Program of Spring 2010 Poster Presentations

1. Hall, Dillion. Anthropology, LynnSikkink. Language Use, Subcultures, and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

Language is an integral part of human culture and the waypeople use language may determine how people see the world. Ultimately thequestion of whether language can change culture and if language alone can alterthe way people see reality is still being studied. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesisclaims that language can do both of these things, to some degree. The purposeof this project is to test the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis by studying specificsubcultures and looking for how the use of language in those subcultures mayalter previously held beliefs and behaviors. The challenge presented to anylinguistics researcher is that one must show that language can be the catalystfor culture change. This project will use other researchers’ results and gatherinformation through surveys and interviews to show that language can ultimatelyhave an effect on the way people interact with the world and each other.

2. Stai, Brock. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman.Quantitative microwear on Mircroblades from Block F Mountaineer

The purpose of this paper is to explore quantitativeanalysis of microblades from the Mountaineer site 5GN2477 to determine if theywere used as tools. Examining the edges of the flakes under the Scanning ElectronMicroscope (SEM), the author was able to measure features on the flake’s edgeto the micrometer (µm) . With the utilization of SEM and previous research ondetermining microwear, such as Keeley et al.,1977, Toll, 1978, Odell etal.,1980, Evans et al.,2008, the author will identify potentially used edgesand focus on measuring those feature’s length and width. Determining if thesemicroblades were used for a utilitarian purpose will provide further data intothe past life ways that existed in Block F as related to tool use, materialtype, and tool design. This study will further shed light on what has beeninterpreted as a domestic structure (Stiger; 2006).

3. Landreth, Brittany. Anthropology, LynnSikkink, Gregg Haase. Medicine: When is it alternative?

The purpose of this paper is to gain a comprehensiveunderstanding of the alternative and traditional medicines used in our localarea. It will also serve as a general contrast and comparison to the use ofWestern medicine. This paper also intends to inform the public about theexistence and utilization of practices outside mainstream medicine. In order toaccomplish this, two types of resources will be used. The first will beacademic articles, which will provide factual information pertaining toalternative and traditional medicines. The second resource will be provided byinterviews conducted with actual practitioners of non-Western medicine. Theinformation gathered for this paper will reveal another option other thanWestern medicine, and educate people about the merits and validity oftraditional and alternative medicines. This discussion also has implicationsfor understanding medical pluralism, in which people combine cures fromdistinct traditions into one practice.

4. Murill, Joshua. Anthropology, LynnSikkink. Medical Decision Making Among Residents of Gunnison,Colorado

This project will offer information relating to medicaldecision-making. Based on survey information, I will determine if there are anycorrelations between age or gender and frequency of debilitating medical issuesalong with the course of action taken. Individuals will complete a writtensurvey that will gather data on age, gender, as well as the frequency, kind,and treatment of medical conditions. Medical issues are defined as anythingthat interferes with an individual’s routine activities. Survey-takers willreport medical problems either daily, weekly, monthly, or less frequently.Next, they will report the course of action taken: over the counter medicine,prescription medicine/doctor visit, or alternative medicine. Though this studywill not be able to quantify the actual suffering and treatment of individuals,it will offer insight into decision-making and perceived suffering.

5. Ball, Jillian. Anthropology, LynnSikkink. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ranching Culture: Plains toHigh Country

Ranching in the west has been a key economic enterprise forwell over a hundred years. The practice began on the plains and eventually madeits way into the high country. My project explores ranching culture in twodiverse areas of Colorado and considers its implications for the future ofranching. The project concentrates on ranching practices, the history of landuse, and the major issues ranches on the plains and in the mountains will facein the future. Through the use of emic and etic perspectives, I explore thedifferences and similarities in ranching culture of the two sites. I argue thatranching is an evolving culture that is working to find its niche in a changingworld. Ranching will continue to be practiced throughout the west, but the sameguidelines that once governed the ranching barons of the 19th and 20thcenturies will be forever changed.

6. Smith, Collin. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Folsom Aged bone needle analysis

The scanning electron microscope analysis of bone needle use wear through the use of a scanning electron microscope, images of finedetail in use wear can be captured. The scanning electron microscope has theability use an electron beam to magnify images at a power of up to 200,000 xs.The magnification power of the scanning electron microscope makes it a greatdiagnostic tool for use wear analysis on artifacts. The scanning electronmicroscope has much potential to enable identification of tools and their usewear pattern. Due to the fact that only few have access to scanning electronmicroscopes, bone needle use wear studies are one of the many studies that areunexplored. In this experiment, three manufactured bone needles will beanalyzed using the scanning electron microscope at Western State College. . Theobjective is to determine whether or not the scanning electron microscope isefficient at diagnosing use wear pattern on tools like bone needles.

7. Knopf, Clifton. Anthropology, LynnSikkink. An Open Door Towards Kindness?

In this poster I intend to display the cultural etiquette ofopening doors for others at Western State College. Through research andinterviews, as well as my own expectations, I have set the parameters for astudy in observing the occurrence, gender relations, and responses to openingdoors for others. From the data collected, I compare the results with theinterviews and data collected at other settings outside of the campus, todetermine if opening doors for others at Western State College is a uniquephenomenon or whether it reflects the mainstream etiquette of our society. Ibelieve that an individualistic mindset has overcome the courtesy of holdingopen a door for someone else, and that the concept of “chivalry” has beenredefined at the college setting. This study has implications for changingsocial customs and individual responses to expected “etiquette.”

