Program of Spring 2011 Poster Presentations

WSC Celebration of Scholarship Undergraduate Research Symposium

Thursday, April 21, 2011, College Center North Ballroom

12:40  Introduction and opening remarks

12:45 Keynote Address:  Aleshia and Marcella Fremgen “Gateway to Higher Learning”


Posters

The Posters are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the submitting author. The discipline and supervising instructor are listed after the authors. Because a central goal of the event is to explore the practices of communication and critical inquiry across disciplines in the tradition of the liberal arts, the disciplines and course levels (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) are intentionally mixed.  We hope this encourages cross disciplinary interactions as well as providing opportunities for cross class communication and role modeling. Where a poster is part of a specific course project the course number is indicated at the end of the abstract.

1. Ainsworth, Cameron, Mario Gomez, Christopher Yeamans. Biology, Amy Honan. Doorknobs of Hurst

The experiment was designed to the compare the amount of bacteria present on the inside and outside of a specific bathroom doorknob in Hurst hall. It was our hypothesis that bacteria would more abundant on the inside knob surface as opposed to the outside knob of the bathroom. Using sterilized swabs and Petri dishes we collected samples from the knob on a weekly basis for five weeks and looked for bacteria colony growth. We then compared the growth on the inside and outside of the doors knob to determine  witch side of the door handle had the most bacteria present.  The data we collected  was  congruent with our hypothesize,  there were more colonies present on the inside of the bathroom door than on the outside. BIOL 135

2. Allyn, Tyler. Math. Jeremy Muskat. Algebraic Coding Theory   

When information is transmitted across an interface, it is very possible that the received information will have errors.   Algebraic Coding Theory is a branch of mathematics that improves the accuracy of such transmissions.  Whether it is the simple scanning of a product at the grocery store, or the transmitting of an image from a satellite, we find algebraic codes in almost every aspect of modern communication.  This important field of mathematics implements ingenious strategies to detect, and sometimes correct, errors in messages.  In my poster, I will be exploring several of theses strategies, including the Hamming Code.   

3. Arnett, Shawnda and Shane Calkins. Biology. Amy Honan. Macroinvertebrates of the Taylor River

Our experiment was to determine the water quality in the Taylor River by looking at the different macroinvertabres. We did this by looking for the macroinvertabres on rocks at three locations on the Taylor river. Our results were that Harmel's location had the most macroinvertebrates of four sensitive, one semi sensitive and two tolerant macroinvertebrates. All this information lead us to determine that the Harmel's location had the best water quality which was a fair rating. BIOL 135

4. Arnold, William and Hanna, Daniel. Astronomy. Dr. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution

We are going to talk about the International Dark Sky Association's definition of light pollution. The three types of light pollution will also be provided: Sky glow, glare, and light tresspass. Then the cause of the pollution will be provided. Finaly the effects that light pollution has on the world in cluding examples, such as how frogs wont sing their mating songs under artificial light and that higher nighttime levels of light have been connected to an increase in cancer. PHYS 110

5. Barker, Kristin. Biology. Dr. Pat! Magee. Seasonal variation in movements, home range, and habitat use of red fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura) in Gunnison, Colorado

Besides humans, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has the most widespread distribution of all terrestrial mammals.  Foxes living in widely differing environments inevitably display differing behavioral characteristics; therefore, studying red fox in a variety of environments is vital to understanding the overall species.  Gunnison, Colorado offers the unique opportunity to study the subspecies of red fox native to the Rocky Mountains in a high-altitude transitional ecosystem composed of a variety of habitats including urban, suburban, rural, agricultural, and riparian areas.  The fox only arrived in the Gunnison Basin within the past three decades, and many facets of its life remain unknown.  Research on red fox movements, home range characteristics, habitat use, and mortality were initiated in 2006.  The current project investigates seasonal differences in fall and winter red fox use.  As an omnivorous meso-predator, the fox potentially impacts local fauna, so better understanding its requirements can greatly assist in understanding and managing its impact on other species.        

6. Bell, Allison, Matthew Vojta, and Kevin Gillespie. Biology. Amy Honan. Ski Area Subnivean Environment 

Underneath the snowpack lies the subnivean environment. This environment is often a home for many different animals during the cold winter months. This research project looks at the effects of altitude on the hospitality of the subnivean environment. To look at the different subnivean environments we dug snow pits at three different altitudes and measured snow density and temperature. At lower altitudes we found that the snowpack is less dense and has higher temperatures creating the most hospitable subnivean environment, than at higher altitudes. BIOL 135

7. Bernier, Kathryn. Biology.Kevin Alexander, Ph.D. Floral Diversity as a Habitat Indicator for the Uncompahgre Fritillary Butterfly, Boloria acrocnema (Nymphalidae)    

The federally endangered Uncompahgre fritillary butterfly, Boloria acrocnema, is a tundra dependent species, endemic to the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado.  Larvae depend upon the host plant snow willow, Salix nivalis, as their exclusive food source, while adults nectar from various floral sources.  This study provides baseline floral diversity and abundance data relevant for understanding UFB habitat characteristics and stability in the face of potential climate change.  Paired comparisons of floral diversity and nectar source abundance between UFB occupied habitat and nearby geographically similar yet unoccupied habitat were conducted using a 100m line transect intersect method as well as 10 randomly selected 0.5m2 plots per site.  Data analysis compared 2010 data to historic data from Britten and Riley (1994) as well as between current occupied and unoccupied sites.  Significant differences between occupied and unoccupied sites were not found, however interesting trends emerged.  These data trends may help to develop models that include more complex climatic and floral diversity interactions than single explanation models can provide.          

8. Bowker, Shaun. Exercise and Sports Science. Scott Drum and Christina Buchanan. Shredding for Science

The objective of this quantitative quasiexperimental study was to investigate the relationship between lift served skiing and snowboarding in multiple types of terrain and the effect it has on skiers’ and snowboarders’ physiology. The multiple types of terrain included groomers, steeps, and bumps.Skiers: 1 female, 2 males. Snowboarders: 1 female, 2 males. Mean age: 29.5 years old. Mean weight: 159.4 pounds. Mean height: 70 inches. Each subject was pretested for VO2max using the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Then each subject did three runs in each type of terrain and their heart rate, blood pressure, RPE, and respiration rates were recorded. At this point in the data collection bumps made people work harder overall and snowboarders seemed to work harder in the bumps than skiers based on heart rate and blood pressure. ESS 495

9. Bradford, Hope, Gabby Kellman, and Scott Krieger.Environmental Studes. Johnathan Coop. Comparing Snow Water Equivalent and Snow Depth Between Backcountry and Ski Resort Areas         

Although it is recognized that ski resorts have many impacts on montane species and ecological processes, their effects on snow water storage and water quality have not been examined. In this study we compare snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth between snow from a ski resort and a nearby backcountry area. We sampled 20 sites from backcountry areas that were skied and unskied and 20 sites from resort groomed/blown and groomed/unblown areas at Snodgrass Mountain and Crested Butte Mountain Resort in western Colorado. We found significant differences between snow depths in backcountry skied areas and groomed/unblown resort areas as well as between SWE in unskiied backcountry areas and groomed/blown resort areas. However, skied backcountry areas and groomed/unblown resort areas showed no difference in SWE. The study determined the impact Crested Butte Mountain Resort has on snow water equivalent and water quality is negligible. ENVS 390

