structures causing deformation and neurological damage. Roaring Judy Fish Hatchery operates on the East River,
which has tested positive for whirling disease, and it is required to meet aquatic health regulations to continue
operation. The Division of Wildlife monitors the level of infection in the East River of the Gunnison Basin, CO around
Roaring Judy Fish Hatchery. We collected two samples of brown trout (Salmo trutta) by electrofishing and tested
for the parasite. We determined the number of brown trout infected by observing their body structure for deformations and by counting the number of spores infecting each trout head. Our data determines Roaring Judy Fish Hatchery’s ability to continue operation.
8. Waller, Bethany, Rebecca Doll, Brandee Wills. Biology, Robin Bingham. Induction of the shade
avoidance response in Brassica rapa:
Phenotypic plasticity is a change in plant phenotype in response
to changes in the environment. One well known
example of phenotypic plasticity in plants is the induction of defense traits in response to herbivory. Another well
described plastic response in plants is the shade avoidance response (SAR). In this response localized cell elongation
increases internode length. Plants often experience herbivory and shade simultaneously which theoretically forces
a tradeoff between growth and defense. In this study we initiated an investigation into how plastic responses to
one environmental challenge (shade) affect responses to a second (herbivory). Our goal was to test whether
treatments intended to induce the SAR were successful. Several methods were utilized to induce the SAR including
filter canopies, filter collars, and shading with lettuce leaves. Only the plants shaded by the lettuce leave responded with the classic SAR phenotype. Further experimentation is needed to find the optimal treatment for inducing the SAR in B. rapa.
9. Waller, Bethany, Rebecca Doll, Brandee Wills Biology, Robin Bingham. Variation in herbivore resistance traits in Asclepias speciosa across an elevational gradient
The objective of our research was to investigate variation in
herbivore resistance traits in Asclepias speciosa
populations from different elevations. We collected data from 20-30 individual stems in each of four populations,
spanning approximately 1000m in elevation. The highest population exhibited the greatest herbivore damage.
Significant differences among populations were found in field collections of latex, specific leaf area (SLA) and fruit set.
There was no relationship between latex production and fitness. In a preliminary investigation of genetic variation
in herbivore defensive traits fruits were collected from a population of A. speciosa at 2347m in the fall of 2009.
Seeds from these plants were germinated in the spring of 2010, grown for 8 weeks in the greenhouse and then
planted into a common garden on the WSC campus. Latex production was marginally significantly different among families.
10. Weir, Chris, Cassie Krzeczowski, Rachel Davenport. Biology, Amy Honan. The Effects of Soil Type on the Overall Health of Brassica Plants:
The purpose of this experiment was to determine which soil types
grew Brassica plants the best. The soil types included Miracle grow,
sagebrush steppe, and creek-bed soil. Our initial hypothesis was that the
would be the most successful in Miracle Grow soil based on leaf and flower/bud production. Based on our results
it can be said that our initial hypothesis was proved correct.
11. Shunk, Monica, Julie Wingate. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Cytospora infection and dieback of Alnus along Tomichi Creek in Gunnison, CO:
Thinleaf alder (Alnus
incana subsp. tenuifolia) has been declining in the Southern Rocky Mountain region
according to a study performed by the Forest Service. Methods were adapted from Worrall (2009) to conduct a survey of alder along Tomichi Creek through Western State College property at the base of Tenderfoot Mountain. The survey focused on a 30m section of alder along the creek to determine stand composition and if there were signs of the common pathogen cytospora. A cytospora canker was found on one genet of alder along the transect, affecting a single stem. Only one genet, without cytospora, showed signs of complete die-off with the number of dead stems outnumbering healthy stems. All other genets had a higher abundanceof healthy stems replacing dieback. Removal of the infected stems is recommended as well as further monitoring of dieback and cytospora infection of the alder at this site.
12. Allen, Craig R., Sarah R. McClernan, Courtney M. Adams, Allen, Craig R. , Shelby L. Neese. Biology, Becky Sears. Fox Activity Levels in a 24 hour period in Gunnison County, Colorado
The activity level of two red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, one juvenile
female and one juvenile male was studied
by radio telemetry from September 29th to November 11th 2010. Topography maps were used to analyze the
cardinal location of the foxes in a 24 hour period. The primary purpose of this experiment was to study two juvenile
red foxes in the Gunnison area and support pre-existing data on their peak and dead hours of activity. Our data
showed that the male fox was primarily active during nocturnal hours, whereas the female fox was active during
nearly all 24 hours of the study.
13. Barker, Kristin. Biology, Patrick Magee. Does the home team really have an advantage? Investigating whether home-field advantage (HFA) holds true in sagebrush ecosystems:
Recent scientific studies indicate that forest ecosystems exhibit
a “home-field advantage,” in which
soil biota decompose organic litter from the specific tree species above them more rapidly than they
decompose litter from other species, but no known researchers have examined home-field advantage
in shrub ecosystems. Determining whether home-field advantage exists in sagebrush ecosystems can
greatly assist professionals in determining the most beneficial management and reclamation practices
within these areas. This study determined that sagebrush soil decomposed sagebrush litter at a rate of 0.257 g/wk;
sagebrush soil decomposed aspen litter at a rate of -1.040 g/wk; aspen soil decomposed sagebrush litter at a rate
of -0.980 g/wk; and aspen soil decomposed aspen litter at a rate of -2.125 g/wk. Sagebrush soil decomposed
sagebrush litter at a significantly faster rate than it decomposed aspen litter; it also decomposed sagebrush
litter significantly more quickly than aspen soil decomposed aspen litter. No significant difference occurred
between decomposition rates at low and high elevations. However, numerous limitations of this study severely
limit confidence in the data.
14. Bernier, Kathryn, Clayton BonDurant, Aleshia Fremgen, and Marcella Fremgen. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Leaf Decomposition and Shredder Colonization in Tomichi Creek, Gunnison County, Colorado, USA
Allocthonous input is
energy from outside sources, such as riparian leaves that fall into the stream.
This is the primary energy input in stream systems but the energy is inaccessible to most organisms
until the solutes dissolve, microbes and fungi colonize the leaves, and shredders break down the leaves
into smaller particles. We used one location at Tomichi Creek to investigate in-stream leaf decomposition.
We collected streamside willow (Salix exigua), narrow-leaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), and
alder (Alnus alnus) leaves. The leaves were weighed and placed in open containers, and nine replicates
of each vegetation species were placed in the stream next to the other two species. After three weeks,
the leaves were removed, dried, and re-weighed, and the macroinvertebrate colonies were counted and
identified. The change in leaf mass represents the loss of soluble components in the leaf, bacterial and
fungal colonization, and the leaf mass loss to macroinvertebrate shredders.
15. Bingman, Matt, Cody Butero, Hannah Cottier, Logan Cottier, and Austin Harper. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Harsh Winter Conditions on Odocoileus hemionus (Mule Deer) Populations in Game Management Unit Fifty-Four:
The populations of Odocoileus hemionus, Mule deer, in the Gunnison
basin of Colorado are affected each winter.
