Spring 2012 Poster Presentations

WSCU Celebration of Scholarship Undergraduate Research Symposium

Thursday, April 19, 2012, College Center Ballroom


9:00 a.m. - 12:15 p.m. Poster set up

12:30 p.m. Introduction and opening remarks

12:30 p.m.- 2:30 p.m. Poster Presentations (Posters will remain up and available for viewing after the formal poster presentation from 2:00-5:00)

The posters are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the submitting author. The discipline and supervising instructor are listed after the authors. Because a central goal of the event is to explore the practices of communication and critical inquiry across disciplines in the tradition of the liberal arts, the disciplines and course levels (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) are intentionally mixed.  We hope this encourages cross disciplinary interactions as well as providing opportunities for cross class communication and role modeling. Where a poster is part of a specific course project the course number is indicated at the end of the abstract. 

1. Abbott, Ryan Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Trampling Effects on Lithic Artifact Edges

This study will examine the differences in retouched flakes and flakes that have been trampled. The differences between retouches and trampling effects will be examined macroscopically and microscopically and will be compared between three different types of raw material; obsidian, chert, and quartzite. My hypothesis is that obsidian will flake more easily than chert and chert more easily than quartzite when trampled on by human activity. To better identify which micro-flakes belong to what original flake, they will be painted different colors before trampled. After trampled, each flake will be compared to a retouched control flake made from the same raw material. This study will help lithic analysts better understand the differences between retouched flakes and flakes that have been trampled in the field macroscopically, and in the lab by examining certain variables and seeing differences under a microscope. ANTH 218

2. Ahlstrom, Timothy and Courtney Bell. Recreation of Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Helping Sustain a Sustainer

In an effort to assist one of the local champions of reduce, re-use, recycle in maintaining their long-term wellbeing, our project focused on reducing problems suffered by the local Thrift Store operated by Six Points. We implemented several programs designed to minimize the burden of transporting excess and unsellable goods off the property and to advance re-use and recycling programs. Our project shows the results for three SMART goals developed to rectify this situation. Goal #1: Find places to accept excess or unusable goods. Goal #2: Find ways to finance removal or transport of these goods. Goal #3: Create a program that is practical for other students to support and enhance in the future. ROE 491

3. Andenucio, Angelina. Exercise Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Athletes preferred qualities of the Coach-Athlete Relationship: A Qualitative Investigation

Coach-athlete relationships have been widely studied within sport psychology (Chelladurai, 1978; Chelladurai & Saleh, 1978, 1980; Greenleaf, Gould, & Dieffenbach, 2001; Jowett & Meek, 2000; Molnar, 2002; Riemer & Chelladurai, 1995; Smith, Smoll, & Hunt, 1977; Vernacchia, McGuire, Reardon, & Templin, 2000). However, more information regarding the athlete’s view of the coach-athlete dyad is needed. The study attempted to gain a better understanding of the preferred coach-athlete relationship by female Division II or Junior College female basketball players. A total of 3 former Division II and Junior College female basketball players took part in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were analyzed following Merriam (2001). The purpose of this study is to gain the knowledge of the preferred coach-athlete relationship regarding communication, motivation, and coaching styles (autocratic, democratic, or both). In addition, the results of this study will provide more insight as to the qualities athletes prefer in a coach-athlete relationship. ROE 491

4. Anglin, Will. Exercise Sport Science. Scott Drum, Brooke Moran. Running Economy Load Study

Humans have been covering long distances on foot for millennia. Recently however, the sport of ultra-running has seen an explosion in popularity, with over 200 events scheduled nation-wide in 2012. When covering long distances (27-2,000+ miles), sometimes over multiple days, participants need to carry food and water to properly fuel the body. In order to maximize race performance over long distances, it is necessary to investigate the physiological and psychological responses of load carrying. This study analyzed the effects of load carrying during extended endurance races in order to develop strategies to optimize running economy during competition. ESS 495

5. Barbour, Corrie. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Crested Butte: the Ever Changing Spirit of a Town

Crested Butte, Colorado, is a small mountain town with a history representing many cultural and social changes that have shaped the town and its people. Using primarily oral histories I will document Crested Butte’s rise as a mining town, the town’s decline and the threat of becoming a ghost town, and finally the rise of the town’s ski industry and its transition into a tourist destination. This study will evaluate these cultural transitions and how they have affected the citizens of Crested Butte for generations. It is important to understand these changes that have occurred through the eyes of the people that experienced them, and to know the stories of families who have lived in the area throughout these different cultural shifts. Oral history is an important tool for documenting the past; understanding the past is what allows us to fully comprehend the present and our own histories. ROE 491

6. Bass, Colin. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Great Pacific Garbage Problem

When some Americans throw trash out of the car window, they are not conscience of where that trash may go. That trash will hopefully be picked up by somebody else but much of it gets washed into sewer drains and eventually into the ocean. Once the piece of trash enters the ocean it is picked up an ocean gyre. After couple of weeks of traveling, if the piece of trash is in the Pacific Ocean, it will reach its other trash friends in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. This issue of the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” is one that cannot be ignored any longer. With the accumulation of this trash in the pacific gyre these products do not biodegrade but they “photodegrade”. This means that the plastic does not disintegrate but just breaks down into its original form of nurdles, tiny pellets of plastic. Aquatic animals consume the nurdles and the plastics bio accumulate from species to species as they eat each other. These nurdles carry PCB’s and other toxins that people are ingesting through the consumption of aquatic animals and are showing up in mother’s breast milk. Who is responsible for the garbage patch in the Pacific Ocean if the trash is in international waters? ENVS 360

7. Bell, Courtney. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer. Interpretive Hike of Walrod Gulch Trails

The Gunnison and Crested Butte area is full of history that not many people know about. We are also blessed with having amazing terrain that allows for a variety of recreational opportunities. For this reason I chose to create a pamphlet guided tour of the Walrod Gulch trails off of Cement Creek Rd. in C.B. South. This tour allows individuals to enjoy the beauty of the area while taking a moderate hike up above the caves and across the ridge. During the hike individuals will be able to learn some historical facts of the area, learn about the different geographical features presented, discover an array of recreational opportunities and see the beauty that makes up the valley we live in. ROE 230

8. Berg, Rachel. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Theories of evolution and creationism: a survey of individuals’ perspectives 

An anthropological perspective demonstrates that all cultures base their lives on a belief system. Scientists date the earth to be 13 billion years old; yet Biblical scholars who have counted years and characters’ ages from the Bible have reached the conclusion that the world is between 5,700 to 10,000 years old. Religious adherents claim that God created the world in seven days, yet others claim that one day to God might be symbolic of a million geological years. This paper addresses whether the two theories of evolution and creationism can be combined in an individual’s belief system. In order to address this topic, a questionnaire was created and administered to examine a cross-section of people’s opinions, and this data will be reported in the poster. Previous studies conducted by anthropology majors researched this topic; my poster will address a more in-depth look at how particular individuals view this topic, and will thus advance this study on the Western State campus. ANTH 465

9. Bestor, Nick. Exercise Sport Science. Scott Drum. Percieved Recovery post exericse

Objective- The Aim of this study is to determine the effects popular sports drinks have on the rate of perceived recovery on non-regular exercisers.Methods-8 non regular exercisers, 4 male and 4 female college aged students (with the mean age being 22.4) performed 5 25 minute cardiovascular sessions then consumed one of 5 popular sports drinks. (Whey protein, Gatorade, Crystal light, Red Bull, or Water). The subjects were then asked to fill out surveys regarding their level of perceived exertion throughout the experience.Conclusion- It is important to study the what impact the above mentioned sports drinks have on an individual post exercise. If we know what drink makes an individual feel recovered the fastest, then we can encourage other non-exercisers to consume the drink post exercise, thus increasing the likely hood of them continuing to exercise in the future.  ESS 495

10. Bevers, Sam, Joshua Lampere, Jacob Davis and Robert Kato. Biology. Robin Bingham. Success of Two Genotypes of Brassica Rapa Under Differing Light Intensities

This experiment examined the genetic success of two genotypes of Brassica rapa, a plant similar to the crop canola. Our experiment group was half-composed of plants with resistance to the herbicide atrazine, and the other half without. The experiment itself was to compare how successful the plants would be under varying light conditions, by comparing average height, stem diameter, and dry biomass of the plants. Half of each of the resistant and susceptible plant samples would be placed under six bulb light and the others under three bulbs. 48 plants were measured in total, 12 of each genotype under each light condition. The plants were allowed to develop to maturity before data collection We hypothesized that the plants with resistance would be less successful under both conditions. The results did not support our hypothesis: under higher light conditions, the susceptible plants did better; under lower conditions, the resistant plants did better. BIOL 151

11. Blair, Emily. Exercise Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The Effect of the Physical Therapy and Patient Relationship on Adherence to Physical Therapy Programs

The aim of this study was to explore how the physical therapist-patient relationship can affect patient’s adherence to their rehab program. Previous studies have focused on longitudinal continuity, the physical therapist-patient relationship, and overall satisfaction (Baker et al, 2003; Hall, Ferreira, Maher, Latimer, & Ferreira, 2010; & Goldstein, Elliott, & Guccione, 2010). Fifteen participants will fill out a questionnaire that concerns how a physical therapist reacts to their individual patients and if the patient is comfortable in the therapy setting. The data will be analyzed using the Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient and themes will emerge from the open-ended questions. The results will show patients’ likes and dislikes in the physical therapist-patient relationship and provide suggestions for improvement from the PT. The physical therapist-patient relationship is important to look at because if a patient will not adhere to their rehab program, the injured area will not get better. ESS 495