8.Crum, Alyssa. Anthropology, LynnSikkink. Perceptions Regarding Problems and their Solutions

Inthis particular culture, people have a difficult time finding solutions toproblems and puzzles, and they do not uniformly enjoy engaging in the mentalexercise. This seems particularly due to time constraints or perceived limitedintelligence. This poster will explore the relationship between people andproblem solving, with an emphasis upon the idea that difficulty and challenge pose an inconvenienceupon individuals who are exposed to them. I suggest that patterns of thoughtand ideas play a role in whether or not an individual will excel at the puzzlepresented to them, or if they will find the problem is not recognizable, andtherefore incomprehensible. This implies the tendency of humans to fall intohabitual strategies and be unwilling to adapt to a problem that has not beenencountered before.

9. Stai, Brock. Anthropology, LynnSikkink. Traditional Techniques of Agriculture in the Highlands ofthe Gunnison Basin

The purpose of this poster presentation is to describe andevaluate methods of agriculture utilized by the Ancestral Puebloan People inthe American Southwest. By utilizing their methods to bring agriculture to anexperimental crop field in the Gunnison Highlands region, bordering FossilRidge Wilderness Area, I will demonstrate the on-the-ground effectiveness ofthese techniques. A check dam utilizing natural resources such as rock and woodhas been designed. The gravity-fed irrigation system design will utilize driplines and low pressure filters, as well as battery operated timed valves, toprovide the crops with supplemental moisture. The benefits of this experimentare to bring supervision free agriculture to a region that currently doesn’thave the ability, therefore providing an economic solution to expensive naturalfood, as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of traditional agriculturaltechniques.

10. Rea, Mandy. Anthropology, LynnSikkink. Student Perceptions of the Evolution-Creationism Continuumat Western State College

Evolution is the cornerstone of biological theory; yet itremains a controversial topic within the United States. Many Americans perceivea dichotomy between evolution and creationism, causing tension and affectingstudent learning. Previous studies conducted at Western State College foundthat many students believed in both evolution and creationism. These studiesshowed a need for further research into “the nature of individual beliefs andperceptions, and how people reconcile a belief in science with a belief increationism” (Sikkink 2009). This study is designed to offer supplemental,qualitative data about the nature of these belief systems. Interviews wereconducted among students of different ages, majors and religious backgrounds,to determine the range and depth of understanding and belief. Studies suggestthat instructors who know the range of student beliefs relative to theevolution-creationism continuum better understand the students’ abilities andmotivations for learning about evolution, biology and the nature of science ingeneral.

11. Cahill, Erin. Anthropology, Drs. Sikkink & Stiger, and Casey Dukeman. Intellectual Genealogy: tracing my education

Intellectual genealogy is the idea that each anthropologisthas been taught by another anthropologist, who in turn has learned from theirteachers, and so on. While I may not have had direct instruction from thefounding luminaries of anthropology, their styles of observations, methods forrecording data, and even their approaches to studying cultures have been passeddown through the years by their students to culminate in the education I amreceiving at Western State College of Colorado, and so I am learning indirectlyfrom the masters. In the years I have been an anthropology student, I have hadthree instructors: Dr. Mark Stiger, Dr. Lynn Sikkink, and Casey Dukeman,through whom I can trace my intellectual genealogy. This poster will illustratemy intellectual genealogy, as traced through my professors at Western State,which has implications for understanding the interconnectedness of influencesrepresented by any one student of anthropology.

12. Ross, Nick. Anthropology, LynnSikkink, Casey Dukeman. Professional and Amateur Archaeology Meet: Analysis of aLocal Lithic Collection

Using a local collection of lithic artifacts, this paperconsiders its use to contemporary archaeology. I consider the hobby ofcollecting cultural artifacts and how it may be useful in providing informationand preserving data. The project will show that there is valuable informationthat can be gained when professional and amateur archaeologists work togetherand trust each other. Professional archaeologists can explain how informationis lost when artifacts are taken and amateurs can show professionalarchaeologists where new sites are that can be valuable to the archaeologicalrecord. This will be achieved through an interview with at least one collecter,and an analysis of the features of a collection. Hopefully this project willhelp bridge the gap between the two groups and help them come to anunderstanding of what the other is trying to accomplish.

13. Boyd, Joshua. Anthropology, LynnSikkink, Mark Stiger, Casey Dukeman. Applying Experimental Lithic Endscraper Reductions to the Archaeological Record

In this poster I explore the morphological traits ofexperimental end scrapers and how these might influence perceptions ofartifactual remnants on archaeological sites. In this exploration, I illustratethe continuum of the end scraper reduction sequence with quantitative data.Using metrics to demonstrate this continuum, I argue that archaeologists’assumptions may be misleading in identification of still useable end scrapersversus worn out end scrapers and their morphological attributes in thearchaeological record. In order to better understand end scraper use, Imanufactured three end scrapers and used them. After re-sharpening events,metrics for maximum length and end bit angles were recorded. This data isanalyzed and presented to demonstrate the end scraper reduction continuum. Thishas implications for improved interpretation of the archaeological record,especially with regards to previous theories that deal with organization oftechnology and stone tool discard behavior.

14. Schumann, Stephanie, Mariana Faleiros, Giovanni Bowers, Adam Kloos,Rachel Weakland. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Do Plant Pot Sizes Affect the Growth of Brassica Rapa Plants

Brassica rapa is important for scientific research due toits short life cycle. It is important to know how to grow the tallest andwidest plants for better results in other studies. This experiment was designedto determine if progressing plant pot sizes with increasing amounts of soilaffects the plant height. We hypothesized the plants would grow taller andwider in more soil. We had a variety of materials consisting of three differentplant pot sizes, four containing 27.26 grams, four 34.25 grams, four 81.08grams. In these pots Brassica rapa plants were cultivated over a three-weekperiod. After results were gathered they were graphed and analyzed with anANOVA test. The hypothesis was rejected because after running the ANOVA testour p-value for the height of the plants was 0.2659 and for the width was0.49512 were both greater than 0.05.