Harsh winter conditions such as extreme cold and deep snowfall can lead to high rates of deer mortality. The Division
of Wildlife conducts population estimates each year during the month of December. We attempted to replicate these
surveys as closely as possible by observing transition areas in Game Management Unit Fifty-Four and recording the
number of deer observed and the estimated size of the area observed. Our estimates were then compared to the
DOW’s estimates of 2005. The numbers of Mule Deer observed this fall were fewer than those observed in 2005
due to the extremely harsh winter of 2007-2008. However, the difference was not as large as expected due to the
two and a half year period of population recovery.
16. Brown, Karélia , Amy Hale, Julie Iacino, and Amber Morrow. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Bisphenol A on Xenopus laevis Tadpole Development:
Bisphenol A (BPA) has long been suspected to have adverse effects
on living organisms. The experiment
used Xenopus laevis to observe effects of BPA on tadpole development. Using three groups: glass control
jars, BPA free Nalgene bottles, and BPA positive Nalgene bottles, development between tadpoles was compared.
It was hypothesized that there would be a noticeable difference in the development of tadpoles raised in the BPA
positive environment. After noting morphological differences and analyzing data using an ANOVA, a significant
relationship between BPA and developmental variations was developed. The hypothesis was supported.
17. BOWKER, SHAUN, SUSAN DAVIS, DAVID GOODMAN, SCOTT NELSON. Biology, Amy Honan. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT COLORED LIGHT FILTERS ON BRASSICA RAPA
B. rapa is a mustard plant known for its ease of growing and
maintaining. This experiment aimed to
increase the existing pool of empirical data on how growing plants under different colored filters affects
their overall health through four variables: overall height, leaf count, ending weight, and root depth.
Twenty four plants were grown under four light filters. Six were grown under no filter, six were grown
under a red filter, six under a blue filter and six under a green filter. For five weeks data was collected on
the aforementioned variables of plant health. It was discovered that the varying color filters did have a
significant effect on the in all four variables. As we expected, the plants grown under the red filters
demonstrated the greatest health as the wavelengths associated with photosynthesis (namely blue light)
were not blocked.
18. Conrad, Callie Hannah Kingsbury. Biology, Amy Honan. Effects of of Brassica Grown in Soil and Fertilizer
The goal of the experiment was to investigate the effects of
growth in Brassica plants when comparing
their growth in regular soil compared to fertilizer. The plant’s height (cm), number of flowers (seeds), length
of root (cm), root to shoot ratio, and weight in grams (Biomass) were measured. The hypothesis for the experiment
was; after growing Brassica plants in both regular soil and fertilizer it is expected that the plants grown in the fertilizer
will be taller, have more flowers (seeds), the roots will be longer, and they will have a greater biomass. After all the
measurements were complete the hypothesis proved to be partially correct because the plants grown in fertilizer
did prove to have a greater biomass, but plants grown in soil were on average taller, had more flowers (seeds),
and the roots were longer.
19. Clayton, Alex, Mick Knudsen, Tim Curry. Biology, Becky Sears. Why are Aspens SAD?
Sudden Aspen Decline (SAD) is the name given to a phenomenon that is occurring among aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands across the Rocky Mountains. The objective of this study was to test the predisposing factors of elevation and stand aspect on aspen size, density, and mortality in order to see if SAD was present in the Gunnison Valley. If SAD is present, then southern facing aspen stands at low elevation will show lower average diameter and density in addition to a higher mortality rate. Data was collected from north and south facing aspen stands at three different elevation levels. The results demonstrate that aspen stands at higher elevations have a lower mortality rate. Elevation and aspect do affect mortality, but they have little or no effect on diameter or density. Therefore, the data demonstrates that SAD is not present in the populations which were studied in the Gunnison Valley.
20. Courkamp, Jake, Justin Noland, Clayton Weaver, Mike Tarantino. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Periphyton Colonization of Three Substrate Types in the Gunnison Basin, CO USA
We examined diatom
colonization on three different types of substrate (unglazed tiles, cobble, and
cottonwood logs) in a pond in the Gunnison Basin to better understand how diatoms utilize distinct habitats.
Unglazed tiles served as our control, while cottonwood logs and cobble are naturally occurring diatom habitats. Diatoms are a type of unicellular algae with cell walls made of silica. They, along with other algae, cyanobacteria, and detritus, form the periphyton community which is attached to submerged surfaces in aquatic environments. In this periphyton community, diatoms are important because they serve as the dominant primary producers. Thus, we counted and identified 300 individual diatoms from each of our fifteen samples (five samples of each substrate) after they had been submerged for fourteen days.
21. Cuprisin, Chip. Biology, Becky Sears. Gunnison River Trout and Trout Habitat
Macroinvertebrate populations are an indication of a healthy
stream. Macroinvertebrate populations are high
in streams where the trout population is high. There are many factors that account for a section of water to be
designated Gold Metal Water: A lake or stream that supports a trout standing stock of at least 60 pounds per acre,
and contains an average of at least 12 quality trout per acre (CO DOW). This experiment investigated macroinvertebrate populations, by counting and collecting larval and adult forms of aquatic insects. Many factors go into such designation, and the presence of macroinvertebrates is merely an indication of, not a determining factor in such a label. When invertebrate populations are slightly lower, provided the stream is healthy, can result in the fish being more opportunistic in their feeding habits, not keying in on a specific species, resulting in more fish being caught.
22. Courkamp, Jacob, Justin Morris, Mike Dix, Nicholas Easley. Biology, Patrick Magee. EFFECT OF SURFACE VEGETATION REMOVAL ON THE TEMPERATURE, AND ACIDITY OF SPRING-FED PONDS IN THE GUNNISON BASIN, COLORADO USA
We investigated the effects of removing vegetation from the
surface of ponds in the Gunnison Basin, Colorado
by comparing two similar ponds. We left one of the ponds alone and we removed all of the surface vegetation
from the other pond. We then tested the pH and the temperature of both ponds multiple times over the course
of the following month. We observed downward trends in the temperature of both ponds, thought to be due to
the weather. We also observed slight differences in the pH of each pond, but this difference was present
pre-treatment and cannot be attributed to the removal of the surface vegetation from the treatment pond.
Our study found no significant difference in either pH or temperature between the control and the treatment pond.
23. Doll, Rebecca, Angela Vitulli, Rachel Webb. Biology, Patrick Magee. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN BRITTLE PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS (OPUNTIA FRAGILIS) DUE TO VARYING SUN EXPOSURE IN THE GUNNISON BASIN, COLORADO:
Brittle prickly pear
cacti (Opuntia fragilis) is a vital food source to many animals in desert and
semi-desert ecosystems in the United
States. Cactus spines serve as protection against solar energy by shading the
plant and reducing heat gain. Sun exposure differs between slope directions, with south facing enduring more
sun exposure throughout the day than the north. A total of 676 cacti spines were collected from two sites in the Gunnison Basin, Colorado during the fall of 2010. T-tests were used to analyze the data and to determine if there were significant differences between north and south facing slope cacti spine length and width. South facing slope cacti spines were found to be significantly longer and thinner than north facing slope cacti spines. Although we found that spines on the south facing slope cacti allocate energy into spine length growth, spine width was thinner than north facing slope cacti spines due to unknown reasons.