12. Bott, Seth. Environmental Studies. Jerffrey Sellen. Effects of Developed Countries on Agriculture in Developing Countries

As world popultaion grows, along with the gap between the rich and the poor food production become a pressing issue on a global scale. Developed countires have begun to turn to developing countries for some of thier food production. This has changed the agricutural make up in developing countries. through my research I will look how these changes have effected the people of these developing countries for the better or worse. ENVA 360

13. Brugger, Blyth. Biology. Lynn Cudlip. How Do Coffee Grounds Affect Plant Growth?

The purpose of my study is to determine if the addition of coffee grounds enhances the growing process of the plant Brassica rapa. I brewed Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee grounds and combined them in equal parts with the potting soil to determine weather or not the caffeine has an affect on the growing process of the plant Brassica rapa. Hypothesis: If you add caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee grounds to a plants soil from the start of growing the plant’s the growth, the rate will not increase depending on weather it is caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee grounds the growth rate will be the same. Methods: 12 Brassica rapa plant’s grown in 3 different treatments, there will be a Control, Caffeinated Grounds, Decaffeinated Grounds, Same H2O and light amounts, Measure height at the end of 20 day’s. BIOL 135

14. Clapper, Shawn and Karey Bentz. Biology. Randall Spydell. An Examination of Current Preventative meauses to Stop Zebra Mussel Contamination in Blue Mesa Reservoir

Traveling pests are never welcomed, especially when they begin to threaten the pre-existing species native to the area and cause costly damages. Gunnison Colorado is in no way exempt from invading species. Although there are specialized management forces to help stop these invaders, the threat still remains. Zebra mussels have been confirmed in Colorado water since 2008. The intentions of this project are to examine the effects of the Zebra mussel as well as discuss the preventative measures taken to thwart this attacker and if they are preventing contamination in the Blue Mesa Reservoir. BIOL 135

15. Cole, Travis. Exercise Sport Science. Ashwin Patel and Scott Drum. Aerobic Performance and the Affect of Music as a Motivator

Music has always been part of training and exercise. Any gym that you walk into has music playing or the people in the gym have their own music they listen to during a workout. In addition, many group fitness classes at gyms are now choreographed to music. But what kind of music gives the greatest edge on aerobic performance? Lucuccini and Kreit (1972) and Karageorghis and Terry (1997) looked into how synchronous music helps anaerobic performance. Other studies have shown that the beats per minute, favorite artists, and genres show an increase in exercise performance. The purpose of this study is to find out which genre of music will give exercisers an aerobic edge. Four subjects will be tested using a 5 kilometer all-out test on a treadmill. The results of this study will provide a better understanding of what kind of music helps an individual’s exercise performance. ESS 495

16. Coleman, Lia, James Rogers and Rebecca Feigenbaum. Political Science. Maria Struble. Education and Poverty in Africa

This paper will look at the role of education in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. Universally, education is used as a means to lift societies out of poverty. Although the returns from education are statistically ‘lower,’ the argument will be made that actual returns over extended periods of time are much higher, especially for those who have access to higher levels of education. With these aspects in mind, this paper will take a look into specific research findings. These will include: how education in Uganda and Ghana plays important roles for citizens to gain employment? On the other hand, in South Africa the issue is simply the lack of access to employment. The result for the poor states is, although education is encouraged, it is often only accessible to urban sectors. Specific implications of policies in Africa must address key problems in order to come to a clear solution. POLS 260

17. Coleman, Heather, Lane Kersin, Grace Erikson and Cory Ranburger. Political Science. Maria Struble. Being a minority women in Europe

This paper will look at the ways in which minorities are being excluded from the Millennium Development Goals in Turkey and Romania. Every country contains a minority: whether it is an ethnic, racial, or religious minority. This paper will look at the Romani women and the Kurdish as two minorities who are not benefiting from the Millennium Development Goals as much as the rest of the women in their countries. These minorities have been discriminated against for centuries, once for being women and then for being of a minor ethnic group. In Turkey, the Kurdish population is not even officially recognized as a minority by the Turkish government. This paper will attempt to prove that the governments are not trying to help their minority populations like they should, and are more focused on the vast majority of their Romanian and Turkish populations. POLS 260

18. Conrad, Callie. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Flakes vs Hooves: Trampling

The hypothesis for this project is that through three trials of different animals walking on flakes, the damage produced will imitate a retouched flake edge. I first have to contact a Gunnison local who has three different species of animals that I can use to walk on the flakes. 75 same general size flakes of obsidian will be produced, weighed individually, and recorded. I will then spray paint all the flakes completely a bright orange, let them dry, and then divided into three groups of 25. I hope to measure of a pen around 30 yards by 30 yards. Using 25 of the flakes I will disperse them around the pen. On type of animal will be put into the pen at a time, and left for 1 hour to walk around and hopefully do some damage to the flakes. After the hour is up the animals will be removed from the pen, and the flakes will be gathered up and set aside for later evaluation. This process will be repeated for each group of livestock. Once this has been completed, each group of flakes will be analyzed, to see how many flakes were removed by each type of animal. ANTH

19. Craigo, Augustus. Exercise Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Factors That Effect Attendance at a Small Division II Institution

Sport organizations (both professional and collegiate) are always looking at ways to increase attendance at home sporting events. This is particularly important at small Division II institutions (DeSchriver & Jensen, 2002) where additional funds are crucial to an athletic departments’ limited budget. 14 Athletic Directors all representing the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference filled out a 13-item questionnaire in an attempt to better understand: a) reasons for highest and lowest attendance, b) whether brainstorming takes place to increase attendance, and c) the role of social media to better reach the potential/current fan base. Promotions (via social networking) and large events such as homecoming were linked to most schools highest attendance, while school vacation breaks were reasons for lower attendance. All information is critical to the attendance factors that effect each institution while further information might be gathered to gain better understanding of the research. ESS 495

20. Degenstein, Alexandrea. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Changes in Sagebrushcover in the Gunnison Basin, 1995 t0 2012

In 1992, the Gunnison Basin Habitat Protection Program (HPP) began inventorying vegetation cover in the Gunnison Basin with over 1,300 permanent transects to provide information used for land management decisions. In this study, I relocated three transects and used seven transects previously sampled in November 2011 to investigate changes in sagebrush cover since 1995, when these transects were established. I did this by taking line intercept data of the sagebrush cover and taking new photographs of the sites. Analysis was done on the line intercept data and new photographs were compared to the photographs taken in 1995. I intend to interpret the data and determine if there is statistical evidence of change in the sagebrush vegetation. As sample size is small compared to how many sagebrush transects are existent, I encourage further resampling of the other permanent transects to analyze the vegetation dynamics of the sagebrush. ENVS 390


21. Dobbs, Michelle. Exercise Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The Effects of Playing at Altitude for NCAA Division II Female Basketball Players

Previous research on the effects of competing at altitude on athlete’s mental state has been limited in its scope and focus (e.g., extreme sports). To date, there is no current literature focusing on the effects of altitude on female basketball players competing in Division II. The purpose of this study was to interview female basketball players who compete at WSC, the highest collegiate gym in the world. Specifically, the primary researcher was interested in learning more about the role that altitude played on their performance psychologically. A semi-structure interview was conducted with 5 RMAC female basketball players. Interviews were analyzed following Bryman (2004). The results of the study will provide greater insight as to how altitude affects the mindset of female basketball players. ESS 495

22. Dooley, Michael. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Revisiting: Tuckman and Jensen’s “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups” (1977)

Group development remains an essential part of any team and theories have been utilized by outdoor educators, sports coaches, military personnel, and business executives to aid in group facilitation. Tuckman and Jensen (1977) claim the existence of the “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups” which incorporates forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. However, this developmental model for small groups has not adequately addressed the effects individuals have on the group. This qualitative research study investigated the role of individuals and the potential existence of other stages not identified in Tuckman and Jensen’s “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups” (1977). Initial findings suggest that a conforming stage, specific to individuals within the group, may exist between the stages of storming and norming. ROE 491

23. Duff, Tanner. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Sustainable Methods and the Outdoor Retailer

One of the most notable transformations of the past decade has been the rise in concern over environmental and social impacts caused by individuals and organizations. This has lead towards the idea of sustainability and its practice becoming intertwined into businesses. Sustainability has become a common theme within the outdoor industry, and sustainable ideas and practices are occupying every aspect of this industry. The driving force within the outdoor industry is the consumer, and their purchasing and buying behavior. Thus the outdoor retailer, the place which provides the consumer with purchasing choices and opportunities, has run into a pivotal question; how does a business operate to meet the needs of their consumers and the environment, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs? ROE 491

24. Dunbar, Kurtis. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The perceived psychological factors that contribute to the phenomenon of “home choke” in Division II football players

Previous studies have investigated the theory of “home choke” in sport (Schlenker, Phillips, Schlenker, & Boniecki, 1995; Tauer, Guenther, & Rozek, 2009). While these researchers have used statistical analysis to examine “home choke”, no research has attempted to better understand athletes’ perceptions and experiences on this topic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceived psychological factors that contribute to the phenomenon of “home choke” in Division II football players. Eight randomly selected football players from an RMAC school filled out the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) (Martens, Vealey, & Burton,1990) and participated in a phenomenological style interview. The combination of the CSAI-2 and interview addressed the cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence experienced by the athlete prior to competing at home. The results of this study will provide information to coaches and athletes on how to avoid choking at home. ROE 495

25. Elder, Caitlin and Konash Lucas. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Relationship between flow regime and algal blooms on the lower Tomichi Creek