15. Fuselier, Adams, Ross McGee, Stuart Magno, Jeremy Dole. Biology, Sarah Cerra. The Effect on Watering Brassica Plants.

Water is important to Brassica for photosynthesis. Wepredicted the overwatered Brassica plants will grow at a more accelerated ratewhile the underwatered Brassica plants will not appear healthy, and wilting mayoccur. If to little water is given to Brassica, they will not develop properlyand will be susceptible to pests while too much water makes soil too moist forBrassica causing root failure and rot. After a failed experiment, we found itappropriate to give the underwatered 150 ml of water, the control 200 ml ofwater and the overwatered 250 ml of water. We can conclude our hypothesis wassupported (p-value .00000967). We found the plants grew larger with more water.The overwatered plants on average grew 3.1 inches taller than the under wateredset. We believe this experiment better if to give the control set the amount ofwater we gave the overwatered set 250 ml.

16. George, Brett, Luke Sample. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Effects of Juice on Brassicas

To grow properly plants need sunlight, nutrients, water, andthe right environmental conditions. We tested the Brassica plants’ ability togrow from different nutrient sources including water, grape juice, and specificratios of the two. We predicted that the plants given just water would producetaller and broader appendages than the plants given water/juice and juice. Intotal 30 Brassica seeds were planted in groups of six. Each group was assigneda different water/grape juice ratio solution and observed over the period offour weeks. A trend of Brassica plant growth was increased as the ratio ofwater increased and the ratio of graph juice decreased. The hypothesis can beaccepted because plants with water survived better than the plants with juicemixed in. Plants need a water source to photosynthesize properly and cannot usegrape juice as a nutrition source.

17. Achenbach, Kirt, Lucas Johson. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Brassica Yields and Soil Amount 

Forage Brassicas are high yielding, high quality, fastgrowing crops that grow best in partial shade and in firm, fertile, freedraining soil. In the Gunnison Basin, soil is fragile. The Gunnison Basin ishigh in the Rockies and its soil tends to easily erode. In addition, the basinis a dry climate with many rocks. This experiment aims to show the Brassicasability to grow in low soil areas by growing 2 separate treatments ofBrassicas, one with low soil and one with a normal amount of soil. A total of24 Brassicas were planted and grown in a green house where they received properlighting and water. Results showed that there was little difference in the lowsoil yield and the normal soil yield (p-value x). Average height and the amountof blooming was relatively the same, displaying the Brassicas ability to growin low soil amounts. 

18. Hockett, Daren. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Growth Differences in Brassica Plants

BrassicaRapa is a flowering plant that thrives in a wide variety of places. The purposeof this study was to examine the effects that Gunnison tap water had on theplants compared to the effects of distilled water had. The procedure was set upwith two separate trays for the different water types. In each tray there weresix separate sections. Each section had two seeds in them along with the sameamount of fertilizer. The seeds were all placed in the same amount of water andreceived the same amount of sunlight. The distilled water seemed to have agreater effect on the Brassica Rapa plant. The stems size and diameter were largeralong with the leave sizes when watered with distilled water. Therefore,Brassica Rapa may grow better in distilled water than if they were placed inGunnison Tap water. Further studies will need to be done to see if the distilled water is actually better for the plant or if genetic variation might have played a role in this experiment.

19. Mullen, John, Marissa Markus, James Wilkie, Andrew Baran. Biology, Sarah Cerra, Robin Bingham. Effects of Varied Fertilizers on Brassica Plants

Brassica rapa reacts well in fertile soil, effectivelyabsorbing both nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. Our experiment was designedto measure the quantitative variation in Brassica from the use of organic andsynthetic fertilizers, as well as a control group without fertilizer. Weexpected an increase in both the number of leaves and height of the plants inwhich the organic fertilizer Age Old Grow, 12-6-6 was used. The plants in theorganic group died, and the synthetic group had larger plant height mean (15.3cm) than the control group (12.3), although this difference was not significant(p-value 0.18). We believe we possibly did not use the correct amount oforganic fertilizer when the Brassica plants were first planted. The ultimateeffectiveness of fertilizer on the growth of Brassica was still apparent.

20. Visscher, Teslyn, Jacob Kimi, and Adam Petty. Biology, Robin Bingham. Affect of Container Size on Brassica rapa Height and StemWidth

This study looked at the effect of pot size on two variablesof growth, height and stem width, in Brassica rapa, a member of the mustardfamily. Three samples of plants were grown in three different pot sizes, (2, 3,and 4 inch). Environmental factors were kept constant. At the end of the threeweeks the final height and stem width were recorded. The stem width ranged frombeing smallest in the two-inch samples and largest in the four-inch samples butheight data was quite varied. The plants grown in the three-inch pots were onaverage over two inches smaller than those grown in the two and four inch pots.This supported an effect of pot size on stem width growth but no effect of potsize on height. Other studies done on similar species showed a direct effect ofcontainer size on plant height.

21. Clark, Cree, Ian Fischer, and Druvis Keuten. Biology, Robin Bingham. The Effects of Watering Frequency on the Height of RaphanusSativus L

Inthis experiment the effects of watering frequency, as it relates to the growth(in height) of radish plants, was measured. We had certain sets of plantsreceiving precise amounts of tap water in a greenhouse. There were a total offour containers that each received a certain amount of water. One of the containers was wateredevery Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, another container was watered every Mondayand Friday, the third container was watered on Monday, and the last containerwas a control. All the containers were watered with the same amount of water,except the control which had constant saturation. We predicted that thefrequency of watering would affect the height (in centimeters) of the radishplant. The results supported the hypothesis that over-watering, as well asunder watering, stunted the overall growth of the plants.