24. Donahue, Emily. Biology, Robin Binham. Quantitative genetic
analysis of herbivore defensive traits in Asclepias speciosa
We quantified mechanical and chemical herbivore defensive traits
in a population of Asclepias speciosa in the
Gunnison basin. Using a quantitative genetic approach 62 plants taken from 5 full-sub families were grown in a
common garden and analyzed for constitutive levels of latex, water content, specific leaf area, and cardenolides.
We found marginally significant differences among families for latex production only and no evidence for significant
genetic correlation between any of the traits measured. These results provide a foundation from which future
studies on genetic variation in herbivore defensive traits in A. speciosa will be developed.
25. Else, Alex, Sarah Schmitz, Amber Summer, Brandee Wills. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Analysis of the Macroinvertebrate Community and Stream Health in Spring Creek, Gunnison County, CO USA:
We investigated water
quality in Spring Creek, Gunnison County, CO USA compared to Colorado
Aquatic Life standards. We collected semi-quantitative samples using a 500 micron dip net and followed
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Water Quality Control Division Standard Operating
Procedures. We sub-sampled 300 macroinvertebrates and these were indentified to lowest practical taxon
using relevant taxonomic keys. Following identification and enumeration, we determined tolerance levels
and functional feeding groups. Our data was then entered into the Ecological Data Application System
software and the results compared to Colorado Aquatic Life thresholds for assessing stream health.
26. England, Julian, Kevin Donaldson. Biology, Becky Sears. Effect of Recreation on Deer in the Gunnison/Crested Butte Areas
The Gunnison and Crested Butte areas are seeing an increase in
recreation use every year with an unknown
impact on animal and plant populations. Our experiment focused on the numbers of deer in recreation areas
around Gunnison and Crested Butte, and how recreation use impacts these numbers. We believe higher use areas
will have fewer deer than lower use areas. To test this, we visited six different recreation areas and investigated the
number of deer signs. Deer signs included tracks, scat, rubbings on trees, and actual deer sightings. We found that the areas with the most sightings were areas of both high and low recreation use. Therefore, we reject our hypothesis; recreation has no apparent affect on deer. There is no substantial evidence suggesting recreation use affects the number of deer in the Gunnison and Crested Butte areas.
27. Fields, Morgan, Nick Heller, Ryan Lundy. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Altitude on Cognitive Ability:
Whether a skier, climber, or mountaineer, the call from high peaks
is one that will be answered with little regard to
the inherent risks. Thinner air requires one’s body to work harder to perform basic functions such as breathing,
however; does it make it hard for the body to do something as easy as thinking? This experiment studies the effects
of altitude on cognitive ability. A series of cognitive tests that evaluate memory, reasoning, mental flexibility, and
verbal skills were used to examine the differences in cognitive ability at altitude. The results show that there are
notable changes in cognitive ability at altitude however; it is difficult to exclude factors like hydration and physical fitness.
28. George, Anna, Ashtyn
Rossman, Shayna Keller, and Stephanie Bollini. Biology, Becky Sears. Difference in Blood-Oxygen
Saturation Levels in Intercollegiate Wrestlers:
Hemoglobin in the blood transports oxygen to different parts of
the body. The level of oxygen in the blood is oxygen
saturation or SpO2. This measurement is taken by a pulse oximeter which records the oxygen saturation and the pulse. The hypothesis states that the pulse will increase and the SpO2 will decrease after exercise. Measurements were taken pre and post match from the Western State College wrestling team. On average pulse increased and SpO2 decreased, as predicted.
29. Goodwin, Mary, Dorothy Houle, and Whitney Zerr. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Caffeine on the Growth and Development of Brassica rapa:
Caffeine has known adverse developmental effects on many organisms, including Brassica rapa, also known as the Wisconsin Fast Plant. Brassica rapa was treated with 0.005M caffeine solution in water twice a week, and data was collected after each exposure. The treated plants began to visually demonstrate the effects of the caffeine after only three treatments. There was a significant difference in the number of leaves, flowers, and buds produced by the caffeinated plants. These results suggest that caffeine has harmful effect on Brassica rapa plants.
30. Griffin, Emma, Carson Wagner, Cale Fry, and Eric Copeland. Biology, Becky Sears. Effects of trails on vegetation density:
Outdoor activities such as hiking, biking and dirt biking are
popular in Gunnison County, but these activities have
some negative effects on the vegetation on the trails. We picked three different trail sites to test the density shrubs,
forbs and grasses along and off the trails. We predicted that the vegetation density along the trails would be less due
to these kinds of outdoor activities. The results state that the density along the trail was slightly less as well as less
mature since human activity is higher right along the trail compared to off the trail.
31. Peterson, Miles, Nicole Stone, and Daniel Piquette. Biology, Becky Sears. Lake Trout Removal and its Impacts:
Over the last 2 years, the CDOW has been gill netting lake trout
in blue mesa reservoir to help balance the
fishery. Lake trout smaller than thirty inches are targeted, but untargeted lake trout and other species are
inevitably caught. Our study aims to measure the impact of the gill netting on other fish species in blue
mesa by reviewing the quantitative data provided by the CDOW. The data revealed that in addition to the lake
trout there were six other species affected by the gill netting, but the number of mortalities of non-target fish
was not high enough to negatively impact those populations.
32. pfannenstiel, jordyn, cody frankum, jon kelly.Biology, Amy Honan. Invertebrate diversity and how it indicates water quality:
The water quality in Gunnison can be tested by collecting
invertebrates from the rivers and depending on
how solution tolerant the invertebrates are, tells the quality of the water in the river. We collected invertebrates
from four different rivers in Gunnison and found the quality of water in each river. We researched how the Taylor
River, Tomichi Creek and the East River’s water quality affected the water quality in the Gunnison River because
all three flow into the Gunnison River. We found that even though majority of the water that flows into the
Gunnison River is fair quality but the Gunnison still has good water quality, so it mostly affected by the East
river which also has good water quality.
33. Lloyd, Chelsea, Mary Emanuel, Jerrett Swarr. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Brook Stickleback Prey Selective or General Feeders:
Brook Stickleback (Culea inconstans) is a non-native invasive fish
species that is now found in the upper Gunnison
River basin, Colorado, USA. Commonly thought of as a generalist feeder, we investigated their feeding preferences
in their non-native range to determine whether the stickleback remains a generalist feeder or if they have shifted
towards selective feeding. By using Ivlev’s Electivity Index, we analyzed the feeding habits of brook sticklebacks
inhabiting a section of Tomichi Creek compared to the community of macroinvertebrates. We sampled macrovertebrates in order to determine the species diversity and food availability in the habitat for the brook stickleback. We also collected three gut content samples from brook stickleback representing three different feeding times (morning, noon, and evening), to determine if brook stickleback selected certain prey items and if this prey selection varied between times of day.