10. Brown, Ali, Heather MacDonald-Boulter, Thomas Bommarito, Kristen Olguin, and Elliot Lacroix. Physics. Susan Taylor. Gunnison, Not Dark Enough

Light pollution is a problem in most areas around the world; and in the Gunnison Valley it is no different.  In this poster we will focus on a basic understanding of the causes, negative effects, and possible solutions of light pollution.  We also focus on how light pollution affects different areas in the Gunnison Valley.  Digital photos of the star constellation Pleiades were taken from two locations: inside the city limits, and at the base of Hartman Rocks.  We used these photos to do a comparison of how light pollution affected the magnitude of the stars differently in each location.  We found that even the smallest of towns can be affected by light pollution in big ways. PHYS 110

11. Campbell, Zach. Physics. Dr. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution           

The point of our project is to decrees the amount of light pollution in Gunnison Valley. Some tactics that can be used to reduce light pollution are downward facing lights, shielding lights to not be seen from neighbor’s house, reducing the amount of light your house is gives off, and turning of lights when no one is inside. Western’s Campus is one of the places in the valley most affected by light pollution. We could use the year of sustainability to get lights turned off night, or use downward facing lights across campus to reduce westerns contribution to light pollution in valley. PHYS 110     

12. Cervantes, Mark.Anthropology. Sikkink. Sports Subcultures Around Campus         

This paper explores the cultural and social differences and similarities that are found within team sports compared to individual-level sports. This paper intends to show that there are similarities and differences in rituals, behaviors, social organization, and other variables associated with subcultures. The paper suggests that when these variables are compared for both team sports (e.g., basketball) and individual sports (e.g., skateboarding), there will be a difference in how the subcultures use language, organize themselves, and behave. Based on interviews with participants from the sports subcultures around campus, along with observations, I will present a chart that compares subcultures, and demonstrates that all of the subcultures function similarly even though the variables differ.  Based on Malinowski’s theory of functionalism, this paper will demonstrate the cultural logic in how subcultures function, even while these subcultures may stress their differences. ANTH  465

13. Crook, Andy. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Effectiveness of 5-hour Energy before, during, and after workouts

The objective of this quantitative quasi-experimental case study was to investigate the impact of 5-hour Energy on motivation and energy levels before, during, and after a workout. The study included 16 participants, 13 males and 3 females that exercised at least three days per week. The study took just two weeks to complete where one group of eight participants took 5-hour Energy 45 minutes to an hour prior to exercise and the other group just maintained their regular diet while staying hydrated. Before, during, and after their workout participants recorded their motivation and energy levels. After the study is complete, data will be compiled to compare energy levels and motivation statistically looking at individual results between the week that they took 5-hour Energy and the week they did not. Individual results will then be compared to all other participants. ESS 495

14. Crosby,Amanda, Tyler Graves, Sara Luchin, and David Goodman. Environmental Studies. Jonathon Coop. The Effects of Temperature and Precipitation on Trout Populations in the Gunnison Valley   

Trout population dynamics are affected by temperature, precipitation, snowmelt rate and timing, and runoff.  In this study, we analyze the effects of temperature, precipitation, snow water equivalency, runoff, and Blue Mesa Reservoir level on brown and rainbow trout populations in Gunnison County, Colorado.  We obtained forty years of data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Colorado Division of Wildlife, and the U. S. Geological Survey to test for these relationships.  Based on future climate projections in Colorado, if trout populations decrease during years of increased annual temperature and decreased annual precipitation, snow water equivalency, and water level, then we expect similar trends in the future.  If these trends become apparent, fish hatcheries would need to increase trout stocks to help maintain stable trout populations. ENVS 390

15. Davis, Hillory. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. The Relationship Between Various Social Influences and an Athletes Integration into Colligate Sports       

The purpose of this mixed methods non-experimental study will be to explore the relationship between social influences and why college athletes initially become involved in their sport. Methods: A survey was given to ten athletes from each seven intercollegiate sports (N=70) at a small Division II College in the Rocky Mountains. Protocol: The survey was used to obtain a large amount to data about what social factors influence people into participating in certain sports. The surveys were coded and analyzed   in order to determine patterns and/ or relationships associated within each sport. Results: The results and conclusion of this study are forthcoming. ESS 495

16. Eifling, Blake. Mathematics. Andy Keck. Oscillation within the Heart           

The human heart beating can be described as an oscillation. As the heart beats, charge builds up within the cells of the heart and is then released, triggered by the Sinoatrial node, causing the muscle to contract. The SA node is the body's built in pacemaker that keeps the heart in normal rhythm. In the event of an unhealthy heart, an artificial pacemaker is implanted in the heart to maintain a normal rhythm. The Fitzhugh-Nagumo model describes the action potential within nerve cells and is described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. My poster will describe this system and examine forcing the two different types of oscillations with the goal to control the period and amplitude using small forcing terms.  MATH 495

17. Ewing, Gaia, and Kira Redzinak. Athropology. Lynn Sikkink and Casey Dukeman. Projectile Point Typology for the Gunnison Basin        

In this project I will create a projectile point typology for the Gunnison Basin.  The sequence will be based on the site called Lotta-Points Ridge, located southwest of the town of Gunnison, CO.  Through sourcing the raw material, I will determine if the points are local or non-local, and standard point measurements will be provided.  Typologies previously outlined by B. Pitblado, D.H. Thomas, and G. Frisin will also be referenced, and I will attempt to synthesize their approaches into one efficient typology.  From this data, information about relative dates, mobility, and land use can be inferred.  This research has implication for regional archaeology because the sequence may be brought into other sites in the Gunnison Basin and expanded upon." ANTH  465

18. Fuller, Mark. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Comparison of Baseline Fisheries Data for Local Drainages Surrounding Alaskas Lake Marie Lodge      

Located one hundred twenty miles northeast of Anchorage Alaska, is Alaska's Lake Marie Lodge. Local Drainages surrounding the lodge are home to residential species of rainbow trout, dolly varden and arctic grayling. These local drainages also produce annual runs of five species of anadromous king, silver, pink, chum and sockeye salmon. In 2009, a study involving the collection of base line fisheries data and several environmental parameters were recorded for the drainages surrounding Lake Marie Lodge in hopes of gaining valuable information about the local fisheries. In 2010, the study was repeated in the same locations and comparisons of the two data sets were made.  Comparing the 2010 fisheries data to the previous the year’s data will not only serve as historical data for later reference but help to better understand the behaviors of the anadromous salmon that return every year to their natal spawning ground located around the lodge. BIOL 499

19. Gentry, Brandon. ESS. Christina Buchanan. Exercise Adherence; The Difference Between Individual and Group Exercise          

Adherence in its finest definition is a strong devotion, support, allegiance, or an attachment to. Anybody can go to the gym and work out, but where the real challenge lies is the ability to remain consistent. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine individual versus group exercise and exercise adherence. The question was: would people rather work out with a friend or a group to give them that extra motivation, or are people able to adhere to exercise better when they work out by themselves? For this study, ten college students were surveyed. The survey had about five questions based on exercise adherence and motivation. The results and conclusions for this study will be completed on April 20th, 2011. ESS 495

20. Gollobith, Austin.Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan Why is adolescent physical fitness declining?      