22. Driscoll, DaiLynn, Taylor Goodhue, Bryan Hamacher, KadeSkoglund. Biology, Dr. Bingham. How light affects the height of Brassica rapa plants

Brassica rapa is a plant in the family of Brassicaceae. Inour experiment, we tested the effects of different amountsof light on height.We used three seperate packs of six Brassica rapa plants each and placed eachin one of three environments: all light, natural light, and no light. Wemeasured the plants' height each week for three weeks monitoring and comparingthe plants in each treatment. Over time, we found that the plant pack with thegreatest average height was the pack in under "all light". The nextgreatest height was the "no light" environment and the "naturallight" had the least growth. The plants in the natural light were shorterbut looked healthier than those in "no light".

23. Keenan, Lindsey, Jason Holly. Biology, Sarah Cerra. TheEffect of Light Concentration on Brassica

Weexamined the effect of sunlight and its concentration on the height of Brassicaplants. Two populations of 12 plants each were either set under 2 fluorescentlamps or placed in natural sunlight for the duration of the plants growth. Wepredicted that the best growth would be facilitated in the natural sunlightverses the artificial light. In conclusion we found the Brassica plants in themore concentrated light of the lamps grew a significant amount more than theones set in natural sunlight.

24. Johnson, Katie, SageSmith, Troy Melcher, Brett Nash. Biology, Sarah Cerra. The Effects of Acid on Plant Life

Naturally occurring rain has a pH between 5 and 6, buthumans indirectly add nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere whichincreases the chances for acid rain. This experiment was to test the acidity ofwater on plant life. We hypothesize if Brassica rapa was treated with an acidof a pH less than 5, it would be more likely to have discolored leaves,shallower root systems, or less petals. It would be possible that the plantwouldn’t survive. Over the span of three weeks, the three groups of plants weretreated with their respected pHs of 4.3, 5.1, or 6.0. Our results showed thatthe plants treated with a lower pH had discolored and unhealthy leaves and wereall around less healthy then the plants treated with a pH of 6.0.

25. Wingate, Julie, AlexDegenstein, Amanda Turner, Lia Roderick. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Growth of Brassica rapa in soils from different elevations

Brassicarapa are in the mustard family, with a three week life cycle and prefer fertilesoil with some acidity. This experiment was designed to determine if theBrassica plant would be able to survive in soils taken from three differenttopographic regions; Denver (elevation 5281ft), Gunnison (elevation 7683ft),and Crested Butte (elevation 9375ft). The hypothesis was in favor of the Denversoil, since it was closest to the Great Plains and predicted to have a bettersand, silt, clay ratio. The different soils were prepared and the Brassicaseeds were planted with and without fertilizer. The results of the experimentshowed Denver had the tallest plants, yet not significant (ANOVA, p-value0.05695) while Gunnison had the most plants that grew and Crested Butte had theleast of all. Our hypothesis was for the Denver soil, but the results indicatedGunnison had the best production.

26. Tooke, Amber Charles Martinez, Megan Gurak, and Nick Moyer. Biology, Sarah Cerra. Effects of Competition on Seed Viability in a Brassica rapaPopulation

There is a seemingly apparent correlation between plantsize, survival rate and population density. We hypothesize that the more seedsplanted per area, the more the plants will compete for resources. We plantedBrassica rapa in 4 containers divided into 6 sections. Each section was labelwith the numbers 1 through 6 of all four. The soil content, water, and lightexposure was all kept constant. We planted a total of 84 Brassica rapa seeds in4 containers at increments from one seed planted alone in a section to 6 seedsin one. . The seed viability was 95.2%. Since our hypothesis states that therewill be a difference in seed viability we used results for a two-tailed p-test.P-value results for our initial seed viability data was .74 which dismisses ournull hypothesis regarding early underground competition.

27. Fioretti, Angela. Biology, Dr. Cassandra Osborne. Low Dose Nonylphenol Exposure Adversely Affects Early Developmentof Xenopus laevis Embryos

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are ubiquitoussubtances. These chemicals have adverse effects on many organisms. One of themost commonly observed results of in vivo EDC exposure is a deleterious effecton neural crest cell derivatives. We hypothesized that this compound wasdisrupting hormone-transcription pathways involved in neural crest celldifferentiation and migration. Our research turned toward SDS-PAGE proteinassays to probe for the overexpression of FoxD3 protein in treated embryos.This project performed electrophoretic assays to probe for overexpression ofFoxD3, and quantified the FoxD3 expression found using densitometry analysis ofexposed lysate as compared to control lysate.

28. Morrhouse,Janelle,Dustin, Meri, Josh. Biology, Dr. Bingham. Does Music Affect the Growth of Plants?

Abstract: Music is a mélange of notes, syncopation, rhythm,vibrations, and other factors that make it appealing to the human ear. But canmusic appeal to plants and encourage growth? This experiment studied the effectof music on the growth of Brassica rapa, specifically the height of the plantsgrown. The experimental group of 12 plants was exposed to thirty hours ofmusic, and the control group of 12 plants was exposed to no music at all. Bothsets were given the same amount of water, fertilizer, and light exposure. Theheights of all plants were measured and the results were that the plantsexposed to music averaged taller heights than plants not exposed to music.

29. Vidmar, Cayla , Chris McGraw, Lonie Morales. Biology, Dr. Bingham. A study of the affects of plant competition on Brassica rapaheight and stem width

This experiment focused on the effects of competition on theheight and width of Brassica rapa. We hypothesized that height and width wouldbe reduced in plants that are in competition. The experiment used four six-packplanters, two of which had one seed per section, the other two had three seedsper section. They were placed under the same grow lights and watered the sameamount to ensure exact conditions. The result supported our hypothesis with theplants in competition being shorter and smaller than those not in competition.