Tomichi Creek was deemed an impaired stream and its biocriteria are barely meeting state standards. For this study we intend to quantify the abundance of algae in relation to flow in Tomichi Creek. We sampled 20 sites along this section of Tomichi Creek. At each site, three cross stream transects were established. Each cross stream transect was 10 m apart. Along each transect, three equidistant sampling sites were selected. Algal percent-cover was observed and recorded. We intend to correlate our data with the water quality assessment done by Dr. Kevin Alexander in spring 2011. A total average of percent-cover will be calculated at each site. Our results will be included showing any relationships between flow regime and algal growth between our data collected and Dr. Kevin Alexander’s study. This research will establish a stronger foundation in management standards on Tomichi Creek. ENVS 390

26. Ensley, Hannah, Kyla Taylor, Will Brunner and Jimi Averil. Biology. Robin Bingham. Effects of atrazine on brassica rapa plants, ability to acclimate to different temperatures

Brassica rapa is a mustard plant known for its ease of growing and maintaining. This experiment was aimed to add more understanding to the effects of Atrazine on these types of plants, temperature acclimation ability in particular. Twelve B. rapa’s were planted (six Atrazine-resistant and six Atrazine-susceptible) were planted at room temperature, 32.2⁰C, and 10⁰C – making for a total of 36 plants. Once the plants were matured, data was collected the heights and biomasses. It was concluded that our hypothesis, that non-resistant plants would grow better, was not supported. There was no significant difference amongst the groups of plants. BIOL 151

27. Espinoza, Erika. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Sleep habits and their effect on the performance of Division II women basketball players

While there is a significant amount of research reporting the importance of sleep (Savis, 1994; Lucas, et. al., 2009; Erlacher et al., 2011) in the general population and collegiate athletes, there has been little research on the optimal amount of sleep for best performance in collegiate basketball athletes. Clearly, more information is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to interview female student-athletes to better understand how much sleep schedules, specifically napping, is necessary for optimal performance on the court. The participants will consist of seven Division II women basketball players whose ages range from 19 to 23 years old with a collegiate experience range from 1 to 4 years. Interviews were sent via email for the participants to answer at their leisure. Subjective qualitative analysis will provide greater insight as to how napping effects individual optimal zones of performance. ESS 495

28. Ewing, Gaia. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Great Stones of Fire

In this project I explore thermal alteration on lithic materials. Using three different materials commonly found in the archaeological record, and a muffle oven I will demonstrate the effects of heat on the materials. Samples of chert, obsidian, and quartzite will be heated at 200, 400, 600, and 800 degrees for one hour. The samples will then be examined for evidence of crazing, pot lidding, and any other noticeable change. The results will be able to help archaeologists better understand the effects of thermal alteration on materials found in the archaeological record. ANTH 366

29. Fini, Peter, Steven Gustafson, Mathew Rosso and Benjamin Cobbett. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. Online Advertising Effectiveness for Gunnison and Crested Butte

Stakeholders increasingly demand to see the effectiveness/ROIs of advertising channels used in marketing. The Gunnison-Crested Butte Tourism Association (GCBTA) spends majority of its budget on marketing campaigns and needs to show effectiveness to its constituents. The purpose of this project is to determine effectiveness ofonline advertising intourism. Based on secondary literature, authors hypothesize that online advertisingshows positive ROI. With peer focus-groups, expert review, and industry client reviewvalidate the questionnaire as well as exploratory and causal type of research. The final questionnaire includesmostly closed-ended questions and an introduction for informed consent. Plone has been used to collect and format online datafor descriptive analysis. GCBTA provides the sample-frame of 9266 names of online readers requesting brochures in 2011 of which500 persons will be surveyed. Tests for causal relationships use simple regression modeling; the results expectto support the hypothesis that online advertising shows positive ROI. BUAD 425

30. Fleming, Jamie, Danielle Trogen, Timothy Walis, Adam Bruns and Tanner Etie. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. AAA Magazine Advertising Effectiveness

Contributors to the Gunnison Crested Butte Tourism Association would like to know the effectiveness and ROI of its marketing endeavors. The purpose of this marketing research project is to determine success of advertising campaigns in AAA magazine. The need for this study originates from the lack of information about effectiveness of advertising in AAA magazine. The authors hypothesize given literature review and survey results that AAA will produce a positive ROI. The writers use exploratory and causal methodology combined with a survey that has been validated in three levels – academic, industry, and client perspectives. The final questionnaire included eight closed-ended, voluntary questions and an introduction for informed consent. The survey for AAA will be a sample of 478 potential respondents of 3330 AAA subscribers. The writers use the Plone survey tool to assemble data accurately. The authors expect that results will support the hypothesis that AAA advertising shows favorable ROI. BUAD 425

31. Forest, Nicolas. Exercise and Sport Science. Scott Drum and Ashwin Patel. Topical analgesics as an acute performance enhancer

Athletes are always trying to find a competitive edge in their respective sports. While research has looked at how athletes have used legal and illegal methods of performance enhancement limited current research has focused on topical analgesics. The purpose of this study is to quantify topical analgesics as a performance enhancer at maximal aerobic exercise. 3 chronically trained men participated in 3 VO2 max tests; this study followed a crossover design study with one familiarization test. Results will contain content summarizing time till exhaustion, VO2max, max heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion. Statistical analysis includes one tail paired T-test with significance set at P < 0.05. Conclusion will entail a wrap up of the results and main findings. Discussion will include how topical analgesics (will/will not) help athletes enhance performance aerobically. Also recommendations of future studies will be discussed. ESS 495

 32. Forseth, Madalyn. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Spiritual Use of Magic Mushrooms Cross-Culturally

This paper engages in a cross-cultural analysis of the use of mushrooms to enter spiritual and enlightening trances. For example, the Kuma tribe in the African Wahgi Valley has used this approach for thousands of years. My research suggests that Western State College students in the Gunnison Valley follow the same patterns cross-culturally, choosing mushrooms over other accessible recreational drugs when seeking spiritual states of mind. Self-report information collected through surveys and interviews has been qualitatively analyzed to find similarities and differences in why individuals in the Gunnison Valley choose to consume magic mushrooms, and whether they do so for spiritual reasons. This supports the argument for cross-cultural consistency, suggesting that individuals in many places and times seek magic mushroom resources to aid in reaching spiritual enlightenment. ANTH 465

33. Giavasis, P. Environmental studies. Jeffrey Sellen. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch: Affects on Marine and Human Life

There is an overwhelming amount of plastic in the ocean, the effects of which are causing hazards to marine life, human health and degrading sea shores where the plastics are washing up. The great pacific garbage patch covers an area as much as one and a half times the size of the United States and has a depth of 100 feet, if not deeper. The oceans plastic outweighs plankton by six times. Plankton is the areas number one food source in the ocean, with plastic so abundant many species are ingesting plastic by mistake leaving them to die from plastic poisoning or intestinal blockage. These plastics transport and release many toxins harmful to human health as well. These pollutants bioaccumulate in the tissues of marine organisms; biomagnify up the food chain, and find their way into the foods we eat, causing disease and infertility to say the least. ENVS 360

34. Gillespie, Andrew and Abbott. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Effects of moon cycles on behavioral time budgeting of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Canadensis) in Gunnison County, Colorado

Moon cycles are believed to influence the foraging activity of elk. A better understanding of elk foraging activity would benefit the management of elk populations and increasing success rates among hunters. This study looks at the activity changes throughout moon cycles. We hypothesized that there would be a significant increase in foraging activity during the full moon stages. At a distance of at least 500 meters, we used binoculars, a spotting scope and a night-vision scope to observe behaviors. Specific behaviors such as: foraging, standing, traveling, bedding and drinking were looked at in 15 minute intervals during sunrise, sunset and during the night. We believe data analysis will show behavioral differences, but we do not think results will be significant enough to prove the moon cycle as the variable for these changes. ENVS 390

35. Gross, Fred. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Developing ORSCH’s Summer Programming

This project entailed designing an 8-week summer program that has an earth-based focus for youth, ages of 5-13. There will be a sub-theme for each week, including earth, water, fire, service, art, music, sports and recreation. Program objectives include building healthy relationships, learning about the various ecosystems in the Gunnison Valley, learning in fun and experiential ways. This capstone project incorporates all the aspects of planning and running a summer camp including weekly sub-themes, risk management, educational curricula, transportation, budgeting, permits, and licensing. Examining with great detail the use of multiple outside organizations to support the summer program. ROE 491

36. Hadford, Jessica. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Helping Athletes Offer Social Support to Teammate with Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are found in approximately 20% of female athletes and 8% of male athletes (Montenegro, 2006). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify athletes who have had teammates who have had, or are currently struggling with, an eating disorder and determine how they dealt with it. I want to help athletes know how to better help their teammates who may be struggling with an eating disorder and how they can be a part of the social support system during recovery. Four female Division II college runners participated in the study. A semi-structured interview was used to better understand their experience of being a teammate to an individual with an eating disorder. The results of this study will provide greater insight as to how collegiate runners could better assist teammates with eating disorders. ESS 495


Analysis of human-dog interactions prompts examination of past behaviors as well as explorations of current social behavior. This paper examines canid burial throughout time and across various cultures. Similarities and differences in canid burial practices across both time and geographical space will be used construct a description of the ever-changing relationship between humans and dogs. Current cultural differences in canid burial practices will be examined through the use of a short survey of U.S. residents to seek out and establish cultural norms. Cross-cultural analysis will also be performed so as to view human-canine relationships and the resulting canid burial practices from different aspects. The results of this study may show strong similarities in canid burial practices associated with the particular relationship between the human and the dog. I speculate that most canine burial practices will be quite similar and follow cultural patterns. ANTH 465