34. Knight, Adrian and Joe Pecharich. Biology, Jonathan Coop. Accelerating tree death in “healthy” aspen forests of the upper Gunnison Valley, Colorado:
While recent concern about aspen forests in Colorado has focused
on Sudden Aspen Decline (SAD) evidence from
across the western US suggests that even healthy forests may be experiencing increasing rates of tree mortality. We
resampled forest structure, canopy cover and understory composition in 19 healthy aspen stands (not showin SAD)
originally sampled in 1964 and 1994 near Crested Butte, Colorado. Annual rate of tree mortality has more than
doubled from -0.96% to -2.38% over the two sampling intervals (1964-1994, 1994-2010). Over the last 46 years,
stand density has declined from 3151 ha-1, a 49% decrease. Basal area, which did not change 1964-1994, declined
significantly and rapidly from 1994-2010, from 41.2m2 ha-1 to 33.7 m2 ha-1 (-18%). Even in these apparently healthy
aspen forests, accelerating dieback is leading to significant changes in forest structure with possible consequences for
biological diversitiy, ecosystem servieces, and aesthetic and economic values.
35. Jacob Powell, Chase Bunting, Cater Mueller, Dave Jenkins. Biology, Becky Sears. The effect of Brown Trout on other fish species:
Brown trout were introduced to the state of Colorado’s waters in 1890. It is naturally more aggressive than rainbows, cutthroats, and brooks, which could lead to them being larger than the other fish. This poses the question for our hypothesis: Do brown trout significantly affect the population of other trout species in their environment? To test our hypothesis we compared trout populations in waters with brown trout against those without. We analyzed the average fish sizes and made an estimate whetheror not brown trout truly affect the environment. The results we collected were somewhat conclusive; we caught multiple examples of multiple species in each habitat. The fish caught in each comparison group had similar sizes in fish. The spring creek / Texas Creek had the most conclusive results because the average size of fish in spring creek (No browns) was on average larger than the fish in Texas Creek.
36. Hardin, Tim,Matt Toensing, Nick Rzygska-Filipek, Adrian. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Anthropogenic Impacts on Periphyton Colonization Rates in Tomichi Creek, Gunnison, CO, USA:
Colonization of organisms onto a new substrate or habitat gives an indication of the biodiversity and ecosystem health of a stream. We studied the colonization rate of periphyton in Tomichi Creek near Gunnison, CO to determine if anthropogenic impacts altered the periphyton biodiversity and colonization rates in the stream. We hypothesized that colonization rates and biodiversity would be greater where there was less anthropogenic impacts. We studied one site with heavy grazing by cattle that has resulted in visible degradation of the streamside vegetation in this area. Another site further upstream that has not experienced recent grazing by domestic livestock was also studied for comparison. The periphyton community was measured for three weeks to determine whether anthropogenic influences cause a reduction in the colonization rates of primary producers in Tomichi Creek.
37. Fremgen, Marcella. Biology, Robin Bingham. Effects of Shading on Caterpillar Performance:
Plants are sessile organisms and therefore must be capable of
obtaining resources and avoiding predation
without moving. Plants that experience competition for light, an important resource, induce the shade avoidance
response. Plants also have a number of methods to repel insect herbivores, including chemical defenses. Light
competition and herbivory are antagonistic selective forces and a plant must allocate resources towards one or the other. Light competition is induced by decreasing the red: far red light ratio. This hypothesis predicts that plants growing in sun will be better defended than shade plants. A preliminary test revealed that insects do not grow as quickly on shade plants as on sun plants, indicating better defense in the shade. Though field studies have found similar results, other laboratory studies with a bioassay indicate that shaded plants are poorly defended when compared to sun plants.
38. Gillespie, Andrew. Biology, Amy Honan. The Effect of Caffeine on the Temperature Recovery Rate in Humans:
Caffeine is one of the
most addictive substances in our world and is consumed by more addicts than any
other compound. This experiment was conducted to see if there is a direct correlation between the
concentration of caffeine in the human body and the recovery temperature rate after an artificial temperature
decrease. Ten individuals were tested after consuming limited amounts of caffeine and after drinking a full
can of Red Bull energy drink. Skin temperature was measured to determine if there is a correlation between
the caffeine and recovery rate. This experiment proved that there is in fact a direct correlation between caffeine and body temperature recovery rate.
39. Kowall, Nathan. Business Administration, Susan Taylor. Transits of Extrasolar Planets:
at Gunnison Valley Observatory we are using the telescope to find the transits
of extrasolar planets in front
of other stars. With every planet we find we are closer to finding a planet that one day may suit our needs to colonize
or even find evidence of life.
40. Mizel, Max, Christian Squire, Ross Metler, Angela Fioretti, Alyssa Keith. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Analysis of Vanilla using GC-MS with SPME and HPLC:
main ingredients found in store bought vanilla extract include vanillin,
p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and ethyl vanillin. Each of these compounds are found naturally in vanilla
except ethyl vanillin which is added as a substitute for pure vanillin. By determining the amount of each
compound in five different extracts, a quality control and cost effectiveness can be determined with regard
to the amount of added ethyl vanillin, an artificial flavor, to the naturally occurring vanillin. Instrumentation
in this experiment includes High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography-
Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) which were each used to support separate results. The results of this experiment
41. Helling, Mitch, Max Mizel, Angela Fioretti, Ross Metler, Alyssa Keith, Christian Squire. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Determination of Zinc and Cadmium in Natural Water near the Mount Emmons Fen:
Analytical Chemistry class went to Crested Butte early in September and
collected several water samples from
the fen near the water treatment plant on Mount Emmons. The samples were analyzed using an atomic absorption
flame spectrophotometer. Standards used for the calibration of the instrument were prepared from Fischer Chemical
certified standards. The concentration of cadmium was found to be 9.167×10^(-3) ppm while the concentration of zinc was found to be 3.327 ppm.
42. Fioretti, Angela. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Novel Approach to Lithium Battery Failure Analysis:
use and storage, uncontrolled decomposition of commonly used electrolytes for
lithium batteries has been
shown to play a considerable role in lowered battery capacity and decreased power, but techniques for studying
this phenomenon are limited. This study shows how capillary electrophoresis (CE), a technique that can analyze
trace ions (<10 ppm) in small volumes (<10µL), can be used for studying electrolyte decomposition. Detection of
battery electrolytes was achieved by manipulating the surface charge of bare fused-silica capillaries with buffer
modifications and capillary wall coatings. Reproducible decomposition data was obtained for PF6-, BF4- , and
N(SO2CF3)2- samples that supported the expected decomposition mechanisms previously reported in literature.
Observed features that make CE well suited for the study of battery electrolyte decomposition were fast separation
times and high sensitivity for ionic species with similar mobilities. This study demonstrates that CE is an invaluable
technique to the battery community that can be applied to many facets of battery technology and research.
43. Chem 112 Weds Pm Lab. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Dying to Know the Dye Concentration in Jones Green Apple Soda?:
experiment used three methods to determine the concentration of dyes present in
Jones Green Apple Soda.
By using paper chromatography, it was determined that blue and yellow dyes were present in the soda. The UV-VIS
spectrophotometer was used to identify the wavelength settings needed for the Spectronic 20 and verified the use
of Blue #1 and Yellow #5 dyes within the soda. Each group made concentrations of the dyes and then measured
their % transmitttance using the spectrometer. With this information, the concentration of the dyes within Jones
Soda was determined using the slope of the graph and Beer’s Law. The class average of the concentration of Blue
#1 was 2.247 x 10-6 M±1.16 x 10-6 and the Yellow #5 had a concentration of 2.012 x 10-5 M±7.14 x 10-6 M.