The purpose of this qualitative random study was to examine the involvement of middle school students in physical activity and their alternative hobbies.  Methods: 100 students participated in filling out questionnaires about their physical activity and alternative hobbies.  The questionnaires included yes and no questions and open ended questions to better understand their involvement in physical activity and alternative activities that may take away from physical activity.  Conclusion/results: The results showed what seemed to be a decline in their activity due to other factors such as screen time and lack of enjoyment of physical activity.  Overall, the subjects’ main source of physical activity came from their required physical education class. ESS 495

21. Goodwin, Mary. Biology. Cassandra Osborne. The environmental estrogen, Bisphenol-A, alters early development in Xenopus laevis      

It has been suggested that a environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides and industrial solvents have deleterious effects on development of organisms by disrupting hormone sensitive processes. We have exposed Xenopus laevis embryos to the environmental estrogen Bisphenol-A (BPA) in concentrations from 1 to 10 μM, and have seen increased vasculogenesis at tailbud stages. Unfortunately, the results for the 0.01% ethanol control group showed very similar results. We will be running exposure experiments again using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent for BPA. If increased vasculogenesis continues for the treated tadpole, but is not present in both the Holtfretter’s solution and DMSO controls, then the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein will be further investigated with Western blotting techniques.                       

22. Gowins, John, Luke Lave, Adam Adamo, and Nouubaissem Baroumbaye. Biology. Robin Bingham. Does herbicide resistance affect herbivore preference?

Some research has been done that suggests that the development of herbicide-resistance in plants produces fitness costs, or has other effects on the characteristics of resistant plants. We were interested in the possibility that other characteristics that may have developed among resistant strains of Brassica rapa influenced their desirability as food. We placed similar leaves from resistant B. rapa plants and herbicide-susceptible plants together in a dish with a single caterpillar. After several hours of feeding we compared the amount of resistant leaf eaten with the amount of susceptible leaf eaten, and found a significant difference in the amount of leaf consumed. The caterpillars in each of seven trials consumed more resistant leaf. The results indicate a difference between the resistant and non-resistant strains that affects the preference of the caterpillars. BIOL 151

23. Graham, Martin. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Athletes Identities: The Psychological Transition from College Athlete to Non-Athlete    

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how much college athletes’ identities change as they transition out of their sport when their eligibility is exhausted.  The study consisted of one-on-one interviews with five previous college athletes both male and female, from a small Division II college in the Rocky Mountains. The interviews were based on a handful of qualitative questions that allowed the athletes to elaborate on their answers in order to express themselves completely.  The interview conversations explained how the exhaustion of the athletes’ eligibility has affected their self-perception. By analyzing the changes they have experienced in their social lives and how they perceive themselves it is evident that exhausting eligibility has a large impact on athletes’ identities. Learning more about the identity changes will help develop ways in the future for athletes to have a smoother transition from being a college athlete. ESS 495

24. Griffin, Emma, Brian Sampson, and Amanda Sanchez. Biology. Amy Honan. Plant Fitness of GM Brassica rapa

The plant fitness of the GMO Brassica plants will be greater in both amounts of leaves as well as height compared to the regular Brassica Plants.  To test this hypothesis we grew both GMO and regular Brassica plants for three weeks. At the end of the three weeks when they were fully grown we counted the number of leaves and recorded the height for each GMO and regular plant. Looking at the graph of average leaves and height we found that the GMO plants were taller in height, but fewer in leaves than the regular Brassica plants. We then conducted a t-test and found that there actually is no correlation between the averages of leaves or the average height. The GMO Brassica plants had the same fitness as the regular.  BIOL 135

25. Haro, Sipes Rene, Ryan Lockwood, Jay Frazier, and Greg Gentile. Astronomy. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution in Gunnison                                                          

Our project is to see the effects of light pollution in Gunnison, or more specifically where it is most potent in Gunnison. We examined the reach of light pollution in the surrounding areas of Gunnison. We will go around to different spots of Gunnison and surrounding areas to see how much the light is affecting our view of the stars. Each spot will have something different about that makes it unique to our study. We will look directly downtown, then at a spot on a main road but not downtown, a spot in town that’s not on a main road, and a place outside of town. By examining these four spots in and around town it will really give us a great look in light pollution in Gunnison. In the end we found that the worst of the light pollution in Gunnison is on the main roads. Of the main roads the view is good and out of town the view is great, just on the two main roads, Tomichi and Main is there a problem with light pollution." PHYS 110

26. Hetland, Trista. Exercise Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. More Money, More Problems?         

The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental case study was to investigate the biomechanics differences with inexpensive running shoes versus expensive running shoes on the running forms of two female volleyball players. The idea for this study came after reading a statistic that stated a runner is 123 times more likely to get injured if wearing shoes that cost more than $80 than if wearing shoes that cost $40. There seemed to be a lot of conflict and inconsistencies in the research, so it brought about the question for this study. Two female collegiate volleyball players ran on a treadmill. They were filmed and their biomechanics were analyzed using Dartfish. One ran in a shoe that cost $20 and the other ran in a shoe that cost $90. The different biomechanics of the two participants were then examined. ESS 495

27. Hill, Matthew. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Parents and Exercise

The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the trends of physical activity levels prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, and post pregnancy for both mothers and fathers. Methods: 20 subjects, 10 fathers and 20 mothers, were asked to answer questionnaire survey will be used in order to collect data on how physical activity levels have changed from prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, and post pregnancy. Questions focused on variables such as time spent exercising during the 3 periods, what types of exercise and intensity, number of children, how much time spent at work, family status, and affordability of childcare. These variables were analyzed qualitatively. Results & Conclusion: Results and conclusion are forthcoming and will be reported after the study is completed. ESS 495

28. Howe, Karen, Cale Fry, Rebecca Oeding, and Genessa Heide. Honors. Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Baby Boomers: The Influence of a Generation: The Social Implications of Change   

We looked at the impacts of the Baby Boomers on Generation Y through a sociological perspective. They differ because increased scientific knowledge of global environmental issues encourages active participation through markets, nonprofit organizations, and citizens also, redefines regulations protecting environmental and human health. Each place varied importance on social issues which reflect changing values through our interactions and future choices we make. The Boomers focused on values of freedom and peace while our generation reacted with importance to resources, materials, and monetary gain. In addition, we examined the implications of going straight into the work force or gaining more education and the effects this will have on the future. Interactions within the family have changed due to the choice between nursing homes or in-home care for the retiring Baby Boomer. Through our research we found that in the future there will be multiple choices to make that dictate social interaction. HNRS 200