38. Heckel, Sadie, Brain Lienberman, Johnny Warren and Chris Watson. Poltical Science. Maria Struble. Democratization in the East of Africa

The project will use the failed state of Somalia as its case study for a failed global partnership, and a failed process of democratization. Somalia is one of the poorest, most unstable country in the world, with stunning levels of inequality and social, political and economic disparities. We will argue that Somalia has failed to democratize largely because of external pressures to Westernize. The attempt to nation build has been too reflective of Western institutions and values to truly flourish in Somali culture and political climate. As an example of a successful democratization process, we will give the example of Somaliland, which is not ever recognized by the international community yet. POLS 260

39. Higgins, Mykalla, Anyang Ajing, Michael Clayton and Travis Yates. Political Science. Maria Struble. Poverty: a comparative look at DRC and Ghana

Ghana and DRC have experienced some of the worst cases of poverty and hunger in the world, although Ghana has made significant strides towards alleviating these issues while the DRC has lagged behind. Access to food and a livable income are fundamental human rights and without these being in place gender equality, education, and health can’t begin to be addressed. This project will focus on colonization, institutions, the Cold War, world organization policies, and tribal conflict to explain the differences between the two countries. Solutions to the problem begin with the political will of the people. Until the people can be educated to solve their own problem poverty and hunger will continue to run rampant through theses nations. Educating people will break the poverty cycle, paying parents to send their children to school would help the poverty aspect, while the children would receive a meal a day in school. These solutions are tenuous at best ans would not guarantee any significant change. POLS 260

40. Hill, Christopher, Emily Jackson, Kaeli Pfenning, Parker Grant and David Adair. Computer Science. Jonh Peterson. Functional Noise Textures

Functional Graphics using Perlin Noise to illustrate random color texture. CS 310

41. Hilte, Courtney. Exercise and Sport Science. Kathleen Kinkema and Ashwin Patel. “M&M hottie” The portrayal of women during the 2012 Super Bowl Commercials

Commercial content analysis is used to assess audiences, commercial affect, message effectiveness, and many other factors that marketers consider when putting an advertisement together (Kelley & Turley, 2004). This study analyzes the commercials shown during the 2012 Super Bowl with an emphasis on the ratio of men versus women, how women are portrayed, and what audience the commercial is targeted towards. Women were categorized into one of four portrayal categories: 1) Women are not objectified and are seen as equals to males in the commercials. 2) Women are seen in a sexual manner. 3) Women are seen in positions of influences of influence or power. 4) Women are seen as inferior to males. Fifty-two commercials were analyzed by one senior level Exercise and Sport Science student. The results of this study will present greater insight into the role women play when they are used in commercials to sell products. ESS 495

42. Hobbs, Kyle. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. “Location is Everything”: What Goes into Choosing a Location for a Stadium?

In the last century sports have become a billion dollar industry and being run more like a business then anything else. Partnerships are often forged with the team’s city officials which is especially important when decisions on where to place stadiums/arenas are made. Whether real or perceived, professional teams exert a large amount of influence over the city they reside. Teams will often threaten cities with relocation if expectations to secure better financial terms with the city. The purpose of this study was to better learn these concepts based on interviews with the Colorado Rockies owner. The interview will be analyzed following Patton (1990). The results will provide greater understanding behind the owner’s reason for putting Coors Field in its current location. ESS 495

43. Howe, Karen. Honors. Heather Theissen-Reily. Planning a Sustainable City: Seattle's Actions About the Realities of Urban Living

The patterns and pace of urban growth will influence the future of Earth’ ecosystems. How cities plan for this growth will determine the demand for resources today and continuous prosperity for generations ahead. Recently, Seattle’s city government has been a leader in sustainable development and a promoter of citywide environmental consciousness. However, the definition of sustainable development often offers ambiguous interpretations. To identify the Seattle’s goals for ‘sustainable development’ and its actions taken to achieve greater environmental consciousness, I looked for marketed sustainability in past and future development plans, in successful efforts of local businesses, and in community participation while pursuing such goals. Seattle has set high standards for citywide sustainable development through the collaboration of government and citizen efforts but it remains to be seen if the necessary paradigm shift can be made to make the desire for more sustainable practices become an urban reality. HNRS 305

44. Hunt, Kyona. Honors. Monica Newman. Lack of Biodiversity: The 6th Mass Extinction

Lack and loss of biodiversity is a serious issue in today’s global world. In every country, human activity has led to the extinction of species. Although it is normal for all species to someday become extinct, due to human causes they are becoming extinct in a more rapid time period than naturally or in the past. The human causes of this sudden loss of biodiversity are habitat modification, overexploitation of species, spread of invasive species, pollution, and climate change. These causes are happening to quickly for most species to adapt. We have already lost much of our biodiversity without realizing the effects that it has on the human life. The question is, are we experiencing a 6th Mass Extinction? I investigate the past global history in managing lack of biodiversity. ENVS 360

45. Jackson, Emily, Kaeli Pfenning, Parker Grant, Chris Hill, and David Adair. Computer Science. John Peterson. Functional Graphics

During our Visual Programming class we have written a program that take mathematical functions and turns them into images. These images include tessellation, 3D image mapping (ray tracers), and two dimension textures. Our poster will demonstrate a the basic uses functional graphics. CS 310

46. Kelly, Alannah. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. The Ruby of Crested Butte: Enhancing Clients' Experiences

Motivation: In today’s changing economic climate it has become increasingly important to gain competitive advantage. The Ruby of Crested Butte, an award winning bed and breakfast, strives to continually differentiate their inn by creating a personal connection with their guests that furthers the destination vacation experience, while contributing to fiscal assets. Per the owners’ instructions, this project entailed highlighting and increasing the client/hotelier relationship by creating a photo-blog where guests can share their experiences via online pictures, and potential visitors can establish personal connections prior to their arrival. Strategies to further advance the RubyHeart, the Ruby’s social and environmental sustainability organization, were investigated and a donation card that will be visible in the room and easily navigated so that guests can choose how much and to which organization they would like to donate was found to be the most viable option. ROE 491

47. Kinnear, Hayden and Austin Bradly. Politcial Science. Maria Struble. Problems with Freshwater consumption

As the population of the Earth continues to grow at a rapid pace the use of the earths resources are coming into question. Over 1.1 billion people lack access for clean water, and even a larger amount of people lack the proper sanitation. There is a desperate need for freshwater in humanity and to meet rising needs, but also need to make sure there is a watch over humanly altered habitats. Only about 2.53% of the water in the world is considered fresh, while the rest is saltwater, furthermore, of that freshwater most is locked up in glaciers and permanent snow cover. “Less than 1% of the world's fresh water (~0.007% of all water on earth) is accessible for direct human uses. This is the water found in lakes, rivers, reservoirs and those underground sources that are shallow enough to be tapped at an affordable cost. Only this amount is regularly renewed by rain and snowfall, and is therefore available on a sustainable basis” (globalchange.umich.edu). POLS 280

48. Konash, Amy. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Coral Bleaching

Coral bleaching is a global issue affecting all coastal regions all around the world. Factors such as warming ocean water temperatures, tourism, fisheries, and pollution among other things cause damage to marine species. Understanding coral chemistry is important because of its fragile demeanor in the ocean. The slightest changes cause massive bleaching outbreaks that damage hundreds of years of coral growth and production in shallow waters. Climate change is also a factor. Policy towards ocean conservation is important so this can be. Some of the policy suggestions were to help reduce climate change globally in order for things like ocean temperatures to stop rising. Introducing coral larvae in order for regeneration of unhealthy reefs is a possible solution to this problem. Marine biodiversity is important. The way humans play a role in coral bleaching by pollution is also a hot topic in policy for this issue. ENVS 360

49. Krenke, Blake. Exercise and Sport Science. Kathleen Kinkema. Tracking Career Paths of Exercise and Sport Science Alumni

The purpose of this project is to track the career paths of WSC Exercise and Sport Science (ESS) alumni from 2006-2011 to gain an understanding of how many graduates have found a career in the field that they studied at Western. A twelve question survey was developed and sent to ESS graduates from the past five years (2006-2011), as identified by Alumni Relations. This descriptive study will hopefully provide information about what sorts of careers ESS graduates are pursuing. A secondary purpose is to see if there are gender differences in the career paths of graduates or differences in the various emphasis areas that WSC students pursued. ESS 495

50. Lamb, Andrew. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. World Water Shortage

This poster will explore world water shortages and how they effect the world population. This poster will also explore how these shortages will impact people in the future as well as suggest potental solutions to this issue. ENVS 360

51. Lambert, Evangeline. Biology. Lynn Cudlip. Roadway Effect on Wildlife Habitat at McCabe’s Lane Wetlands

Wildlife relies on wetlands for breeding, foraging and cover grounds. There are two roads surrounding McCabe’s Lane wetlands. I wanted to know if either road affected the amount of animal activity at each pond. My hypothesis is: There will not be a significant difference between ponds that are farthest from the road and ponds that are closer to the road. I gathered data monitoring three different ponds. Pond 1 is the pond closest the dirt road without a shrubbery barrier between the pond and dirt road. Pond 2 is the pond close to another dirt road but with a shrubbery barrier between the pond and dirt road. Pond 3 is the pond farthest from the roads and has many natural barriers. I recorded animal sightings at each pond. Animals sightings included: animals scat, tracks, fur and browsed bushes. In conclusion I rejected my hypothesis and found that there was a significant difference between each pond. Wetlands that do not have a natural barrier from roadway effects have the least amount of animal usage. Natural occurring barriers protect the wildlife wetlands, the more natural occurring barriers surrounding the wetlands the more the wildlife will be able to utilize the wetlands. BIOL 135