44. Chem 112 Tues Pm Lab. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Big K Purple Soda Mystery: Who Dyed?:
purpose of this experiment was to determine the dyes present in Big K grape
soda, and calculate
their respective concentrations. Using paper chromatography, we determined Red #40 and Blue #1 dyes
were present in the soda. The maximum absorbances of the dyes were found using an Agilent 8453 Spectrophotometer. These peak wavelengths were then used to determine the concentration of the dyes present in the soda using visible spectroscopy. The Spec. 20 was used to measure % transmittance in order to calculate absorbance. We created standard concentration curves and used Beer’s Law with the slope of the standard concentration curve to find the concentration of Red #40 and Blue # 1 in the soda. The concentration of Red #40 was 7.12x10-5 M ± 2.44x10-5 and the concentration of Blue #1 was 1.78x10-5 M ± 5.96x10-6.The purpose of this experiment was to determine the dyes present in Big K grape soda, and calculate their respective concentrations. Using paper chromatography, we determined Red #40 and Blue #1 dyes were present in the soda. The maximum absorbances of the dyes were found using an Agilent 8453 Spectrophotometer. These peak wavelengths were then used to determine the concentration of the dyes present in the soda using visible spectroscopy. The Spec. 20 was used to measure % transmittancein order to calculate absorbance. We created standard concentration curves and used Beer’s Law with the slope of the standard concentration curve to find the concentration of Red #40 and Blue # 1 in the soda. The concentration of Red #40 was 7.12x10-5 M ± 2.44x10-5 and the concentration of Blue #1 was 1.78x10-5 M ± 5.96x10-6.
45. Donahue, Emily. Chemistry, Polavarapu. Conformational analysis of hibiscus acid derivatives using chiroptical spectroscopic methods:
drug discovery, compounds such as (2S,3R)-tetrahydro-3-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,3-furandicarboxylic
(hibiscus acid) are vital for advancement of medicine because they are easily extracted from common plants and
have pharmaceutical relevance. Due to limitations in studying hibiscus acid, hibiscus acid dimethyl ester and hibiscus
acid disodium salt were the compounds chosen instead. Chiroptical spectroscopic methods and quantum mechanical
calculations were used to identify the absolute configuration and all possible conformations for these compounds.
Results from these measurements confirm that the absolute configuration of both compounds is (2S,3R). and six
hibiscus acid dimethyl ester conformers predominate the population, but only two viable hibiscus acid disodium
salt conformers. The inequality in possible conformers for each compound is notable because studying a compound
that has fewer viable conformers decreases calculation time and eases the analysis process. These results indicate a
possible trend; examining a salt derivative of a compound is more advantageous than investigating a dimethyl ester compound.
46. Chem 112 Mon. afternoon class Chemistry, Griggs. Dye-dentity!
concentrations of the red and blue dyes were determined using Beer’s Law. Known
concentrations of the two dyes were mixed and a Spec 20 was used to measure
absorbance to make a standard curve. The test had a control of distilled
water to set the zero for the machine and compare to the other concentrations.
The absorbance of the
Power Aid Zero was determined by using the Spec 20. The absorbance was then compared to the standard curves
of the two dyes to determine the concentration of the dyes. The Power Aid Zero, grape flavor, contained 8.82 x 10-6 moles per liter of red #40 with 1.069 x 10-6 standard deviation and 3.72 x 10-6 moles per liter of blue#1 with 4.57x10-6 standard deviation.
47. Mizel, Max. Chemistry, Jason Mullins. Exploration of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors and Biocides via:
increased awareness of biofilms in recent years has created the urgency to find
novel techniques to prevent
biofilm formation. Biofilms form through a biochemical process of quorum sensing (QS) or cell-to-cell communication.
Bacteria are continually releasing autoinducers (AIs) into the environment, and once in high enough concentration,
due to a plethora of bacteria in the surroundings, biofilm formation is initiated. Once initiated, a cascade of gene
expressions occur, releasing exopolysaccharides, virulence factors and detergents. The goal of this research was to
mimic AIs which would act as antagonists to the QS pathway preventing biofilm formation. A naturally occurring
AI found in pseudomonads was used as a model for quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) synthesis. Many pieces of the
QSIs were synthesized; however the entire proposed scheme is currently incomplete. Once finished, bioassays
utilizing Chromobacterium violaceum will follow.
48. Anderson, Richard, Spencer Storck. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Computers in Transportation: Computing for Sustainable Transportation
trains, and automobiles all use computing technology to improve efficiency and
For instance, Boeing is marketing a product called Direct Routes which will automatically tell an airlines operations
center and flight crew when a more fuel-efficient path opens up. It can check for traffic conflicts, wind conditions
and airspace constraints. Boeing’s projections show that this can save more than 40,000 minutes of flight time
(2.5 million gallons of fuel) per year for a medium-size U.S. airline. We describe this and other applications of computing to create sustainable transportation networks.
49. Sears, Kevin, Alan Cleary, Michael Reed, Theron Grant. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Robotics and Computer Vision:
Computer Science vision and robotics team will be presenting their newest
robot. The team has assembled a
Roomba with a laptop and rocket launcher attached to it, which can be controlled by the programming language,
Python. In addition to the Roomba, the team has been working with computer vision based control, such as low
level games that you can control by waving your hands. The team had a chance to go to LA California to visit Harvy
Mud College and work with skilled students as they progress in the field of robot programming.
50. Ley, Nathaniel, Aaron Grinnell Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Water resources:
will describe the role of computing in the sustainable use of water resources.
Our poster shows how computer
technology is used conserve and monitor water. We have investigated projects such as computer controlled sprinkler
system, computer controlled water distribution systems, and stream flow gauging stations which use computer
technology to monitor water resources in real time.
51. Jackson, Emily Max Murchison. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Green City Computing:Green City Computing Abstract:
World’s cities have become the home of more that have the Earth’s population.
Cities use natural resources
and create waste at an alarming rate. Urban designers are being challenged to revive our cities, turning them into
ecosystems. Managing the use and misuse of water, electricity and waste on a large scale would be impossible with
technology. Smart City projects are being created around the world. These cities of the future has a brain and
nervous system that monitors the digestive, immune, vascular, skeleton, and muscular systems of the city.
52. Contreras, Jose & Kyle Adair. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Computerized Energy Management
Computing technology is an essential part of energy conservation. We will demonstrate how computer technology is essential to sustainable energy use. For example, smart appliances that monitor and adjust energy use or software which allows remote monitoring and control of home energy use. In the future individual homes, cities, and even entire power grids can be managed to minimize power using computer technologies.
53. Williams, Susan. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Influence of Group Exercise on Women:
The influence of exercise environments can have dramatic impacts on the individual, and the purpose of this research was to determine the extent to which a person is influenced by their work-out setting. This study focused on four different aspects of group exercise and included social relationships, intensity, competition and quality of life. Participants were questioned about their involvement with the group and were required to have met at least once a week and been actively involved for at least six months. A qualitative research approach was used to determine the extent that a person is influenced by social exercise settings and conclusions were drawn from the information provided by interviews and questionnaires.