29. Howe, Karen, Dan Woods, Nacarid Silva, and Cisco Alvarado. Biology. Amy Honan. Effects of Magnesium Chloride on Brasscia Rapa Plants    

Magnesium Chloride (MgCl) is used as road melt and it sucked up by plant roots. Three trays of Brassica plants were tested with zero percent, one percent and three percent of MgCl solution to test their growth over a fourweek period.  The effects of MgCl on plants were measured through height, number of leaves and number of flowers. The higher the percentage of MgCl the smaller and less leaves and flowers the Brassica plants had. The results show that using MgCl on roads stunts plant growth over time. BIOL 135

30. Hughes, Dennis. ESS. Christina Buchanan. Influence of varying warm-up modalities on Division II Male Football Players Explosive Performance     

The purpose of this quantitative quasi- experimental study was to identify the influence flexibility and warm up have on power production in division II male football players. Subjects were tested to identify whether different warm up modalities have an effect on one’s ability to perform explosive movement in a physical activity setting or sport.  Methods: Participants were tested on a vertical jump setting and were tested in three separate modalities, static stretching, dynamic warm up, and control group, on 3 separate days. After each participant performed his designated warm up procedure the participant preceded to the testing portion. Testing was performed on a 22"x 22"x 9mm thick jump mat that recorded height and time of jump. All data was recorded, averaged and compared. Results/conclusion: results and conclusion will follow, pending the completion of testing and data analysis. ESS 495

31. Huson, Lindsay. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. What pyschological factors increase the risk of injury in an intercollegiate athlete?           

The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine what psychological factors increase the risk of injury in an intercollegiate athlete.  The study consisted of a selected group of male and female college students majoring in Exercise and Sport Science.  Lifestyle surveys were distributed to multiple classes at the college.  These lifestyle surveys contained questions that helped identify any outside factors that were going on in someone’s life during the time of an injury that could have possibly lead to internal psychological factors.  Three people were then asked to participate in a confidential one-on-one interview to elaborate on any of the psychological factors that were presented in the survey.  The one-on-one interview allowed me to find common themes from the participants therefore furthering my knowledge of the most common psychological factors and their roles in an athletic injury. Results and conclusions to follow.  ESS 495

32. Irsik, Jacob, Meg Ansteensen, Justin Sutton, Sierra Purcell, and Samantha Hirt. Astronomy. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution          

After doing some research on what light polution is, causes and effects, and how it can be fixed, we plan on implementing the following as well as some more information on our board. We found light pollution to be the glow of society drowning out natural star light. When researching causes, we found excessive lighting and overly powerful lighting to be the causes. We found the effects to be its a waste of power/energy/money as well as some more. FInally, when researching solutions, we found that we could apply more regulations on lighting. PHYS 110

33. Jones, Hali. Biology. Amy Honan. Effects of Human Population Density on Quaking Aspen Health           

Populus tremuloides, commonly known as Quaking Aspens, are found in a variety of areas in the Northern Hemisphere. This study examined the ratio of healthy to unhealthy Aspens as due to relative density of human residential development. Data was collected from six sites that varied in the level of residential development (urban, rural, and unpopulated), with two sites chosen to represent each level of development. It was found that the frequency of unhealthy trees was significantly less in the unpopulated area.  BIOL 135

34. Kaytlin, Hughes, Scott Nelson, Sarah Rodriguez, and Patrick Love. Honors. Heather Thiessen-Riely. Economic Impact of the Baby Boomer Generation

Our group explored the positive and negative economic effects of an aging Baby Boomer population, especially with respect to our generation.  We  examined their influence in four areas: job availability, consumer spending,  policy (Social Security and Medicare), and the current financial crisis. With our research, we found that the Boomer demographic, because of their size and affluence, has prompted lasting economic changes, both privately and publicly. HNRS 200

35. Keefe, Ryan. Sports Management. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. First Time Injured Athletes         

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine what goes on inside the head of an injured athlete.  My subjects were five women from the Western State College women’s basketball team and four men from the Western State College men’s basketball team.  The subjects will fill out a five question survey, once they are all done filling out the survey I will interview them asking them all the same nine questions which will take about fifteen minutes.  I will be handing out the survey one person at a time and conducting the interviews one person at a time.  All of the answers that will be given to me by the players will be confidential so I will not tell anyone else who said what.  Once I am done with the surveys and interviews I will compare and contrast all of the answers that they gave to me for each number. ESS 495

36. Keys, Justin. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Scholarship Athletic success compared to Walk-on Athletic success     

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the level of athletic success between walk-on and scholarship athletes. The level of success was determined by whether or not either walk-on, or scholarship athletes finished out their four years of sport eligibility and they received their academic degree. Two male Division II athletes, one on scholarship and one not receiving scholarship, were given a questionnaire to find out their individual experiences during their time on the team and competing. An interview with the Head Wrestling Coach was conducted to determine the status of each wrestler that was on the team and those past teams for the last 5 years. Data will be analyzed using correlations between scholarship and non-scholarship athletes as well as coding of each athletes individual interview on their experiences. ESS 495

37. Kicklighter, Alison and Jesse Howe. Honors. Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Baby Boomers: TheInfluence of a Generation    

This group studied the political trends of the Baby Boomer generation with respect to education and sex education.  A comprehensive analysis between the Baby Boomer’s and Millennial generation’s educational standards and policies was performed to determine the impact of these on each generation.  As a result of their social actions, the Baby Boomers directly affected the national sex education policies from the 1970’s and beyond.  Today’s teenage pregnancy rates and teenage rates of sexual activity were used to analyze the effectiveness of governmental policies relating to sex education.  As a cohort the Baby Boomers have always been politically and socially active and this remains true with the policies relating to education and sex education.  It is possible that these policies may adversely affect both the Millennial and future generations.  Thus, possible remedies to problems arising out of each subtopic were explored. HNRS 200

38. Magee, Tyler, Cameron Samson, Mandi Pickerill, Adam Fuselier, John Freeman, and Chris Coate.            Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution: Ramifications and Remedies

Light pollution poses a problem with no easy solution. It is taking place on a global scale.  This type of pollution mainly occurs in developed areas that have the ability to run artificial lights on a massive scale; resulting in light escaping into the atmosphere. This artificial light in the atmosphere hampers one’s ability to see the stars at night.  Causing a growing concern, light pollution is a difficult dilemma that sees no immediate end.  Nonetheless, there are solutions that are attempting to address this issue.  This poster will explain different research methods that establish data on light pollution and pose solutions to the results of this type of pollution. PHYS 110

39. McKenry, Devon. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Buddhism and its Fundamental Structure 

This paper explores the fundamental and structural aspects of Buddhism and its implications for the culture and life style of religious followers. Religion is a window into and is a fundamental component of culture. Using the anthropological theory by Levi Strauss of structuralism I argue that cross cultural studies of religion can help us to understand the fundamental structure of the human psyche. The research suggests that a religious structure can contribute to a healthy culture. The Buddhist religion provides a good example and is also a model for people to live by. This research intends to focus on the beneficial factors of Buddhism on the culture of an individual immersed in the religion. This demonstrates that having a configuration of an ideal way of life and knowing that the surrounding people follow the same guidelines there develops a comfort factor for the individual. ANTH 465

40. Miller, Brandon. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan.  Does physical activity inable clients with disabilities to live better ADL's (Activity Daily Living)         

The purpose of this quantitative study was to gain in depth information on physical activity in people with mental and physical disabilities. Informed consents were obtained from each subject. Then a profile was set up for each subject, following the profile, subjects filled out surveys before and after each activity day. The surveys were designed to get a sense of what each subject was feeling or what type of mood each subject was in before and after their exercise program. Data was analyzed descriptively; results and conclusions are forthcoming.            