52. Linkama, Meri. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. The complexity behind the combat against food scarcity in Africa

The research is concentrating on hunger and food scarcity in Africa. It will examine the reasons why hunger and food insecurity are as big problems as they are and affect millions of people’s life. The research will relate to the climate change because it is one of the main reasons to hunger by leading to the loss of local food production due to the environmental degradation. The research will provide information about international conventions and agreements that are concentrating on solving hunger in Africa and what organizations are parts of that project. ENVS 360

53. Lott, Pzremek. Biology. Robin Bingham. Brassica Rapa Resistance: Harmful or Beneficial?

The objective of this experiment was to show whether Atrazine resistant Brassica rapa plants have any disadvantages to their resistance in an environment that does not contain herbicides. The experiment measured the growth rate of both resistant and non-resistant B. rapa plants under two different light intensities. The plants were grown in an environment similar to a green house and were measured once a week on Fridays. The data was analyzed based on which set of plants had the greatest height within their respective light intensities. After analyzing the data it was evident that non-resistant plants had an advantage in the overall growth. This advantage was present in both light intensities. Ultimately the resistant B. rapa do have a disadvantage when herbicides are not present because their resistance inhibits their growth and non-resistant plants become dominant. BIOL 151

54. Macy, Michelle, Sarah Kunz and Holly Reycraft. Biology. Randall Spydell. Western State Campus Great Horned Owl

By attempting to communicate with the Great Horned Owl population on campus, we predicted that we could locate their new habitats and nests. Our experiment was conducted over three days at varying times of day, particularly when campus was quiet. From our observations, the owls seem to have relocated to locations further away from new construction noise. BIO 135

55. Madison, Andrew. Biology. Robin Bingham. The Effect of Atrazine Resistance on Herbivory in Brassica rapa

B. rapa, an annual weed, is frequently used to study the effects of herbicide resistance. This experiment aimed to study whether resistance to the herbicide atrazine has an effect on herbivory by caterpillars in a choice test. Eight leaf discs from both resistant and susceptible plants were left in the presence of an herbivore and then measured for area. The area after herbivory was compared to the area before herbivory. It was discovered that atrazine resistance does not have a significant effect on herbivory.

56. Markus, Marissa. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Ocean Fish Stocks in Decline

In the 1950’s, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) began tracking catches globally in order to project the growth and expansion of fisheries. As a result, over-fishing became evident in global catch trends as early as the 1970’s. Since previous collapses in fish stocks were considered confined (e.g. California sardine in the 1950’s), collapses never spurred any need for policy change(Pauly 2008). Developed countries expanded their ranges toward deeper waters and distant places. Fish stocks from developing countries began being consumed in developed countries and fish stocks that fed large predators are either already depleted or on the verge of being depleted. Large fish biomass is at less than one tenth of what it was before industrial fishing fleets hit the oceans; as large-sized fish stocks are depleted, fisheries move down the “marine food web” (Pauly 2008). This poses a threat to our food security, the food security of developing countries, and to predator species that are dependent on depleting fish stocks either directly (food source) or indirectly (ecosystem function). ENVS 390

57. Mart, Jared, Jay Frazier, Michael Curran and Dylan Huyck. Businesss Administration. The Use of Local Food in Gunnison Restaurants

Because local food sources are becoming increasingly popular and demanded, there is much research that must be done in order to determine who uses them, who doesn’t, and why . Due to the Gunnison Valley’s isolated location, local food use can be a challenge for restaurants; therefore, information must be collected to determine who uses these sources, in hopes of developing an easier and cheaper way for all restaurants to begin using local food sources. An exploratory study will examine food outlets in Gunnison, from bars and taverns, to restaurants and cafeterias, by means of surveys and focus groups, with hopes that 50% of the vendors will use some local food sources. The information will be categorized via Microsoft Excel and the results will be analyzed with groups like Mountain Roots Food Project in hopes of increasing local food use within the Gunnison Valley. BUAD 331

58. Martin, Katherine. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Diversions of the Great Lakes

A research project on the environmental hazards the Great Lakes will face if water diversion is passed. ENVS 360

59. Martin, Jared. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel.  Fatal Skiing Injuries and the Psychological Effect on the Extreme Skiing Community

Extreme skiing is a physically demanding, high intensity, sport that has potential for serious injury or death. Recently, there have been many catastrophic injuries related to extreme skiing and freestyle skiing, leading many people to question the notion of whether pushing the limits of the sport is worth risking your life. While there is a multitude of studies showing the psychological effects of deaths on participants in settings like diving, parachuting, hang gliding (Doka, Schwarz & Schwarz, 1990), as well as mountain climbers (Tok, 2011), there is little research on the psychological aspects of dealing with fatalities amongst extreme skiers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the notion that deaths and injuries make a skier ski more safely. 10 skiers completed a questionnaire focusing on the psychological effects dealing with a fatal skiing accident. Results will provide a unique insight into the risk-taking behaviors of many extreme skiers. ESS 495

60. May, Stephanie. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The application and role of Functional Resistance Training (FRT) and Instability Resistance Training (IRT) in collegiate athletics

The aim of this study was to investigate the applications of Functional Resistance Training (FRT) and Instability Resistance Training (IRT) in collegiate athletics. 6 participants, consisting of both coaches and athletes from both varsity and club sports at a Division II school were administered a survey regarding their sports background; current sport participation; background with, and knowledge of, and use of FRT and IRT. The subjects were then tested under 3 categories (single task static balance, dual task static balance, and dynamic balance/agility), two tests each, and these results were compared to the survey results. It was hypothesized there will be a positive correlation between sports utilizing FRT and IRT and test results. This will conclude that certain sports that have an emphasis on weight and strength gain are not utilizing FRT and IRT and therefore their athletes do not have a high level of functional movement. ESS 495

61. McDaniel, Erik. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Bald Eagle population along the East and Taylor River

During seven different days bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations were observed, including whether they were adult or immature eagles under the age of four. The study took place at the East and Taylor River during the days of 3/18/2012, 3/21/2012, 3/23/2012, 3/25/2012, 3/28/2012, 4/2/2012 and 4/6/2012. I can conclude there is significant more bald eagles along the East River than the Taylor River. It is possible that the bald eagles prefer the East River becuase of a healthier riparian habitat or because there is a greater amount of fish in the East River compared to the Taylor River. ENVS 390

62. McGeorge, Brianna. Anthropology. Cakey Dukeman. Analysis of which raw material type produces the most complete flakes

I will test this Hypothesis by completing a set of three trials of flint knapping/tool creation with three different raw material types, Chert, Obsidian and Quartzite with a goal of about 15-20 complete flakes per trial. I will then observe each flake and the debris looking for certain features. I will then classify them by the following categories. Complete, Proximinal end. Distal End, Medial section and angler debris will also be recorded. I will also record weight of flakes produced and compare between the raw materials other possible elements that will be recorded would be size of debris/weight time it took to complete trials etc . The final results I expect are Quartzite and chert having more complete flakes then Obsidian. The results will be recorded by use of bar graphs showing frequency of occurrence for the different variables and weight information. ANTH 397

63. McKean, Andrew. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Sustainable & Resilient Corporate Leadership

This project involved co-creating the SRCL course, which will be potentially offered in 2013 through Western State College’s Center for Executive Development. The aim of the course is to aid middle market sustainability directors in enhancing their social and environmental business practices. The curriculum is focused on the concepts of “Catalyze, Lead, and Innovate”; it will provide guidance regarding industry standards, as well as providing participants with leadership capacities which will enable them to enact real change within their company, firm, or institution. Corporate and higher education industry leaders will comprise the faculty. ROE 491

64. Nelson, Scott, Shelby Neese, Rebecca Oeding, Sarah Rodriguez. Honors. Paul Edwards. The Impacts of "Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" on the American Musical

Stephen Sondheim has had an extensive career as composer and lyricist in Broadway theatre. His innovations have made a significant impact on the American musical, particularly in the areas of dramatic structure, character development, and set design. One of his most significant works is Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street. From its origin as a serial based on an actual person to the Broadway musical and film, each version has brought a new perspective to the story, although perhaps none more original than Sondheim’s version. The musical utilizes colorful, disturbing melodies, lyrics, characters, and story line, resulting in a dark, macabre, yet often-humorous narrative. Productions of Sweeney Todd have utilized a variety of design strategies to reinforce the musical’s tone. Sondheim’s work was given new life when director Tim Burton revamped the musical into its acclaimed film version. HNRS 397

65. Nilius, Amy. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Historical Lichenometry

In the previous semester a lichen dating curve was developed from dating cemetery headstones. In regards to testing the accuracy of the curve as a dating method that can be used in future research a study was conducted to date historical structures within the Basin. Lichen was tested off the stone on structures by millimeter measurements taken by calipers in the same manner as the cemetery data.  Accurate dates of the structures have been taken in comparison to the cemetery dates. After data is collected it will be compared against the current curve to analyze the data and will then prove if the curve is accurate. If so then this study can be used to date unknown structures and stone artifacts from a historic period of time. ANTH 392

66. Noah, Chris. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Sally Palmer. LNT awarness for established camp grounds in the Gunnison Valley

The abstract that my partner and I will be showing is a trail map with the Leave No Trace Principles on the back. This trail map has most of the established and dispersed camping grounds in the Gunnison Valley. We are trying to bring LNT awarness to visitors to the valley at the base level. ROE 230