54. Violett, Sylvia. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Tougher Gender:
study examines mental toughness between males and females to see which sex is
truly tougher than the other
without factoring in physical strength. Volunteers consisted of 33 males and 33 females who participate in the same
sport such as cross-country and basketball at a small college in the central rocky mountains. The mental toughness
of each individual was measured using the Sport Mental Tough Questionnaire (SMTQ). Each question was measured
on a Likert scale, 1 from 4, one being “Not at all true” and four being “Very true”. The survey was constructed of
questions that related to confidence, control, and constancy. The results of this study have not been analyzed at
this time, but soon will be available to interpret once the surveys have been gathered for the subjects.
55. Azimi, Mariam. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Got Energy?
The purpose of this
study was to determine which beverage; water, Gatorade, or chocolate milk is
most effective in recovery and performance during a second bout of exercise. Subjects in this study
included three NCAA athletes from a small Division II college in the Rocky Mountains. Each subject
participated in three separate cycling sessions until exhaustion. Exhaustion was measured when rate of
perceived exertion reached 20, RPM was 50 or lower, and/or the participant asked to end the session.
After the session ended, each subject consumed 16 ounces of a beverage that was blind to the subject.
Perceived fatigue was measured by the subjects during their second bout of exercise, before bed, and morning after each session.
56. Bakkie, Dustin. Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. Running Economy in Barefoot Simulating Shod
purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in running economy in
Bikilas, and a typical running shoe. As well as obtain data which may help determine if economic differences
between conditions is due to kinematic changes or mass effect. Methods: This study will be a pilot study
involving trained endurance runners, which run an average of 30 miles or more weekly. Economic variables
including: Respiratory exchange ratio, rate of perceived exertion, lactate, and heart rate will be examined across conditions during pace runs at 50-, 70-, and 90-percent of VO2 max in each condition. Jump height
in each condition will also be assessed to determine which condition allows the greatest jump height
Results: Data collection is currently in progress and results will be determined by the end of November 2010.
57. Click, Tracy E. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Podium and Beyond
Whitewater slalom is a
unique sport. This sport involves a moving playing field that is constantly
Success in the sport depends not only on an athlete’s physical prowess but also on their ability to make
sophisticated decisions in less than ideal circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine whether
there was a relationship between coaching style and performance among whitewater slalom athletes.
Participants included US canoe and kayak team members, development athletes, and coaches. The athletes
and coaches were observed and interviewed. From these interviews and observations two types of coaching
styles were prevalent, a directive style and an autonomy supportive style. Results revealed that the use of an
autonomy supportive coaching style can be extremely effective for Whitewater slalom athletes. Variables
that were discovered to affect results were age, gender, competition, paddling experience, and the coaching
style that paddler was originally exposed to.
58. Courtney, Colin . Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. The Physiological Effects of Backpacking With Trekking Poles
While the activity of backpacking has been done for hundreds of years, the use of trekking poles when backpacking is a much more recent adaptation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how an individual reacts to using trekking poles, both physically and mentally, when hiking uphill with a backpack. Measures were taken in an attempt to create the most realistic backpacking setting possible. Methods: Five older women from a local hiking group volunteered for this study. Each walked at a self-selected walkin pace with a gradient of 10 percent for 10 minutes while carrying a backpacking weighing 10 percent of their total bodyweight. These conditions were used for the two trials: once with poles, once without. Results/Conclusion: In progress.
59. Curry, Timothy. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Physiological Effects of Cycling Cadence on Elite Mountain Bikers
cadence is a highly researched area in the exercise science field with the
purpose of providing more
knowledge to better coach cyclists. However, the research to date has used either professional road or amateur
cyclists. There is a lack of cadence research in the sport of elite mountain biking. This purpose of this pilot study
was to look at the effects of cycling cadence on certain physiological variables (O2 consumption, substrate utilization,
and lactate accumulation) in elite mountain bikers. Data collected shows the largest change with increased cadence
was an increase in the percentage of carbohydrates used for energy production. O2 consumption and lactate
accumulation showed little or no change. While this study is limited in scope, the data suggests that the largest
factor with cadence determination is substrate utilization. This data can allow cyclists to more effectively select
their cadence based on competitive demands.
60. Delaney, Karen . Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Psychological Stress Exercise Relationship
Today’s society has
bombarded individuals with hectic schedules and increased stress levels. The
purpose of this study was to examine if there is a direct correlation between college student’s stress
levels and their physical activity levels. The hypothesis was that those individuals who partake in moderate
physical activity most days of the week will have lower stress levels then those who do not. Method: This
study will survey students from eight of the top majors at a small college in the Rocky Mountains through
various questions on both stress and activity levels. Twenty five surveys were handed out in the following
majors: Exercise and Sport Science, Recreation and Outdoor Leadership, Environmental Studies, Art, Business, Biology, and Psychology (N=200). Data compared and contrasted through percentiles to determine if a relationship exists between stress and physical activity levels. Results: (Still in progress).
61. Gravley , Hollan. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Comparative Analysis of Burnout among College Wrestlers
The purpose of this
study is to compare the levels of burnout in current college wrestlers and
wrestlers, ages 18-25 at a small division II college in the Rocky Mountains. The subjects for the study will be approximately 30 current wrestlers and 30 wrestlers who have left the team. Burnout will be measured for three separate variables; emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and devaluation.
62. Haughwout, Annika. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Mileage and Performance : Motivation:
The motivation for this
study was to analyze training volume in relation to performance times and from
that distinguish optimal training for distance runners. Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between mileage and performance in distance runners assessing other factors that go into one’s training load.
Methods: Data was collected through questionnaires that members of a small division two cross country team, and ten post collegiate athletes completed. The questionnaire looked at training volume, injury history,
and performance times. Results: Results will be posted soon.
63. Henaghan, John. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. An Outdoor Recreational Program and Lifetime Wellness:
The purpose of this
study was to investigate an outdoor program and to find out if it can promote
wellness. Methods: The participants in this study are alumni from a high school outdoor recreation program.
The age of the participants ranged from 18-35 years old. Both males and females participated. Participants
were given a qualitative survey that analyzes physical activity and lifetime wellness through outdoor recreation. The survey consists of open-ended and closed questions. Results: In progress.
64. Keeling, Shawn. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Type II Diabetes: A Worldwide Epidemic
The purpose of this
study was to perform a thorough investigation and analysis of scholarly peer
research articles to hypothesize about exercise and nutritional considerations that will help reduce the
symptoms or prevent Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2D). This study is non-experimental so the methods will
involve an investigation of prior relevant research and an interview group of 5 T2D diagnosed patients. It is
hypothesized that people with T2D or at high risk will benefit from exercise and a proper diet while bettering
physiological (internally and externally) and mental aspects. The results are still in progress.
65. Lokie, Benjamin. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. How different types of exercise at different intensity levels effect a 42 year old male with type 1 diabetes:
is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes, nor is it believed to be preventable.
However, there is present
research in ESS focused on specific benefits of certain types of exercise at various intensity levels in type 1 diabetics.