30. Gass, Eliza, TristaHetland, Samantha Bruce, Danielle Lauridsen. Biology, Dr. Bingham. Rahanus sativus, Plants Size Compared to Bulb Size

Rahanus sativus is an easy to grow vegetable with an edibleroot. Its common name is radish. The purpose of the experiment was to examinethe correlation between size of the radish plant and the size of the radishroot. Twenty four radish seeds were planted about ¼ inch deep in individualplanters. They were allowed to grow and were treated in the same conditionsover a three week period. Then the areas of the radish plants as well as theweight of the radish roots were determined. After analyzing our results weconcluded that there was not a significant correlation between radish plantleaf area and radish root size.

31. Hagan, Hagan. Chemistry, Jason Mullins. Benzylic Azidation of Homopthalic Acid Diester as aSynthetic Pathway to 2-carboxyphenylglycine

Preparation of 2-carboxylphenyl glycine was performed viaFischer esterification of homophthalic acid using methanol and sulfuric acidfollowed by benzylic azidation using tris azide. The azide group was reducedand protected using carbon on palladium and acetic anhydride under a hydrogenatmosphere. Acid hydrolysis was performed on the compound to remove theprotecting group and hydrolyze the ester groups. Electrophilic aromatic ringsubstitution reactions were explored as a means to add substituents to thearomatic ring. These conformationally restricted glutamate analogs will be usedas a tool to study excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs).

32. Reed, Michael. Computer Science, John Peterson. Computer Vision and Robotics

Western State's robotics team will demonstrate recent workin computer vision and robotics. This term we will demonstrate an adaptivecolor blob tracking system, navigation based on image flow, and the use ofcomputer vision to animate 3-D characters based on pose recognition software.

33. Slater, Jacqueline. Economics, Dr. Sally Hays. Econometric Analysis of the Causation of Global Hunger

There are many dangers to world security; none may be morethreatening than a global food shortage. National food shortages leave manypeople malnourished, and dying of starvation. This study provides andeconometric analysis in the main causes of global hunger. Findings are based onthe Global Hunger Index, which gives a calculated value of hunger to theeighty-four most starved nations. This study tests the relevance of speculated causesof global hunger, as discussed my various United Nation organizations. By usingmultivariate regression analysis I argue that at the ninety-nine percentsignificance level, demographic factors have more implication to global hungerthan any other factors.

34. Cooper, Jordan. English, Christy Jespersen. Globalization and Music in Karen Tei Yamashita's"Tropic of Orange"

Scholarship notes that Karen Tei Yamashita’s novel, Tropicof Orange, is about globalization; however, no one has discussed the prevalenceof music or the relationship of globalization to music in Yamashita’s novel.The novel, through the modern day musical genre of meshup and classical music,specifically the symphony, creates resistance to globalization and bringspeople together in various ways.

35. Ward, Linsey,CourtneyDalla, Daniel Hill, Jermey Graham. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Sustainability at Curecanti National Recreation Area

Wehave been working closely with the National Park Service staff at CurecantiNational Recreation Area for our Applied Environmental Studies capstone. Themain focus of this project was to conduct an energy audit of the visitor centerbuilding at Elk Creek where we assessed; lighting, heating, air conditioning, buildingenvelope and overall energy usage. The aim of the energy audit is to help theNPS staff focus on areas of major energy loss, as they are currently in theprocess of updating their building(s) with energy saving devices. Curecanti isalso currently updating their recycling program. As such, we created anddistributed a recycling survey aimed at finding out how to best create aneffective recycling program. We also worked with the City of Gunnison, WasteManagement and WSC to create a transportation plan for the recyclables atCurecanti. We have been working with the education staff to createinterpretative material concerning the habitualization of bears in the GunnisonValley.

36. Ahonen, Loren, JordanCarr, John Lochhead, Brittany Perkins, Kyle Sullivan. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Revisioning Headwaters

Through our Environmental Studies 400 project, ‘RevisioningHeadwaters’, we hope to create a place-based, ecological literacy courseavailable to all Western students. In revising the current Headwaters 200curriculum we will shift the focus to an examination of citizenship in theGunnison Valley. Our curriculum embodies three core principles: Examining the individual’srole in the greater community, Learning to value physical and intellectualconceptions of ‘place’ through the interactions of citizenship, andUnderstanding the interconnectedness of the biotic and social communities.Through these theoretical lenses students will study concepts of water, energy,food, anthropology/people, participation/use of the natural world, localgovernment, transportation, and business. By focusing HWTRS200 on Freshmanstudents, we hope to positively impact retention rates at Western State.Empowered by an understanding of ‘place‘, students are more likely to beparticipatory members of the Gunnison Basin community, all while increasingtheir understanding of the natural world around them.

37. Leishman, Nick. Environmental Studies, Dr. Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Dynamic Big Bend National Park and its River of Life

From the 1930’s to the present day a large section ofsouthwest Texas has been set aside as a national park. The Rio Grande River isits southern border, and also a national border which make this park a rare onefor the United States. Within the park there are three major regions; theriver, the mountains, and the desert- what is there relationship to each other,and why is life so abundant in this 1,252 square mile section? The park is atourist attraction due to its scenery, whitewater rafting and its wildlife, howimportant is this to the park? The big question is the health of the river.Does that affect everything in the park or is up river work and development notreally causing any damage to the park’s environment. Big Bend is an amazingplace, but is the fact that it’s an international border, river dependent park,or a fragile desert environment hurting this place.