The snowshoe hare (Lepus amerianus) is a common species found in the Gunnison Valley area. This experiment was aimed towards gaining an insight on how the snowshoe hare interacts with its environment; specifically, how plant coverage affects their stride length. I hypothesized that a change in plant coverage would not produce a change in the hare’s stride. After collecting data of tracks from two different locations, of both covered and open plant areas, I found a p-value of 2.1E-10. Thus, I was forced to reject my hypothesis and found that the difference in plant coverage does indeed affect the stride length of snowshoe hares. This is probably due to the fact that they are more vulnerable as prey when they have less shelter to hide in. BIO 135

68. Olson, Lars and Seth Bott. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop, John Hausdoerffer. Forest Health in Thinned and Un-Thinned Conifer Stands

Our study was conducted to determine forest health in thinned and un thinned conifer stands in Taylor Canyon, Colorado. We sampled 30 stands and measured diameter at breast height, core sample of last ten years, height and the total number of trees in each sample area. Two core samples were taken from the biggest trees to determine rate of growth. We recorded the total number of trees in each stand to determine density and regeneration of new trees. Through our data analysis we will be able to determine the difference in stand health in thinned and un thinned sample areas. ENVS 390

69. Overstreet, Andrew, Kyle Hill, Brittany Saemen. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Impacts of elevation on facted layer development

Faceted layers create instability in snow packs that often lead to avalanches. Our study monitored faceted layers in the snowpack up Slate River road near Crested Butte, CO. We sampled two transects covering a 500-ft rise in elevation, digging two snow pits every 100-ft. We recorded UTM’s, elevation, canopy cover, layer height, crystal size, and compression tests for each pit. Data was gathered March 12 through April 1. Our results will hopefully provide insight into facet layer development and add to the current discourse on avalanche safety. ENVS 390

70. Parker, Jamison, Tim Ahlstrom and Dan Garbee. Biology. Lynn Cudlip. In Search of the Great Cats.

Mountain lions are elusive creatures that have become iconic to mountain culture. With the area surrounding the Gunnison Valley being an excellent habitat for one of the largest carnivores in North America, we chose to study this rarely seen cat. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates we had of finding mountain lions with the results from the Division of Wildlife’s statistics and success rates. We wish to find if these statistics had any correlation with an increase in mountain lion population due to the mild winter of 2011-2012. We went to six areas that had above average potential of producing mountain lion sightings. This is what we found… BIO 135

71. Patrick, Nicholas. Psychology. Roger Drake.  Efficient Production Enhancement Through Retention

One of the most important traits of a successful person include the ability to retrieve information from the depths of long-term memory. Psychological research provides support for spacing as a major source of retention improvement. Learning From Feedback: Spacing and the Delay-Retention Effect demonstrates the curve of retention based on intervals; although retention improves initially, the growth slowly reverses after about 15-20% of the interval’s duration. Optimising Learning Using Flashcrads: Spacing is More Effective Than Cramming explains that people do not always realize the best approach to their learning. Although the students believed that the massed study provided more information, retention improved for the spaced list. Through the use of both articles, spacing is supported as a major retention enhancement. These results apply universally because people always look to enhance their educations. Spacing is a simple beneficial approach. PSY 338

72. Pfenning, Kaeli, Theron Grant and Dean Graham. Computer Science. John Peterson. WSC Robotics

WSC Robotics. CS 397

73. Pursely, John. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The mental demands of Division II wrestlers

Elite and amateur wrestlers experience many psychological challenges throughout their season. As a retired collegiate wrestler, I know firsthand what these athletes experience both psychologically and physically during the grind of the season. There has been a good deal of information regarding how elite athletes in wrestling (Gould, Ekland, & Jackson, 1992), collegiate rodeo (Meyers, Sterling, & LeUnes, 1988), and figure skating (Garza & Feltz, 1998) have experienced psychological and physical challenges in their respected sport, but there has been no research focusing specifically on NCAA Division II wrestlers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to better understand how Division II wrestlers cope with these psychological challenges, especially the mental demand of cutting weight. More specifically, an attempt was made to better understand how Division II wrestlers view the word “mental demands” as well as how this influences their mindset during practice, competition, teammates, friends, and family. ESS 495

74. Raboourn, Jacquelyn. Psychology. Roger Drake. Working Memory in our Remembering Brain

Memory is a huge part of our human lives; it is an organism's ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences, which involves delay or waiting. An event will happen, followed by a delay, which is momentary for working memory; then, if memory is successful, the individual remembers what happened. One thing that can affect one’s memory is brain damage; damage to or removal of the prefrontal cortex affects the ability to remember for short periods of time. Another thing that is important when dealing with memory is brain activity; areas of the brain are activated by working memory tasks, and the difference between a person with good and poor working memory and how they respond to a working memory task. Two experiments are performed, one for each thing that affects an individual’s memory. These results show that the prefrontal cortex is important for holding short-term memory and that the infant’s memory behavior can be experimented to prove this, and also that people who have a large-capacity working memory are often better at cognitive processes. PSY 338

75. Redzinak, Kira and Gaia Ewing. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Rompin’ with Roadkill

This presentation journeys through lithic replication and how effective it is in improving the archaeological record. Through experimental archaeology, I will demonstrate the multiple uses of a replicated lithic scraper as a “swiss army rock.” This project will argue that an obsidian scraper is more effective at skinning a rabbit than the average pocket knife or other raw material counter parts. Using different raw materials against a typical camping knife, I will compare effectiveness through use-wear analysis, and timed trials. Once these rabbits are skinned, I will be creating replications of Anasazi rabbit satchels and analyzing how many uses each tool contributes to the process and how efficient each one was. Rabbits will be harmed during this research, but I hope to give these rabbits a second life for the furthering of education. ANTH366

76. Reilly, Jamie. Psychology. Roger Drake. A Review of Recent Literature about Sensory and Working Memory And its Implications on Future Research

Class reading has shown interesting research in the area of memory. Research in memory, which is the process of integrating stimuli into our day-to-day actions long after the stimuli diminishes, shows that through mental training it can be enhanced. Through reading recent literature about working memory training and transfer in older adults and positive affect on sensory memory, new conclusions and implications will be drawn. Conclusions target the areas of overall life enhancement, increases in performance, legislative applications, and love. PSY 338

77. Ross, Michael. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Collegiate wrestlers transition out of sport - To remain or not to remain involved? A Qualitiative Investigation

For many athletes retirement can come with a difficult decision of whether or not to stay involved with the sport. While there may be a correlation between how successful a person was in their career and the amount of involvement they have post retirement (Lavallee, Grove, & Gordon 1997; Webb, Nasco, Riley, & Headrick 1998), no current study has focused on how wrestlers deal with transition out of their sport. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to bridge the gap in the literature. 5 ex-collegiate wrestlers were interviewed using a semi-structured format to better understand if there is a relationship between a wrestler’s career track and their decision to remain involved in their sport after retiring. Interviews will be analyzed and they will provide a greater insight regarding ex-collegiate wrestlers’ level of involvement in the sport after retirement. ESS 495

78. Ruhmann, Graham, Patricia Wheeler Larsen, Katie Roos, Eric Kater. Biology. Robin Bingham. Photosynthetic rates and stomata density in Brassica rapa plants that are both herbicide resistant and herbicide susceptible to the compound Atrazine

We hypothesized that Brassica rapa plants that are resistant to herbicides (Atrazine) will have slower photosynthetic rates which will relate to a lower stomata density. This will be costly to the overall health of resistant plants. The rates of photosynthesis in both genotypes, susceptible and resistant, were tested using small disks of each leaf type. The disks were placed in a carbon containing solution and placed under a lamp, this initiated photosynthesis which was measured in seconds. Stomata density was tested by making an imprint of the underside of a leaf disks. These were then looked at under 40x magnification so the stomata could be seen. Photosynthetic rates were on average faster in resistant plants but susceptible plants had a higher average stomata density. The differences in the data were not statistically significant. BIO 151

79. Rutledge, Edward, Ryan Maddux and Michael Napoli. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Tomichi Creek Streambank Stability

Riparian areas are important because they are biologically diverse, act as a floodplain, and are used by a diverse group of species. Tomichi Creek State Wildlife area is designated a riparian habitat. We set out to determine the relationship between river depth, width, and stream bank stability. We sampled three, 100-m transects. Every 10 meters we measured stream bank stability, river depth and width, and woody vegetation browse. We will test these data for relationships. ENVS 390

80. Sanchez, Amanda, Ben Armstrong,Calli DeRuby, Emma Griffin,Jared James, Hillarie Kessler, Cassie Krzeczowski, Natalie Kuenzi,Anna Marshall, Brandi McBride,Sarah McClernan,Kaitlyn Mincey,Francesca Pavillard-Cain,Miles Peterson,Cody Scott,Ashlee Wallace, Alex Winter. Honors. Shelly Read.  Water Issues Facing our Valley, Nation, and World

Our project analyzes water issues on an international, national, and local level and applies these concerns to an educational outreach project in the Gunnison Valley. The international group will focus on pollution and overfishing with solutions to those problems. The national group will focus on water in these four aspects: usage, problems, solutions, and laws. The local group will focus on recreation, ranching, campus water consumption, and environmental impacts within the Gunnison Valley. The outreach group combines these water issue topics to engage and inspire the students in the Orsch School. Our goal is to identify and understand a variety of water issues and to educate our community about water awareness. HNRS 200