In this case study of a 42 year old male with type 1 diabetes the participant was involved in both aerobic and
resistance training at various intensity levels. Two different intensity levels of 150 watts and 250 watts were
performed on a cycle for the aerobic training. Two different intensity levels of 60% and 80% of 1 repetition max
(1RM) were performed for the resistance training. The participant’s insulin doses and BGL’s were monitored
throughout each training session and reviewed for possible correlations. The results were interesting but
difficult to generalize due to small sample size.
66. Miller, Michelle. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Exercise and Nutrition:
this day and age it can be overwhelming to answer the question, what should I
eat? There is so much to know and earn
about nutrition and what we should consume based on our activity levels that it
can become very difficult to
answer such a simple question. The purpose of this project is to examine how nutrition and exercise work together
in order to provide optimal levels of performance for our bodies. By examining the three macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins and fats and how they work in the body, we can clearly understand the fundamentals of what we eat and why in order to achieve the highest levels of performance.
67. Moore, Sanja. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Why Physcial Education and Activity is Important to Todays' Youth
The purpose of this
study is to look at the relationship between academics, obesity, physical
and physical activity. An interview was administered to seven physical education teachers within District
51 in Grand Junction, Colorado. All physical education teachers were asked a series of 11 questions that
focused on how physical education and activity can help students perform better and also how physical
education and activity can help fix the obesity epidemic. Questions were compared to the literature to
find links between physical education and activity. The hypothesis of this study is that physical activity
has more of an impact on childhood obesity and academics, whereas physical education can have little
to no impact in these two areas.
68. McMahill, Donovan. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Mental Toughness:
Development and Maintenance in Collegiate Athletes:
toughness is a concept that has been paired with successful performance in
athletics. The relationship
between mental toughness and success motivates athletes of nearly all levels to gain a better understanding of
this concept. This study approached four NCAA Division II collegiate athletes to investigate what mental toughness
was in their individual experience as well as which factors facilitated the development and maintenance of mental
toughness throughout their collegiate career. This was done through a phenomenological interview process similar
to the process done by Dale (1996). The results of this study will be compiled by the end of November.
69. Sanders, Cody. Exercise and Sport Science. Anna Swisher. The Relationship Performance Between High Jump and Vertical Jump:
The high jump is thought
to be immediately related to the vertical jump test because in both, the
attempts to jump as high as possible. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship
between vertical jump height and a high jumper’s personal record height. Ten high jump subjects were
chosen from a small division II school’s track and field team. All subjects participated in four different
types of vertical jumps on a jump mat and a Vertec system. The tests performed were static jumps with
the use of arms/no arms, and countermovement jumps with the use of arms/no arms. Subject’s personal
records were ranked by the 2008 IAAF.org scoring table. Scores from that and the vertical jump heights
will be compared and analyzed. The vertical jump tests and the process of analyzing the data is still in
progress so the results have not yet been concluded.
70. Maxcy, Andrew. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Benefits of A CrossFit Workout Program with Firefighters
analyze the benefits of implementing a CrossFit workout program as a part of
firefighter training and physical upkeep. Firefighters
volunteered for the study and were picked at random. The firefighters were to
go through the local firefighter's
fitness test which consists of a two minute pushup and sit up test to be done
at tempo as well as a
Gerkin protocol treadmill test to predict VO2 max. The subjects were familiarized with CrossFit before completing
any workouts. They performed CrossFit workouts for five weeks and repeated the initial firefighter fitness test.
The test results from the initial physical fitness test and the final fitness test were analyzed and compared.
71. Harms, Jamilyn. Honors. Heather Theissen-Reily. Pursuing Prosperity:
New World dictionary defines prosperity as “a successful, flourishing, or
thriving condition.” However,
what does this definition mean for the individual and his or her life? We posed this question in the quiet streets of
Gunnison, in the diverse cities of Chicago and New York, and in the slums of the Philippines. Individuals in different
regions, with different religions, backgrounds, and races reveal similar ideas of a prosperous life. This project explores
the concept of prosperity, starting with the early philosophers and moving to modern day thought. How does the
human being define a prosperous life? Is there a universal and timeless definition or does the definition of prosperity differ by place and time?
72. Nikki De Rosia, Calli DeRuby, Rebecca Doll, Max Lindsey, Brandon Montoya, Sarah rodriguez. Honors. Heather Theissen-Reily. I Sing the Body Eclectic:Understanding the Influences of Body Modification:
project explores the reasons and effects of body modification through time and
culture. The information used
in the project was gathered from research, interviews, and observation from multiple sources including Gunnison
Valley and the Western Slope. Students studied body modification including; how it has been observed throughout
history and locality as a means of communication, aesthetic expression, ritualistic socialization, and as a passage
within culture. Students investigated the legal and ethical issues associated with running a business of body
modification through interviews and observations of local tattoo shops. In addition, multiple employers from
around the Gunnison Valley were interviewed regarding hiring policies concerning tattoos and piercings.
In examining the aforementioned areas of study associated with body modification, the students gained a
much broader understanding of body modification and the role it plays in society today.
73. De Rosia, Nikki and Sarah Rodriguez. Honors. Heather Theissen-Reily. I Sing the Body Eclectic; Tatoos as Social and Artistic Expression
when people are asked why they get tattoos, they respond that they did it for
tattoos are also a form of art and art gains meaning from society. So despite seeming intensely personal, tattoos
will often reveal more about an individual’s relationship with society than simply being a reflection of individual
choice. As a form of artistic expression, tattoos also are a reflection of the vision of the tattoo artist as much as that
of the person getting the tattoo. Tattoos are a way of expressing society’s forces on individuals and art is a reflection
of these forces. As tattooing has become more accepted as an art form it has also become a more recognizable social
expression. All of this culminates in meaning that tattoos are equivalent to art, which is equivalent to social expression.
74. Boucher, Rikki, Rene Haro Sipes, Michael Howard, Brad Stanfield. Political Science, Maria Struble. Poverty reduction and natural resource dependency
problem of poverty is broad and overlays many issues. We find the issue of the
paradox that exists
between the abundance of natural resources and the sever poverty inside of countries to be the most striking.
Nigeria provides a very obvious example of this problem. We believe the disconnect between natural resources
and the wealth for citizens exists in three main areas; one the lack of diversification that arises from focusing on
one natural resource, two the lack of democracy and therefore lack of consideration for the people and three is
the clientelism that limits the distribution of resources.
75. Lindholm, Aurora, Adam Nickerson, Andrew Hannon and Christian Schwiegerath. Political Science, Maria Struble. Moving away from coal - Brazil and the USA:
will look at the ways in which Brazil and the United States are attempting to
ensure environmental sustainability,
especially when it comes to coal usage. The United States and Brazil are two of the top coal consumers in the
Western hemisphere. Global warming debate and the attempt by world governments to curb their green house
emissions is cause for the two countries to look for sustainable energy resources. Brazil is the second leading
producer of ethanol in the world and the United States produces both solar and wind energy. We will focus on the
shift in energy production from coal to other, alternative resources by researching clean coal, wind, solar, and biofuel
policies that both countries have put into place. We will also compare and contrast the effectiveness and efforts of
both countries in moving away from mass coal consumption.