38. Schaeg, Nicole,Erin Peterson, Rob Hicks, Buck Crockett. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran.
Environmental Education at the One Room School House

“Notone wasted moment!” is the motto of Jackie Burt’s One Room School House (Orsch)and this year, our ENVS 400 group was offered a unique opportunity to work withK-7 students in this shared learning environment that welcomes innovativeteaching styles. Implementing environmental curriculum through experientialeducation, we applied a variety of our knowledge to construct eleven lessonplans that ranged from the Endangered Species Act to Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic.Each lesson followed the Colorado State Standards and addressed students’multiple intelligences. Over the course of this project, our goal at Orsch hasbeen to address important environmental topics to young students. Doing so, hasexpanded students knowledge and encouraged them to become environmentalstewards now and for the future.

39. Ball, Jillian. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Campus Greenhouse Fundraiser and Awareness.

Abstract: In celebration of local food production in the Gunnison region, we are runningan educational campaign and hosting a fundraiser for the future CampusGreenhouse. We have combined efforts with Beth Coop, director of the Farmer’sMarket, involving the larger Gunnison community with Western State student’sefforts for local food economy. The educational campaign will includeadvertisements all over Gunnison and Crested Butte, a display at the EnvironmentalSymposium, and a speaker at the dinner event. During the awareness andfundraiser event, we will serve all regionally produced and grown food, holdinga drawing for a ticket-give-away, and showing the movie “No Impact Man” topromote local food production. Our sponsors include Monarch Mountain SkiResort, Crested Butte Ski Resort, Gene Taylors Sporting Goods, Flying Burritos,The Gunnison Brewery, White Buffalo Organics, Mill Creek Beef, and The LunaBakery.

40. Callender, Andrrew. Environmental Studies, Brooke Moran. Environmental Education for Gunnison Valley Energy ActionPlan

The purpose of this project is to raise awareness about theGunnison Valley Energy Action Plan (GVEAP). Working with the Office for ResourceEfficiency (ORE), we developed a set of four energy based lesson plans for thefourth grade. One of the goals of the EAP committee is too work with theCurriculum Coordinator for the RE1-J School District to explore ways in whichthe youth of the communities can help educate their parents and the largercommunity while meeting their own education objectives. The lessons are anadaptation of the concept of “CROP” (calculate, reduce, offset, produce). Ourlessons progress in the following order: Energy Basics, Understanding CarbonFootprints, Calculating Energy Use, and Reducing Energy Use. They include takehome assignments and activities that are intended to not only raise students’awareness of energy, but involve parents and widen the scope of energy education.

41. Roush, Devin. Environmental Studies, Dr. Heather Thiessen-Reily. Groundwater Bother: Trouble in "Paradise"

Oneof the most serious environmental challenges in the border region of the UnitedStates and Mexico is the significance of groundwater rights. In examining thistopic a number of questions arise:  Why is it important to control publicand private water ways, more specifically who decides who gets the water supplyin a border region?  What if any historical governmental tensions havearisen, and what is the current situations between the nations of the UnitedStates and Mexico?  Do the states control water supply and pollutionissues or is it the federal governments?  Furthermore, how and why hasground water pollution become more of a problem on one side of the border thanon the other? An examination of these issues reveals a high degree ofcomplexity related to the economic,political, environmental, and cross border challenges to control ground waterpollution in the Southwest United States. Results:The return rate of the surveys and the results of the study are forthcoming.

42. McCarthy, Mike. Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. Effects of Neuromuscular Therapy on the RespiratoryMetaboreflex and Exercise Tolerance

INTRODUCTION: There is little to no information concerningthe effects of Neuromuscular massage therapy on the respiratory metaboreflexand the resultant effect on exercise tolerance. PURPOSE: This quantitativeexperiment was conducted in order to gain an understanding of the mechanismsinvolved with the respiratory metaboreflex and how it influences exerciseperformance as well as to investigate the potential benefits of massage therapyin retarding the onset of the respiratory metaboreflex and extending time untilfatigue in trained male and female athletes. METHODS: N=4 (2 male, 2 female)were studied. Subjects completed an informed consent prior to massageintervention and testing. Pre and Post intervention VO2max testing wasperformed 1 week prior to intervention and again 15minutes after intervention.Time until fatigue was also recorded. RESULTS: Pending. CONCLUSION: Pending.

43. Ronald, Iain, Mitchell Donnan. Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. "Stress induced on a female cross country team"

Thepurpose of this study is to identify sources of stress experienced by an NCAADivision II women’s cross country team. Five female cross country runners aged18-21 yrs were selected for this study. Subjects were interviewedthrough tape recorded open-ended interview sessions where they reflected uponpast season experiences. Results of this qualitative analysis identified threekey themes responsible for stressful experiences: a) relationship issues, b)pressures of being on the team, c) educational demands. Relationship issues werefound to pose the most significant threat to declining performance. It is clearfrom results that team members overcome stress through the support of othersthus become stronger and more unified as a team. From this experience resultssuggest that college athletes respond to stress in a unique way however workinghard together has also shown to have a positive effect in overcoming stressfulsituations.

44. Dial, Andria. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Perceptions of Calories

Background: Imbalance of calories consumed and caloriesburned is a major contributing factor to obesity. Current literature shows thatmany individuals have inaccurate perceptions and estimations of calories.Purpose: The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study will be toexamine college age students’ perceptions of calories of selected foods andcalories used during specific physical activities. Methods: 50 surveys will behanded out across a small college campus in a variety of classes. There will be10 questions regarding selected foods and 5 regarding selected physicalactivities. Participants will be asked to estimate calories of the food andcalories used during the physical activities. The data will be analyzed using aPearson r correlation coefficient. Results: The return rate of the surveys andthe results of the study are forthcoming.

45. Wilkerson, Jeff. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Confidence is Key

Previous literature has shown that there is a connection between a players’confidence and their performance. The purpose of this qualitative study was toexamine the importance of a player’s confidence level and how it can affect aplayer’s performance. 12 athletes from 4 different collegiate sports were askedtwo open ended questions pertaining to the most common confident factors(practice performance, coach relationship, teammate relationships, coachingscheme, and how the athlete feels about the competition.) After the questionswere answered the results were coded by themes relating to confidence. Resultsand Conclusions: Are forthcoming.