81. Schaefer, Mason and Braint Wells. Biology. Lynn Cudlip. Ice Thickness on the Blue Mesa Reservoir

The largest body of water in Colorado, the Blue Mesa Reservoir is a mecca for outdoor recreation in all seasons. During winter, ice fishing is extremely popular, as anglers visit the reservoir to target trout and salmon through the ice. For safety, it is important for people recreating on the ice to have a general idea of how, when, and where the ice forms on the Blue Mesa. This experiment is designed to explore the varying ice thicknesses at different distances from shore. Six holes were drilled at two separate basins (Iola, Cebolla), three near to shore and three further out. Measurements were taken from these holes to help determine whether or not distance from shore plays a role in the thickness of the ice. It was discovered that distance from shore does affect ice thickness. BIOL 135

82. Schaller, Zachary. Communication and Theater. Courtney Fullmer. Media Symbiosis

To begin the analysis of media symbiosis the following will all be carefully examined: the freedom of speech guaranteed in the first amendment, the free exchange of ideas, our public duty to deliberate, and media richness theory. When combined with a critical lens, it will be made clear that a symbiosis and a dichotomy exist between the media and the public. Furthermore, it will be shown that the marketplace is a destructive metaphor to the successful relationship between media and society. Through an unfortunate osmosis, we as a society have allowed our modern agora to become little more than a lemonade stand. The implications of this discovery are dire, and the importance of its reversal will be expressed in this poster. COTH 151

83. Shufman, Thomas. Recreation and Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Boutique Ski Manufacturing: A Feasibility Study

The ski manufacturing industry is filled with many companies that meet a variety of consumer needs, therefore acquiring a substantial portion of the market requires a strong business model. The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of starting a personal/hobby ski manufacturing business by the spring of 2013. By analyzing competitors and market conditions a realistic opportunity was identified, and a business plan was developed that will guide Gnar Skis™ as it develops and matures. The foundation of this business plan is being a focused differentiation provider, which is based on strong values. The most important values are Passion, which shapes the high quality products made for an expert/professional skier. Ethics, which guides the greenest and most efficient operating plan possible. Community; we respect and develop employees, market our culture, and develop relationships with our customers by keeping our operations small and local. ROE 491

84. Shellabarger, Andrea. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Music as Cultural Reflection

Ethnomusicology seeks to study music as culture. The category has hosted relatively very little study and much remains to be discovered of the implications of music in culture and the usefulness of this most wide-spread and deeply ingrained human activity in interpreting and understanding systems of culture. This paper presents the results of the study of a musical band as a subculture, affected by each of its members who in turn are affected by surrounding, outside cultural influences. Focus is on the two-way nature of musical influence in culture; how each individual, as affected by surrounding musical culture, affects their own music in turn, and how the dynamic of the band subculture is created due to this influence. Analysis of this interaction offers further insight on the effects of music within culture, as well as how culture is reflected in music. ANTH

85. Shepard, Travis. Environmental Stidies. Jeffrey Sellen. Marine Debris

Marine debris is any human created waste that has deliberately or accidentally become afloat in any ocean or sea. With the increasing use of plastics by billions of people around the world, many types of non-biodegradable debris have littered the oceans and seas of the world. These plastics, among other waste, pose serious threats to fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and boats around the world. This poster will explore the policies that are in place to police marine debris and what more can be done in order to ensure the safety of our waters. ENVS 360

86. Silva, Nacarid, Brunner Hill, Alice Stern and Alec Sheldon. Political Science. Maria Struble. The Road to Gender Equality.

Gender equality is a leading social and political issue in countries around the world. Although most countries claim to be making forward movement towards equality, some are making very little progress, if any at all. Iraq and Bolivia in particular are not progressing towards equality as quickly as they desire. Iraq’s female population makes over 60% of the total population. In Bolivia, the living conditions among women are one of the most difficult of any country in Latin America. In both countries, women are often the victims of discrimination are violence. They are supposed to achieve their gender equality goals by 2015, but the movement is going nowhere. The following will be questions discussed in the research. What does it mean to be equal? How does one obtain equality? Why is there little gender equality in Iraq or Bolivia? Where do women see the most inequality based more in their familial relationships, education inequality, or career inequality? POLS 260

87. Singer, Bridger, Julia Organek, Hunter Boomershine, Cody Vincent. Biology. Robin Bingham. Germination Rate of Atrazine Resistant Brassica rapa vs Non-Resistant

Our hypothesis is that herbicide resistant plants have a lower germination rate than non-resistant Brassica rapa. In this experiment one hundred herbicide resistant seeds will be placed in five different petri dishes and one hundred non- herbicide resistant seeds will be placed in five different petri dishes. The seeds will then be watched to find the germination rate of the two different seeds. Both seeds had a germination percent of one hundred and all of the non-herbicide resistant seeds germinated one day earlier than the resistant seeds did. It was shown that herbicide non-resistant seeds germinate faster than do herbicide resistant Brassica rapa seeds. BIO151

88. Skaja, Amanda. Psychology. Roger Drake. Do Opposites Attract?

A lot of research has been done that supports how we like people who are similar to us in the things we believe in, and that we like people who are assumed to like us. The first article I read shows that we can make assumptions about how someone will vote based not only on the things they believe, but also by matching personality traits. The second study shows how we form friendships as children based off similar social status and behaviors to our own. It is clear that likeliness between two people will increase their chances of liking each other. PSY 457

89. Skaja, Amanda. Psychology. Roger Drake. The Complexity of Communication

The book talks about how communication is more complex than people really know. It involves semantic and syntax coordination that comes so automatically while we talk we do not even notice unless we are just learning a language. In the first study they looked at the syntax priming of preeschoolers to see how they reacted to the priming before forming their own sentences. In the study they took a look at the importance of syntax cues in the French language by using words that sound similar, but mean different things. This is important to understand when we are teach and learning languages. PSY 338

90. Skaja, Amanda. Environmental Studies. Jeffrery Sellen. What We Can Do Differently: Cleaning up Electronic Waste

We live in a world where computers, phones, televisions, and other electronics are plentiful. In today’s world technology is always being improved and we make choices to get the hottest gadgets, but what happens when we replace the old with the new? There are electronic recycling collections, and wealthy people feel good that they did not just ditch their computer in a landfill. But from there it goes on to be exported to poor countries for disposal! This brings up problems of environmental injustice. The larger problem is that poor countries are dealing with the electronic waste of the wealthy because they do not have the money control to have a say. ENVS 360

91. Stevens, Megan. Psychology. Roger Drake. The Psychology of Sustainability: Modern Solutions to Facilitate Pro-Environmental Behaviors

In order to move into a future of sustainability, we must understand that the best solution to our problem is a variety of solutions. Sustainable living could improve our lives, our stress and our overall quality of living, however, the public must first be educated regarding the benefits and methods of sustainable living in order for any change to take place. Culturally, our social values regarding status symbols, individualism, and instant gratification must be addressed and modified in order to promote pro-environmental behaviors. Efforts to increase mass participation in sustainable behaviors require psychology to integrate sustainability into numerous sub-disciplines, including cognitive, behavioral, industrial and organizational, social and health psychology. Each sub-discipline of psychology offers its own influential take on human behavior and motivation, and as such, each will be useful in creating solutions for sustainability. PSY 498

92. Stott, Shane. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Projectile Point Styles: Funtional or Stylisic

In the archeological records, there are a variety of projectile point types. One of the main differences of these point types is some are stemmed and some are notched. One question that arises from these different types is whether these differences were only stylistic or if they had a functional purpose. One area where a difference could have been functional is in the hafting strategies. The stemmed points where socketed into the haft and the notched point were attached to the haft in a slot. This may have had an effect on the arrow or dart shaft itself. To test this, an experiment consisting of dropping three of each type of arrows from a given distance and then recording the damage done to each type will be conducted. I hypothesize that the stemmed points that are socketed into the haft will have a less damaging effect on the shaft. ANTH 397

93. Strijek, Claudia and Karen Howe. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. streambank stability survey on upper Tomichi Creek

Streambanks are very susceptible to erosion but the presents of plants can slow erosion as their roots hold onto soil, thereby making banks more stable. Streambank conditions of upper Tomichi Creek are not well documented. Our efforts will be concentrated on a 2.5-mile stretch of the creek just below the confluence of Cochetopa Creek. In this study we will use modified monitoring protocols to sample 20, 100 meter transects for woody vegetation and streambank conditions. We expect to find that banks having greater amounts of woody plants will be more stable. Our findings can help with future land management decisions for this privately owned land.  ENVS 390

94. Szrek, Stefi, Becca Lubang and Sean Urban. Biology. Randall Spydell. Snow Variablity

Over the years there has been great snow variablity in the Gunnison, Crested Butte, and Gothic areas. Through research we have determined the causes and effects of the variablity. This also demonstrated how snowfall affects humans and animals. BIOL 135

95. Thomas, Madeline, Henry Gaudion and Thomas Simmons. Sociology. Maria Struble. Sanitation and Clean Water in Africa, a comparative study 

One of the most serious problems the Worlds’ people are facing today is the lack of access to clean drinking water. The ramifications that contaminated water has on people’s overall health are an ever worsening endemic that needs humanitarian, as well as governmental attention. This study is going to look at two African countries, Mali and South Africa, and will compare the colonial histories of each to their current government regimes. Through our analysis of the current political entities in these countries we will examine whether or not water policy and/or regulation exists and if it is effective or not. Furthermore, this study will look at whether clean water and sanitation are severe enough issues for governmental intervention and what historical factors contributed to the unequal distribution of clean water resources. POLS 260

96. Vandahl, M. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Rising Sea Levels: The Threats Oceans Pose

My poster presentation will be based on the rising sea levels due to climate change. I will focus on some small island nations that are facing a complete loss of their homes. Also I will focus on the neighboring nations because they will be the ones charged with the task of harbouring the refugees from these lost nations. Lastly I will focus on the laws that have and will need to be created to deal with this dilema. ENVS 360