41. Shunk, Monica. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Western State College's Sustainability Action Plan           

What comes after the 2010-2011 Year of Sustainability for Western State College?  The environmental studies capstone class ENVS 400 has been collaborating with partners across campus to draft a working Sustainability Action Plan.  Three campus-wide events were held during the semester, including an initial SWOT to generate ideas, a follow-up opportunities forum to identify shared goals, and a World Café event to promote dialogue and refine proposed action items.  We developed six working groups, food, energy, transportation, material flow, campus landscape, and education to work with campus members across disciplines to develop strategic actions to meet their target goals. The sustainability plan is intended to stand as a living document, able to grow and adapt with the changing future circumstances.  Future ENVS 400 courses, as well as invested campus organizations and individuals, will continue to fulfill the strategic actions outlined in the plan towards a more sustainable Western State College. ENVS  390

42. Myers, Devin. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. To Drink or not to Drink that is the Question: Impact of Alcohol on Physical Fitness  

The objective of this quantitative quasi-experimental case study was to determine the effects of excessive vs. moderate alcohol consumption on two males’ VO2   max, before and after a 5 week training regimen. Methods: Risk stratification tests were performed on two sedentary males (ages 21 and 23, heights 70 and 77 in., weights 186 and 200 lbs.). Both subjects underwent a pre and a post training sub-max VO2 test. Subjects trained aerobically (3-5 times/week) at varying heart rate zones for the 5 week training period. The individuals continued their normal drinking habits during the training regimen. After the study concluded results were collected and descriptively analyzed. Results/Conclusions: forthcoming. ESS 495

43. Giese, Natalie. Exercise and Sport Science. Kathleen Kinkema. The Relationship Between Exercise Identity and Exercise Participation in Older Women

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and exercise participation in older women. Methods: The population for this study was 15 women between the ages of 52 and 82. These women had been participating in 30 minute circuit workout for 2 months to 10 years. Participants completed a 9-item Exercise Identity Scale (EIS) that examined how important exercise was as a part of their self-identity. They also completed an 8-item physical attribution “this is me” scale that measured levels of self-confidence. Results/Conclusion: In progress" ESS 495

44. Neuroth, Tiffany. Mathematics. Jeremy Muskat. Final Digits of Strings       

Let s be any positive integer, is there an integer n such that n^3 ends in s? The answer is yes.  I will present the case when s is a positive integer ending in 1,3,7, or 9.  My poster will highlight patterns that arise naturally while solving this problem.  The majority of the proof is accomplished using modulo arithmetic, and induction to find an integer n such that n^3 ends in s.                 

45. Olsen, Kirky.OLRM & ESS. Christina Buchanan. Music Tempo and Climbing Speed: Is there a correlation?           

Background: Little research has been conducted on the correlation between music tempo and rock climbing speed. Purpose: The intent of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to explore the relationship between music tempo and climbing speed using experienced college-age rock climbers in an indoor setting. Methods: A total of 10 male student volunteers from a small rocky mountain college participated in this study. Heart rate and speed of the climber were analyzed in correlation with music tempo. Dartfish was used in order to accurately measure speed. Each volunteer climbed three indoor routes three times each on separate occasions. The climbing sessions were separated by 24 hours, and performed at the same time of day. Data was analyzed descriptively. Results: Forthcoming. Conclusion/Discussion: The results found may be able to help climbers to find the optimal music to listen to while climbing indoors.  ESS 495

46. Ott, Luke. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Concentration Affects Aerobic Performance           

The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental case study was to examine the effects of concentration on substrate utilization during aerobic exercise in college athletes. Three subjects were tested using ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 System to identify their gas analysis, metabolism, and substrate utilization. Subjects: Two male/one female, mean weight of 150 lbs, and mean VOâ‚‚max of 45 ml/kg/min. The subjects were brought to 75% of max HRR using Bruce Treadmill Protocol from which the analysis began for five minutes. The subjects performed two tests selected in random order with the inclusion of concentration flashcards or music as a distraction. The results and conclusion for the study are forthcoming."  ESS 495

47. Pantleo, Joshua. Psychology. Roger Drake. A survival guide for families dealing with the "Big C"

The goal of this paper was to provide families with knowledge and coping skills to deal with a cancer diagnosis of a family member. This paper looks at research from the field of psychology as it applies to cancer patients and their families. Some information provided in this paper deals with how each family member could be potentially be affected by a cancer diagnosis. This paper also looks at how families in other portions of the world are affected when a family member is diagnosed with cancer. PSY 498

48. Pifer, Kaitlin. Exercise Science. Kathleen Kinkema. Effects of a Strength Training Program on Boys with Duchene’s Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)      

A metacognitive review and proposed study are investigated concerning DMD. DMD is a type of Muscular Dystrophy caused by a specific gene mutation. When a child with DMD reaches eight to twelve years he is most likely bound to a wheelchair. What if a program could increase a child's strength so they are not bound to a wheelchair? Few studies have investigated the effects of strength training on individuals with DMD. The goal of designing a strength-training program for a boy with DMD would be to increase his muscular strength, which may enhance mobility and amplify his body's ability to participate in normal childhood activities." ESS 495

49. Pipher, Charlie. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Wrestling Injuries: How Four Varsity Wrestlers Returned to Wrestling After Injuries    

The purpose of this qualitative study was to find out how four different wrestlers reacted to injuries and how they were affected when they returned to their sport.  Each wrestler’s situation was different in many ways.  One was a senior who had been plagued with injuries throughout his career.  One was a freshman who was the varsity guy until his final injury. One was a redshirt freshman who was needed on varsity but was overcoming an injury.  And finally, one was injured last year and quit due to being tired of overcoming injuries.  Each interview was started with a list of open ended questions.  The questions focused on how injury affected each athlete's return to the sport, as well as what other factors affected the athletes.  Other variables such as the coach, team, and family attitude and support while the athlete was injured were taken into account.             