46. Johnson, Darius. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. Socialization Factors in Athletic Participation

Ever since the first considerable work in the area ofsocialization into sport conducted by McPherson and Grogg in 1969, it has beenevident that the relationship between various socialization factors andprogressive organized sports participation is complex. Fifty undergraduatestudents who attend a NCAA Division II college in the Rocky Mountainsparticipated in a survey that was created to investigate socialization factorsthat played a role in their athletic experiences. Results: In Progress

47. Lovett, Heidi. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Effects of Heat during Exercise

The effect of heat during strenuous exercise affects manyphysiological systems within the human body. The purpose of this quantitativequasi-experimental study was to provide a greater understanding of the effectsof heat during exercise. Six USCSA cross country skiers, three females andthree males, used Bruce protocol four min stage to find their lactate threshold(LT) while wearing a wicking t-shirt and shorts at room temperature 21°C.Subjects then performed the same test with non-wicking clothing to simulate anincrease in room temperature. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE), body oraltemperature, LT, heart rate, Carbohydrate usage and gas exchange were recorded.Data was analyzed descriptively. Results are TBA.

48. Denham, Corrina. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Roger Drake. TheReciprocal Action

To investigate the practical methods of how people in our society receive andrepay favors. The use of effective techniques is needed to achieve this goaland methods used in this process involve placing different people in similarsituations, as well as placing similar people in different situations. Oneapproach for this method is to observe how people will react to a valid favoror a false favor. Another, is to observe how people feel when they are to givesomething away with no expectation of a return, and how an individual feelswhen something has been taken away from them. Written in a scholarly fashion,the two articles interpreted are very interesting and deserve furtherexamination.

49. Brittney Hoots. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, R. Motivational Orientation in Youth Track Athletes

There are several different aspects that affect youthathletes to be motivated to participate in sport. In this study motivationalorientations of 22 middle school track athletes ages 12-14 were investigated.This was done with a non-invasive questionaire with questions regarding whattypes of things or situations motivated the athletes to participate in Trackand Field. It was found that in this particular age group the athletes weremore extrinsically motivated, they participate in track to hang out with theirteammates, or because of the awards they receive at the meets. Also both maleand female athletes said that they participate for the personal satisfaction ofwinning an event in a meet. The female group had higher scores on questionsexcept the question asking if their team needed them. It is apparent that atthis age, athletes are participating in sports for recognition from theirparents, peers and coaches, and are motivated extrinsically.

50. Lopez, Elena. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. What's Your Method?: Cleaning and Maintaining ExerciseFacilities

The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)and the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) (industry leaders) havesuggestions for cleaning and maintaining exercise facilities. However, there isno governing body that has a set of regulations for the cleaning andmaintaining of exercise facilities. This paper uses research to find out whatmethods are actually used at different types of exercise facilities compared tothe suggestions made by NSCA and ACSM. Results from this research were obtainedthrough interviews with exercise facility managers. These results show thatexercise facilities are cleaned at a higher level than suggested from NSCA andACSM though they are maintained at a lower level than suggested. For theseresults, the interviewer was able to make suggestion for each facility andshare these suggestions with facility managers.

51. Knox, Franklin. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan, Ashwin Patel, Scott Drum. The Psychological Effects of Physical Trauma on Athletes

Purpose:The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study is to determine thepsychological impact of being injured on athletes. Methods: I will be evaluating five subjects, four men and 1 women, withdifferent athletic backgrounds including football, volleyball, mixed martialarts and rugby. The subjects degree of injury will vary from minor to careerending. To determine the psychological effects of injury open ended interviewswill be done and transcribed to written form. The interviews wi;; be analyzedand coded for themes of psychological stress related to injury. Results:Will be forthcoming. Conclusion:Will be forthcoming

52. Rhoades, Tom. Exercise and Sport Science.Christina Buchanan, Scott Drum. Cancer and Exercise

Background: Research has shown that physical activity canaid cancer recovery. Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to determinethe impact of exercise on cancer. Methods: Case study involving one femalecommunity member who is a cancer survivor. Participant is involved in dailyactivity, including walking 7 days per week (dpw), biking 4-5 dpw, andcross-country skiing 3 dpw. Subject had first and last chemotherapy treatmentin October 2008 and January 2009, respectively. Participant continued toexercise daily throughout treatment. Researchers examined: heart rate (HR),time to fatigue (TtF), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and maximal oxygenuptake (VO2), using the Bruce protocol maximal treadmill test to compare withpre-test data. Data was analyzed descriptively. Results: Researchers found anincrease in TtF and VO2maximum, while RPE decreased. Conclusion: These findingssuggest regular exercise training can benefit survivors of cancer by reducingRPE and increasing TtF and VO2maximum.

53. Boughton,Woodson. Exercise and Sport Science, Christina Buchanan. A Look at the Contributing Factors to Competitive AthletesDropout from Sport

In today’s competitive athletic world it takes a great dealof motivation and determination to succeed and progress. The purpose of thisqualitative study will be to examine the factors that contribute to acompetitive athlete’s dropout from sport. Surveys will be submitted to 50college students. The survey consisted of 50% close-ended and 50% open-endedquestions. Data will be analyzed descriptively and coded qualitatively forthemes. Literary review will be used to determine the four core variables of sportdropout (Staleness/Burnout, Athlete & Coach Relationship, Athlete &Team Relationship, and the Athlete & Parent Relationship), while thesurveys were used as a tool to determine the validity of these variables aswell as to unveil other contributing variables to sport dropout. Research datais in the process of being collected and analyzed.