97. Walis, Timothy, kenneth mcdaniel, conor mcbrierty and marcu may. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. Local & Organic Food Valley Food Usage

Today’s restaurant customers expect more locally grown food items on the menu. The purpose of this project is to determine actual use of and satisfaction with local food by restaurants in Crested Butte. Based on review of the literature, authors hypothesize that a minority of all food outlets use locally grown food items. The study is exploratory and descriptive in nature, using a self-developed and validated survey questionnaire to collect qualitative and quantitative data. The research population includes 39 Crested Butte restaurants. Data collection used face-to-face and in-person drop off technique. Research ethics are addressed in the informed consent statement in the introduction to the questionnaire. The data is entered into an Excel spread sheet for descriptive data analysis. The authors expect to accept the hypothesis that only few food outlets in Crested Butte use locally grown food items in their menus. BUAD 331

98. Webb, Rachel. Antrhopology. Caskey Dukeman. Debitage Comparison between Expedient and Complex Tool Manufacture

Archaeological analysis of lithic assemblages, or debitage, can provide a better understanding of tool manufacture and the lifestyle of native people. I will be comparing the debitage produced from a biface to debitage made from expedient tool manufacture. As I already have access to debitage made from biface production, I will produce flakes through expedient tool manufacture by reducing a chert core into usable flakes of roughly equivalent size. I will create ten to fifteen usable flakes and take length and width measurements of the debitage from both the biface and expedient tool manufacture. By comparing the overall size of the two debitage collections and their size distribution I can analyze the debitage and show it is possible to discern between expedient tool production and tool manufacture. My hypothesis is that expedient tool debitage will have very little variance in rock size while debitage from complex tool manufacture will have a larger variance in size due to the detail necessary to create them. This experiment displays how debitage can be used by archaeologists to make conclusions about tool manufacture. ANTH 397

90. Webb, Rachel. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Long Term and Short Term Archaeological Site Comparison by Debitage Analysis

Archaeological analysis of lithic assemblages can provide a better understanding of tool manufacture. By analyzing the debitage from excavation at two Folsom sites located in the Gunnison region, the Lanning site (a short term camp) and Block F of the Mountaineer site (a long term residential habitation), inferences can be drawn about the lifestyle of the native people based on their method of tool manufacture. By analyzing and comparing data selecting for the size and variance of flakes, raw material, flake weight, and further detailed analysis of flake characteristics, it will be possible to discern between expedient (simple flake tools) and more complex tool manufacture (e.g. scrapers and bifaces). Expedient tools will have small variance in rock size while it is expected that complex tools will have a larger variance in size due to the detail necessary to create them. By comparing the types of tools made between the sites, conclusions can be drawn about the varying lifestyles between long term settlements and short term campsites. This displays how debitage can be used by archaeologists to make conclusions about tool manufacture and the way of life of native people. ANTH 465

100. Webber, Erin, kaytlin hughes, dan heck, alyssa keith and shelby neese. Biology. Sarah Baysden. Cytomax versus Placebo Consumption during Exercise in a Young Adult Population

PURPOSE: Cytomax (CM) and a placebo (CL) were tested to determine the effectiveness of the patented chemical alpha-L-Polylactate, which is claimed to lower levels of perceived exertion, lower lactic acid level during and after training, stabilize power output, and reduce oxygen consumption. METHODS: Seven recreationally active males (n=2) and females (n=5) of various fitness levels volunteered to unknowingly test Cytomax per instructions. 5oz of either CM or CL were orally consumed at 0 and 15 minutes of exercise during a 20 minute treadmill test. Subjects were asked to self-select an effort level (MPH) that elicited a heart rate above 75% age-predicted heart rate maximum. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded every 5 minutes and heart rate (HR) was recorded each minute of exercise. Blood lactate was taken prior to a 5 minute warm up and after a 5 minute cool down with the Accutrend Lactate analyzer. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: NA BIOL 397

101. Weincek, Kimberly, saren yater-wallace, lexis lebon and jordan smith. Biology. Randall Spydell.  Beetle Kill! Is it in Gunnison?

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the existence of Mountain Pine Beetles in Gunnison. Due to the result that MPB have not yet spread to Gunnison, this evaluation turned to the effects they have on trees in other parts of Colorado, as well as the chances of them spreading to Gunnison. Research proved that Gunnison is not yet affected due to its normally freezing temperatures in winter and early spring. Should Global Warming continue, however, MPB will eventually reach Gunnison and be able to survive the climate. BIO 135

102. Wells, Skye. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The Significance of Mental Training in High School Wrestlers

The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the psychological needs and demands of a high school wrestling team and whether or not mental training should be implemented into practice. Eleven wrestlers took part in the study filling out daily mental logs based on a ten point lickert scale; only five wrestlers who qualified for the post season tournament participated in semi-structured interview sessions. The interviews focused on the athletes mind set towards motivation, self-confidence, imagery, and goal setting as well as their knowledge of sport psychology before and after the study. The results of the study provided a greater insight on wrestlers’ need for mental guidance throughout the season. One wrestler claimed “if it hadn’t been for mental training I never would have believed I could win”. Results suggest that the incorporation of a psychological skills training program would greatly benefit high school wrestlers. ESS 495

103. White, Jonathan. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Raw Material Utility by Use Wear Analysis.

The range of utility in some of the most commonly used raw material samples: chert, quartzite, and obsidian is explored.The procedure consisted of: 1. Assorting groups of three flakes from each raw material 2. Time the knapping process. 3. Measure the weight of the flakes, willow branches, and antler bone, before and after.The results: Quartz’s thickness may have inhibited the full range of use from the pieces in whittling and carving willow and antler bone. Chert was sharp enough that when it did make markings, these were near the quality of obsidian. Obsidian exceeded expectations in its performance on both the willow and antler bone. Conclusions from data: #1) Obsidian would be ideal for constructing a lithic knife. #2) Chert might be best used for the construction of projectile points and arrowheads. #3) Quartzite would fit the mold of axes and chopping tools. ANTH 397 

104. Wildenberg, Jacob. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. The Emotional and Psychological Desires of Athletes From Their Physical Therapist

Many injured athletes must endure some form of rehabilitation, as they attempt to return to their sport; one of which is physical therapy. Some athletes are deeply affected psychologically and emotionally, which can greatly impact the recovery process (Pargman, 2006, Anderson & Williams, 1998; Smith, Scott, & Wiese, 1990). When engaging in a physical therapy rehabilitation program, the athlete is forging a relationship with his/her physical therapist. During this treatment the physical therapist is responsible for catering to the emotional needs of their patient in addition to the physical treatment. Six athletes who recently went through physical therapy will participate in the study. The main focus of the interview is to determine if there are any common themes among the emotional and psychological wants and needs of these injured athletes. The results of this study will show the importance of the emotional and psychological aspect of rehabbing the injury. ESS 495

105. Williams, Koleman. Psychology. Roger Drake. Confabulation and its Effects on Future Planned Attitudes and Emotional Scenes

“Honest lying” or also referred to as confabulation. Confabulation is characterized a memory disturbance caused by statements and/or actions that incorrectly describe a past memory. This can be broken down into the misinformation effect and source monitoring errors. Two articles help to better understand these two ideas. The first one is on emotional effects on the misinformation effect and the second one is about attitude change involving source monitoring errors of future plans. Confabulation plays a big role in our everyday lives whether we want it to or not. Our memories are constantly being affected by new information we take in everyday, along with the natural decay of our memories. PSY 338

106. Wilson, Mary. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Global Biodiversity Loss; The Bacterial of our World

The global decline of biodiversity is a problem that is affecting everyone and will continue to affect him or her until either major culture changes are made or there is no more biodiversity to destroy. We are losing biodiversity as a result of climate change, cultural norms and environmental disturbances. When we lose biodiversity throughout the world it affects people in all aspects. We will see species extinction in plants and animals, increased starvation rates and increased disease. If we continue to live how we all do now, we will see a tremendous increase in global climate change in the near future. ENVS 360

107. Wilson, Seth. Exercise and Sport Science. Ashwin Patel. Motivation of Division II football players during the offseason

Motivation plays a major role in athletics across the sport spectrum. This is especially true when looking at the college sports realm. In today’s sporting society, there is not a true “offseason” like there was decades ago. Student-athletes are now asked to compete in year round programs. Players participate in winter conditioning and lifting programs almost immediately following their last game. While there have been studies on burnout among rugby players (Cresswell & Eklund, 2005) as well as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in college athletes during the season (Kingston, Horrocks, & Hanton, 2006), there have been no studies that focus on the motivation of football players in the offseason. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how motivation for Division II football players is affected during the offseason. 20 Division II football players completed the SMS questionnaire. Results will be discussed as it relates to current literature. ESS 495

108. Wood, Caitlin. Psychology. Roger Drake. Higher Categorization of Knowledge

Knowledge is broken down into chunks of information that is easier to store in our brain, called categories. There are different levels of categories generalized categories such as generic bits of information are the most simple then basic categories are formed then with more knowledge comes subordinate levels of information. Humans begin to form categories of knowledge when they are infants, roughly around two months old. As humans develop their ability to categorize knowledge advances with information and experience. Categorization is a useful way to encode information in the brain. PSY 338

109. Woolman, Ashley, Foote, Warner, Jeramaine. Biology. Randall Spydell. Who Shares Your Water?

Our group recorded animals and their tracks left behind along the local tributaries to consider the other organisms that share water with us. BIOL 135