50. Prins, Roberta, Zach Beereboom, Micheal Jury, and Sean Conway. Biology. Robin Bingham. Effects of Genetic Modification on the Photosynthetic Rate of Brassica Rapa          

Brassica rapa is a plant often used for experiments due to its short generation time and its ease of growing and maintaining. This experiment used Brassica rapa to study the effects of genetic modification on the photosynthetic rate of plants. Twenty-four plants were grown- twelve genetically modified and twelve non genetically modified under the same light and water conditions. After the plants were full-grown, the photosynthetic rate of the leaves was tested for both varieties of the Brassica rapa plants. It was discovered that the genetic modification of the Brassica rapa plant affected the photosynthetic rate: the rate was slower than the rate of the non genetically modified Brassica rapa plants. BIOL 151

51. Redzinak, Kira and Gaia Irene Ewing. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Fat Man in a Little Coat: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Physical Comedy   

In this project I will endeavor to find the similarities and differences between varying senses of humors among cultures. Humor will be defined as something that is designed to be comical or amusing and expressing or appreciating the ludicrous or absurd. My research will draw from Henri Berguson’s book Laughter, by specifically focusing on Bergson’s properties of physical comedy and whether they are apparent in Gunnison, Colorado. This research will be conducted through extensive survey, while researching various other cultures through Keith Basso and his Apache research, to Dwight Conquergood and his work with the Hmong, to Julian Steward’s work with the “buffoon” in Native cultures, and various other sources from ethnographies around the world and eHRAF. I expect to find that comedy in general; specifically physical comedy will differ greatly from culture to culture, and I will demonstrate the specifics of comical variation. ANTH 465

52. Richardson, Tara, Rachael Carpenter, Natalie Huckaby, and Sophie McNeely. Biology. Robin Bingham. Effects of Density on Intra-Species Competition by Evaluating the Fitness Levels of Brassica Rapa and Herbicide Resistant Brassica Rapa        

The ecological affects of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is of much debate in today’s biotechnology community. This study looks compares the fitness level of Brassica rapa (B-rapa) and herbicide resistant Brassica rapa (HR B-rapa) at different densities. We hypothesized that the HR B-rapa would display higher fitness levels at both densities when compared to unmodified B-rapa. Planting three replications of two separate densities we were able to compare fitness by measuring germination, height, stem system biomass and root length. Results showed no significant difference in the fitness levels between HR B-rapa and B-rapa. BIO 151

53. Rike, Abigail, Dixie Riddle, and Courtney Wheeler. Astronomy. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution

Our project was to observe the light pollution in Crested Butte. We observed from the town, the mountain, and the valley. We discovered that most of the light pollution in Crested Butte is from the moon reflecting off the snow on the mountain, making it very bright and hard to see the stars. This, combined with the light from the housing on the side of the mountain, contributes the most to the visibility problems. Within the town, it is also hard to see, but descending farther into the valley, the town makes a smaller impact than the mountain itself. The lights from all of the homes and the resort could be helped with the addition of sensors. If the lights go out at night, and only come on when a car, or a person enters the sensor, it would cut down dramatically on the man made pollution."  PHYS 110

54. Roberts, Kayla. Psychology. Roger Drage. Effective Problem Solving: The Dangers of Fixation     

Problem solving can be a difficult thing to overcome; it becomes more difficult when individuals become fixated on a certain aspect of the problem. People can become fixated on anything, the function of an item, the instructions, or even examples shown to them at some point. Article one discusses how people become fixated on examples shown to them although the examples were flawed. The article also discussed a group told specifically told to ignore the examples. The group that was told to ignore the examples was not fixated while the other group was.  Article two contained information about functional fixedness in which participants become fixated to the practical use of the item rather than what it could be used for.  In two groups the experiment had identical problems and instructions; the only difference was the way the materials were presented to them. The way in which the materials were presented effected how long it took each group to solve the problem.  PSYCH 338

55. Rosales, Michael. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Visual Distraction during Aerobic Exercise         

The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if performing aerobic exercise with visual distraction affects hear rate and rate of perceived exertion. Methods: Subjects were three males and three females: subjects completed a survey on films they enjoyed and films the disliked. Then subjects completed three 15 minute bike rides. The first ride with no visual distraction, the second with a visual distraction they disliked. And the third ride with a visual distraction they enjoyed. Heart rates and rate of perceived exertion levels were monitored throughout each ride. Data was analyzed descriptively comparing the differences between each condition.  ESS 495

56. Sampson, Brian, Thomas J. Peck, and Hannah Rayburn. Biology. Robin Bingham. Seed and Fruit set Between Brassica Rapa and GM Brassica Rapa Resistant to Herbicide       

In this research we strived to find the seed and fruit set between the standard Brassica rapa, and the Genetically Modified Brassica rapa resistant to herbicide. Therefore our hypothesis was that the Seed and fruit set between the GM B. rapa and the standard B. rapa will have no significant difference from the standard B. rapa alone. So in doing this we planted and grew both organisms until flowering period had started. Then with the use of bee buts, we cross pollinated the GM B. rapa with the standard B. rapa. As our control we also did the same between the standard B. rapa. Then after the fruits had been grown we counted the number of fruit and seeds from each plant to do comparative analysis. During this process we have an experimental error in our control where the standard B. rapa failed to germinate with one another. This producing an unreliable source for seed set, we were not able to draw any conclusions supporting or denying our hypothesis concerning seed set. But the control that failed to produce any seeds still produced fruit. BIOL 151    

57. Sandhagen-Turner, Rachael, Samantha Hirt, and Devani Lemmon. Honors. Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Baby Boomers: The Influence of a Generation      

Our project provides a comprehensive view of the aging of the Baby Boomer generation of Americans born form 1945-1960. In order to have information that is relevant, accurate, and interesting, we have several aspects of the Baby Boomers and their aging researched in detail, then we use patterns in ideas found in concepts from this research to show its importance to our generation and those of the future. We focus specifically on Medicare, Social Security, and other legislation formed for and impacted by the Baby Boomers. In addition to this, we look at the politicians and political trends behind the policies. There is an emphasis on how the aging of such a populous group effects both these political aspects, and create new political changes. HNRS 200

58. Schembri, Jared and Allison Porter. Psychology. Roger Drake. Meditations on Enhancing Individual Human Cognition:      

The research I have conducted for this written presentation will be based on Confabulation which means the incorrect retrieval of a human memory he or she believes to be true. Contemporary science conducted in the field of psychology proves this behavior using the methods of human observations and human behavior experiments. Psychologists were able to manipulate a situation forcing the subjects into forming confabulated memories. Subjects were forced to generate a response even if they had to guess in all three experiments. My first reference will be from our book titled Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday experience which is the assigned text for the class. My first article of primary research I found is titled Interviewer feedback in repeated interviews involving forced confabulation. Here the hypothesis was if confirmatory feedback would increase the likelihood of a confabulated memory. The second article was titled Enhancing the recall of young, young-old, and old-old adults with cognitive interviews. Here, scientists measured the quality and quantity of older adults recall when given a modified version of the ECI known as the modified enhan. PSY 338

59. Schembri, Jared. Psychology. Roger Drake. Efficient Tactics to Enhance the Cooperation of Others        

The research I have conducted for this written presentation will be based on how to effectively deliver a message and the message will actually be remembered by other humans and not forgotten. Contemporary science conducted in the field of psychology proves it is possible for messages to get people to do certain things and Robert B. Cialdini will be my first reference in my research. Cialdini wrote a fifth edition book called Influence: Science and Practice I will also be using the other social psychology text assigned for this class written by Elliot Aronson and I called The Social Animal: 9th edition. My first article of primary research I found is called The effectiveness of the door-in-the-face compliance strategy on friends and strangers by Murray G. Millar out of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Here, social psychologists manipulated certain situations with similar people in one situation and not similar people in another to measure the impact of door-in-the-face procedure concerns about self-presentation. The researchers hypothesized when a friend was to make the door-in-the-face confrontation the procedure would increase the participant’s concern about se" PSY 457