76. Nash, Brett, Scott Stuller, Ashley Stephens and Colton Volpe. Political Science, Maria Struble. AIDS: South Africa and the United States:
In 2008 there were roughly 1.4 million aids deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa and 22 million living with the diseases. South Africa alone has an infection rate of 10.9% of the population in 2008, while the United States had an infection rate of less than one percent of the population. We are going to show in this presentation that the United States has lower infection rates of AIDS than South Africa because of differences in the way they treat and prevent the disease. Differences such as access to lifesaving drugs and better sex education have led to the United States have fewer infections and deaths from HIV/AIDS. This is an important issue because if we have a better understanding of why the disease is so rampant in some countries while not in others we may gain a better understanding of how to fight the disease.
77. Stephenson, Charles, Chris Berry, Brandon Dorr, Robert Payton, Chase Berman. Political Science, Maria Struble. Mexico's drug war and legal futures:
the last four years approximately 28,000 people have died from the war on drugs
in Mexico. Considering the poor
stability of the Mexican economy, and a lack of stable government institutions, could the legalization of marijuana
potentially stabilize Mexico and bring economic prosperity? We will investigate whether the legality of medicinal
marijuana would lower or raise the crime rate in Mexico and the United States by examining previous data and
looking at any economic benefits available for the drug lords converting to a legal medicinal marijuana trade. We expect to find that the rate of violent crimes might decrease while simultaneously, the economy will prosper with
legalization of medicinal marijuana and trade agreements between countries. While this could possibly raise
tensions and cause more violence, the high demand vs. inadequate supply could make for a successful international
export, while also boosting tourism.
78. Dunlap, Andrew , Sam Johnson, Skylar Johnson, Courtney Myer, Alexis Miller. Political Science, Maria Struble. Empowering women through grassroots action:
We examine gender
equality by arguing that developed nations must be held accountable for
resources towards the advancement of gender equality. We look at Development Alternatives with Women
for a New Era (DAWN) and their work with the United Nations. We also look at Diverse Women for
Diversity and their role in providing for the basic physical needs of women in developing nations. By
investigating the efforts of Central Asia Institute (CAI) we investigate a program that provides the tools
of education to individual women to be applied in their own rural communities. Finally, we look at the
Micro Credit Summit Campaign which focuses on generating small loans for women through first world
funding. We hope to show how equality must first be thought possible in the minds of both women and men
and then enforced in a nurturing public arena before it can be achieved through financial means.
79. Pearce, Melissa, Jessica Barton, Nelsa Burkett and Alexander Hart. Political Science, Maria Struble. Rwanda and DRC: Achieving Universal Primary Education in the Midst of Violence
the last twenty years violence has plagued various African nations. Rwanda
experienced genocide in 1994 l
eaving 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus dead in 100 days. In the years after, Rwanda has made education
a number one goal because it is seen as a way to prevent another genocide. In contrast, the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, has experienced a history that has been violent and tumultuous, making education
difficult to sustain. This project looks at both countries’ progress in achieving the United Nations Millennium
Development Goal of universal primary education by 2015 by comparing Rwanda and the Democratic
Republic of the Congo in their efforts to achieve this goal despite the violence that each country has experienced.
We will compare data from 1990 to the present to track the (lack) progress in achieving the goal.
80. Barber, William Todd. Psychology, Roger Drake. Social Skills Interventions for Autistic Children
paper examines the different methods and techniques used to enhance the social
and personal life of
Autistic children. Many techniques have been formed such as video modeling, peer response training, art
therapy, and other creative modern methods. I will also discuss the use of the role of education and the IEP
on how to enhance Autistic children's social lives.
81. Lujan, Aaron, Nicole Poleman, Adam Nickerson. Science, Robin Bingham. Effects of sugar and salt on Brassica rapa:
The reason for doing this product was to
determine what happens to plants alongside the edge of the road when
they are salted in the winter and to figure out the effects in the spring. We used Brassica rapa for our experiment
and we added salt, sugar, and a combination of both sugar and salt for the plants. We also used a control group
to compare the plants with additives to. Our hypothesis was that the plants grown with additives would be smaller
and less developed than the control plants. Our results refused our hypothesis.
82. Havens, Lorren, Kali Kempeks, Olivia Jedlicka, Emily Schmid. Science, Robin Bingham. Comparing Growth of Brassica rapa Grown in a Greenhouse Versus Under Artificial Light:
compared the growth of Brassica rapa in a greenhouse to under constant light.
We measured the height over
two weeks and the second week we measured the biomass , the number of leaves and the width of each leaf.
From our results we found that the plants under the artificial light grew the fastest.
83. Guynn, Tara Spenser Li, Shawn Clapper, Cassie Rebeck. Science, Robin Bingham. A Study of the Effects of Fertilizer on the Brassica rapa Plant:
study was based on the effects of fertilizer on the growth of the Brassica rapa
plant (also known as the Wisconsin
Fast Plant). Our lab group hypothesized that the addition of fertilizer will affect the plant growth. We then predicted
that the addition of the recommended amount of fertilizer pellets would foster optimal plant growth. To challenge this, we had groups with no fertilizer, one, three and five beads. However, three fertilizer beads yielded the shortest leaves and the shortest plant after week one. After week two, three beads still grew the shortest plant. In none of our experiments throughout the two weeks did three beads of fertilizer yield to the highest growth rate in length of leaf, number of leaves, and height of plant. Our hypothesis was not supported by the data, however, based on the rest of our data, we concluded that one bead of fertilizer should be planted to achieve the highest growth rate.
84. Phillips, Alyse, Evan Simmons, Alex Winter. Science, Robin Bingham. Effect of Red Bull, Gatorade, and Tap Water on the growth of Brassica rapa:
Brassica rapa, also known as field mustard, was the subject of our experiment.
By planting six seeds, with
three fertilizer beads per seed, in three different trays we were able to test the effects of Red Bull, Gatorade,
and tap water on Brassica rapa. We hypothesized that the plants given Red Bull would not grow; the plants
given Gatorade would grow, but show more slowly than the plants given tap water. All the plants were given
a controlled amount of water, but at 7 and 14 days the trays were given a three drop dose of their given
treatment. Measurements for height, width of largest leaf, and number of leaves were taken at 7, 14, and
16 days. At 16 days the plants were cut, and at 21 days weighed. All measurements, after the initial seven
days, support our hypothesis. The plants given Red Bull and Gatorade grew, but were not as healthy.
85. Simpson, Mary Virginia, Caitlin Walker, Cara Walderman, Sunniva Precilia. Science, Robin Bingham. Height difference of Brassica rapa grown under colored light filters:
investigated the effect of green, red, and clear filters on plant growth over a
3 week period. Brassica rapa
plants were grown six in each pot. Each pot used different filter for light. A correlation between plant height
(Figure 2) and different color filter was found . The plants under the clear filter grew to a higher average height
than the plants under the red and green filter. Although the red plants didn’t grow as tall as the clear filter plants,
there was a significant difference of growth than the green plants.
86. Tredway, Rachel. Science, Robin Bingham. Growth of the Brassica rapa in Different Types of Soil Found in the Gunnison Basin:
thought that the control soil would yield the greatest results; of the soil we
collected we believed that the
front yard soil would obtain the greatest results. We tested this hypothesis by introducing the seeds to different
soil types for sixteen days. We found that our hypothesis was both correct and incorrect.