60. Schwartz, Kelsey. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Getting Old in the Gunnison Valley: How Local People Shaped the Culture  

Oral histories play a vital role in keeping peoples’ experiences alive as well as transmitting their stories to others. In the mid-1990s, Katie Lund created a permanent record of many of the Gunnison Valley old timers’ oral histories. Within these recorded oral histories, the elderly folks share memories from childhood, schooling, ranching, the Great Depression, changing weather patterns, what they feel are the greatest changes to happen to the Gunnison Valley in their lifetimes, and what their fears and hopes are for the future of the Gunnison Valley. Through careful examination of these particular oral histories, Pierre Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice (or Praxis) will be applied to help discover which agents helped shape the past of the Gunnison Valley and how the local people helped determine the culture of the Gunnison Valley. Bourdieu’s theories of habitus, fields, and doxa will also be employed to gain a greater understanding of social relationships, natural order, and personal use of innovation to create the past and present society within the valley.  ANTH 465

61. Shaw, Shannon, Elizabeth Cotten, Trevor Francke, Hayley Wegele. Biology. Robin Bingham. The Effects of Consumption of Herbicide-Resistant Brassica rapa on Pieris rapae Caterpillars

We performed an experiment to test the effects of genetically modified Brassica rapa on the growth of Pieris rapae caterpillars.  We divided P. rapae caterpillars into two groups, one being fed exclusively normal B. rapa and the second group was fed exclusively genetically modified B. rapa.  We measured the weights of the individual caterpillars before and after the test.  The results of the T-test proved our hypothesis false but there was a significant amount inaccuracy. BIOL 151

62. Simeons, Dustin, Cole Fritz, Patric Shortino, and Martin Graham. Biology. Amy Honan. Effects of Roads on Animal Behavior       

Animal behavior is affected by many different factors, and we were interested in investigating the effects that roads have on animal migration patterns. Snow along the Mill Creek road provided us with observations of where the animals were travelling. We observed several transects along Mill Creek that shared similar geographical characteristics. We then measured up to 1000 m. on both the north and south side of the road and recorded the tracks we saw along the way. As we hypothesized, animal tracks became denser the further away from the road we were. We concluded through our observations that, due to noise pollution and the animal’s association of roads with hunters, they choose their habitat in locations further away from roads. BIOL 135

63. Smith, Sage, Tavis Ryan, Ali Gulick, Carolyn Riggs, and Will Bullock. Astronomy. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution In and Near Gunnison, Colorado 

Light pollution is a misdirected or misused light resulting from an inappropriate application of exterior lighting. It affects animal behavior and dilutes visibility of the night sky. For the experiment, pictures were taken in two locations, Gunnison and at Hartman Rocks, of the constellation Orion and the subjective brightness of the stars were compared.  In the pictures, stars were subjectively brighter outside Gunnison city limits.  These results suggest that there is more light pollution in Gunnison city limits than in the surrounding areas. PHYS 110

64. Smith, Tyler. Biology. Shan Hays. Neocentromere Formation in Neurospora crassa          

A single centromere per chromosome is necessary to allows the proper segregation of sister chromatids into daughter cells during mitosis.  Specification of centromere identity is poorly understood in metazoans and many fungi, although epigenetic mechanisms appear to play a role.  We propose to investigate the manner in which centromere identity is established and maintained by deleting the endogenous centromere of  a chromosome  and  observing the formation of new centromeres, known as neocentromeres, elsewhere on the chromosome.                      

65. Smith, Soleil. Psychology. Roger Drake. Classical Conditioning and Association in Relation to Racial Prejudice       

The purpose of this research project was to examine the relevance of classical conditioning and association in terms of racial prejudice in Social Psychology. Prejudice in Social Psychology is affected by: in group favoritism, predetermined notions, biases and speculations and basic prejudice. PSY 457

66. Spydell, Kate. Mathematics. Bob Cohen. Network Immunization     

Sickness is something that seems to always be traveling through the WSC student network. We studied network properties and network immunization concepts. In our research we explored two different measures of centrality, or importance, to the network. Our goal was to determine which of these measures would give us the appropriate number of persons and which persons to immunize to stop a disease from spreading through the WSC student network. MATH 495

67. Strosnider, Andrew. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Whats the Point? How does a Liberal Arts Degree Prepare a Student for Immersion into a Global Society? 

This project explores the perceptions that the students, teachers and faculty of Western State College of Colorado hold about higher education.  I will demonstrate that a liberal arts degree is vital to personal development by cultivating a sense of global identity and ecological responsibility.  I define global identity as an assimilation of international trends and movements into the composition of an individual’s self.  Ecological responsibility is the awareness of human society in relation to its environment and members.  Drawing from interviews I show the differences between how a student and their professor views the necessity of a liberal education.  I also explore how the professor instills their concepts in their students.  I feel that this is a vital project in understanding global involvement and activism.  The development of a student’s identity to include a global and historical perspective is integral to operating within our rapidly shrinking world. ANTH 465

68. Suttorp, Shaun. Exercise Sport & Science. Christina Buchanan. The Effects of Music Type and Overall Bench Strength in Division II Football Players     

The purpose of this quantitative quasi experimental study was to examine how music type affects overall bench strength in division II football players. Methods: Subjects selected were ten division II football players. A pre-test was used for every subject to set a baseline max to compare to the condition maxes from the experiment. On three separate occasions in random order, the subjects were placed in three conditions of: rock music, rap, or white noise. The 1RM for the pre-test was compared to all three conditions to form a percent difference value. The pre-test 1RM was also compared to each condition via a t test (p= <.05).  Results: Results for this experiment are forthcoming. 

69. Tatum, Walker, Bryce Fisher, John O'Rourke, and Caleb Lockyer. Environmnetal Studies. Jonathon Coop. Snowpack Pollution in the Upper Gunnison Basin and Surrounding Mountain Ranges

Water quality in the western US is directly related to the conditions found in alpine snowpack. Total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and sulfates are a natural part of the hydraulic cycle, but in excess can have negative effects on water quality and freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to quantify TDS, sulfates, and pH in the alpine snowpack of the upper Gunnison basin and adjacent mountain ranges. We sampled alpine snowpack at 20 sites from Gunnison, Eagle, and Hinsdale counties accessed through backcountry skiing, snowshoeing, and resort skiing. Samples were taken using a 1.83m snow sampling tube with a total volume of 2.1 L. We analyzed the samples using a spectrometer, standard TDS test, and litmus test to determine pH, sulfate, and TDS levels. Together these measures indicate a general picture of the overall quality of snowpack in the selected areas. These results will provide information about water quality and potential concerns about pollution of snowpack in alpine areas. ENVS 390

70. Trautwein, Audrey, Kate Short, Sage Smith, and Lawrence Norquist. Biology. Robin Bingham. The Competitive Effect of Genetically Modified Brassica Rapa on Wild Type Brassica Rapa 

Brassica rapa is an annual weed with a fast growing time and a history for use in lab research. This experiment tests the competitive effect of B. rapa that has been genetically modified to be resistant to herbicides against its own wild type species. We hypothesized that the GM B. rapa would out-compete the wild type for resources. The set-up consisted of three replicates: one GM control group, one non-GM control group and the test group with seeds from both species. The seeds were planted in a homogenous soil mixture and provided uniform water and light sources. After three weeks, we measured the heights of each of the plants and compared the mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. Although the mean growth for GM B. rapa in our competitive group was slightly higher the mean for the wild type, our results did not provide sufficient support of our hypothesis. BIOL 151

71. Turner, Amanda, Jade Ream, Kayla Law, and Andi Roundy. Biology. Robin Bingham. Desiccation Effects On Traditional Brassica rapa and Genetically Modified Brassica rapa

We predict that the there will be no difference in stem height or biomass between the genetically modified herbicide resistant Brassica rapa and the traditional Brassica rapa whether watered or not. We used 12 traditional-B. rapa and 12 genetically modified Brassica rapa and watered 6 of both types of Brassica rapa regularly and deprived the other six of water. After two weeks we measured the stem length and biomass of both the GM-B. rapa and traditional-B. rapa. The majority of the graphs indicated insignificant p-values except when it came to the dry GMO biomass and the dry traditional biomass. Overall, our hypothesis was wrong and our results showed that the GM-B. rapa had a greater biomass, but a lower stem than the T-B. rapa. Since the GMO biomass was greater than the traditional we can conclude that the GMO is more likely to survive in a dry environment. BIO 151

72. Viles, Joni and Dr. Darby Sullivan. ESS. Christina Buchanan. Have Ultra-Marathons Gone To The Dogs? Three Case Studies in Canine Substrate Utilization         

The purpose of this study was to test the accepted theory that canines possess superior gluconeogenic mechanisms that allow them to efficiently create glucose despite their macronutrient intake. A secondary purpose was to explore the possibility that canines mobilize free-fatty-acids quickly and efficiently. Dogs with low carbohydrate intake yet normal glucose levels in their blood suggest gluconeogenesic properties. Dogs with low fat intake yet normal triglyceride levels suggest efficient mobilization of free fatty acids. Methods: Three healthy subjects of varying breed and diet were used. Each dog was exercised on a treadmill for approximately 20 minutes. A blood sample was taken prior to exercise and immediately after, then analyzed for glucose and triglyceride levels. Results were compared to the dog’s macronutrient intake provided by the guaranteed analysis on their dog food labels. Data was analyzed descriptively comparing each dog’s substrate output to their macronutirent intake. Results/Conclusion: to be determined. ESS 495

73. Wallace, Ashlee, Shelby Neese, and Kay Schedell. Honors. Heather Thiessen-Reily. A Historical Approach to the Baby Boom Generation  

The main purpose is to offer historical insight to the major causes of the Baby Boom Generation. Our aim is to inform and promote thought about the consequences, collective actions and aging of the Baby Boomer Generation and to raise awareness of the possible instabilities that could affect the current generation. The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, the GI Bill, and the construction of the modern highway system were looked at as well as how the Haber Process affected the agriculture of the time. We looked at how the increasing availability of jobs affected the parents of the baby boom generation, the housing market and spending trends. Trends and statistics of education were studied along with increasing number of schools and school resources. The Pill along with the discovery how of penicillin and other antibiotics promoted better well-being and relationships within the household, divorce rates, and sexual discrimination.  HNRS 200

74. Walter, Keenan and Luke Sample. Biology. Shan Hays. Examination of the Extent of Centromeric Silencing in Neurospora crassa

Eukaryotes divide their genomes between two regulatory regimes, repressive heterochromatin and permissive euchromatin.  Neither the boundary regions between heterochromatin and euchromatin nor the mechanism of identity-determination of these chromatin structures are well-understood.  We propose a genetic analysis of the centromeric boundary regions of the fungus Neurospora crassa in order to determine the extent silencing spreads from the centromeric heterochromatin.  This information can then be used in more detailed genomic and biochemical analyses of the boundary region in order to elucidate the mechanism by which boundaries function to separate these two chromatin structures.                  

75. Wells, Tashnia. Psychology. Roger Drake. School Counseling and the Use of Alternative Techniques to Help all School Age Children Externalize Their Problems

School counselors face many challenges that go beyond implementing traditional therapy methods.  Students range from many ethnic and religious backgrounds, have disabilities, behavioral problems, and language barriers.  As a counselor, one must possess skills to effectively help students express their thoughts and emotions in a safe environment.  With the use of alternative techniques coupled with an encouraging counseling environment, students will be able to effectively externalize their emotions with a better understanding for problem solving skills. The alternative techniques will provide skills the students can continue to use and build on during their life.  The skills they learn in therapy sessions will aid in their academic career allowing them to be better at critical thinking and problem solving. PSY 498

76. White, Shannon, Brennan Roper, and Briana Kelly. Biology. Robin Bingham. Effects of growth on Piers rapae Caterpillars and GM vs. NonGM Brasica Rapa          

The use of GMO altered plants is of much concern to the environmental science community and communities at large. This experiment aimed to compare the growth of Pier’s Rapae caterpillars sustained on B .rapa verses genetically modified B. rapa. Twelve B. rapa plants and twelve GMO B.rapa plants were grown under identical conditions in a greenhouse setting. Five Pier’s rapae caterpillars were sustained solely on B. rapa and another five Pier’s rapae caterpillars were sustained on GMO B. rapa. Four weight measurements were recorded over the course of two weeks. The results revealed that GMO B. rapa fed Piers rapae caterpillars grew to be larger than the B. rapa fed caterpillars. BIOL 151

77. Woelk, Jamie. Mathematics. Andy Keck. Modeling Disease Spread in Complex Networks

Networks can be used to describe many real-world systems in areas such as biology, technology, and sociology. Several models in mathematical epidemiology have been extended to complex networks.  We used the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model to examine the spread of infectious diseases in three different types of networks and derived the critical spreading rates required to produce endemic behavior in these networks.  In order to test these results, we performed simulations on real networks of Western State College students.            

78. Young, Caleb. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Foam Pit Feasibility in the Gunnison Valley 

The purpose of this quantitative study will be to develop the feasibility of a gravity based athletic training facility in the Gunnison Valley. The proposed training facility will enable extreme sport athletes to practice high consequence aerial stunts by greatly decreasing the risk of injury from failing to complete the trick. This study will include the interest of the community as well as its visitors, along with the cost of creating and maintaining the facility. This study will use feedback from surveys distributed to community members and tourist as potential user to indicate their interest in using such a facility. The study will also look at the cost of acquiring property and building the facility as well as staffing and maintaining the facility. This will indicate whether the functionality of the proposed facility is real and of interest to the Gunnison Valley and its visitors. ESS 495