54. Dorzweiler, Nathan. Exercise and Sport Science, Christina Buchanan. Does the Shake WeightTM Do What it Says it Does?

The Shake WeightTM(SWTM) is a dumbbell with absorbing shocksat each end of it that bounce when shaken. It claims to tone a person’s arms inonly 6 minutes/day. The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental studywas to determine if the SWTM truly does what it claims to do. Three females andone male were put through a workout with the SWTM or w/free weights (FW) for 6weeks, 3 days/week. Percent body fat was measured and a photograph was takenbefore the study and every two weeks during the study. There was one female andone male in the SWTM group and two females in the FW group. The data was analyzeddescriptively. Results and conclusions are forthcoming.

55. Auten, Alissa. Exercise and Sport Science, Christina Buchanan. Is there a relationship between physical activity andacademic performance as well as behavior in the Classroom?

Research has shown a positive correlation between physical activity andclassroom performance. The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative studyis to determine if there is a relationship between physical activity andacademic performance as well as behavior in the classroom. Methods: The subjectschosen for this study were elementary school students who were evaluated bytheir teachers through a survey. Twelve surveys were filled out by theteachers. The data was then collected and analyzed descriptively andstatistically using a Pearson’s r correlation coefficient. Results: The resultsfor this study are forthcoming.

56. Ryan, Jonathan. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. Obesity: The Socioeconomic Implications

The purpose of this non-experimental, comparative analysiswas to address the social and economic impacts of the rise in obesity in theUnited States. This research is comprised of data and relevant literature thatshow the rise in obesity from 1985 to 2009 along with the rise in the healthcare costs linked to obesity. Data was collected from various organizations,researchers, and economists through database searches on PUBMED, EBSCOhost andBrookings, and direct email contact with representatives from the World HealthOrganization. Results and conclusions are still to be determined.

57. Osborne, Greg. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema. MentalImagery Use Among Amateur Adult Male Golfers

The purpose of this study was to see when amateur adult golfers use mentalimagery on the golf course and if they felt it enhanced theirperformance. There is a lot of research about mental imagery and puttingperformance, which fueled the idea for this study. A five question survey wasdesigned to assess the extent to which amateur male golfers use mental imagery.The survey was administered both in-person and via email. Results TBD andDiscussion TBD.

58. Bakka, Paul. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Anna Swisher. Vertical Jump Effects on Athletic Performance

Purpose: Investigate relationships between SP, LJP, CR, andVJP of track and field athletes. Methods: Twenty male, fourteen female DivisionII track and field athletes performed countermovement and static jumps (loadsof 0 kg and 20 kg). Additionally, 200m SP and LJP was taken from competitionmarks within two weeks of testing; a CR of athleticism for each participant wasalso collected. Results: Comparison of the best three male long jumpers to theworst three male long jumpers revealed that better long jumpers performedbetter in all vertical jumping conditions. There were moderate to strong correlationsbetween coach rank and all four jumping conditions for the female athletes.Correlations ranged from r = -0.57 to -0.64, p<0.05. Conclusions: Consistentwith previous research, VJP may be a good indicator of SP and LJP. AssessingVJP in track athletes may help coaches in talent identification as well asmonitoring training progress.

59. Lynch, Conor. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Alen Smith. Basic Physiology for Alpine Ski Racing

Flexibility, body composition, and aerobic endurance arefactors that affect athletic performance. Research on flexibility, body composition,and aerobic endurance has been done on elite level athletes and can be used tocompare athletes of different sports and abilities. The purpose of this studywas to look at the physical and physiological tests done on World Cup level skiracers in an attempt to see what physical and physiological advantages mayexist in elite level ski racers. Testing on young, male athletes (ages 12-13)from Crested Butte Mountain Sports Team is then presented in order to comparetheir physical and physiological traits to those of World Cup ski racers. TheCBMST athletes were tested on maximal oxygen uptake, body composition, andflexibility because these are the most commonly researched traits in World Cupski racers. The results from the research comparison can be used to helpdetermine future exercise protocols for young ski racers.

60. Fishman, Joel. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kinkema, Alen Smith. Effects of Multiple Carbohydrate Solution on EnduranceCycling Performance at Lactate Threshold

Different carbohydrate solutions have different effects onperformance. Three carbohydrate solutions and a placebo were tested in order tofind any performance enhancing effects. Many studies have tested the effects ofglucose, fructose or both carbohydrates combined to show performanceenhancement before, during and after exercise. However, no studies have beenperformed on performance enhancement of Acli-Mate and Enduro-Mate. The purposeof this study was to determine the performance effects of supplementing withAcli-Mate, G-Mate, Enduro-Mate and a placebo during extended cycling in a labsetting. One professional male cyclist was tested on a cycle ergometer for 120minutes at 70% of VO2max followed by a time trial (TT) to fatigue at LactateThreshold (LT). Subject was tested in the following order (Acli-Mate, Placebo,G-Mate, and Enduro-Mate). Results: TBD

61. Knopf, Clifton. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Nigerian Oil Crisis

One can speculate that for most Americans, contact withNigeria generally comes via an email notifying them they are someone’sbeneficiary or if they provide their banking information they will behandsomely rewarded. However, fewer Americans are likely aware of an ongoingconflict over oil and the environment in the Nigerian Delta. Rebel groups inthe Delta are fighting with the Nigerian government over resource based wealthsharing. The situation is not entirely a case of the ‘haves’ versus the‘have-nots’ but rooted in deeper issues. The role of ethnic violence,post-colonial impact, the effects of globalization in Africa and the role ofoil as a destabilizing factor in undermining Nigeria’s democracy all play apart in the conflict. The question arises as to whether this conflict is aninternal dispute among Nigerians or if there are outside players involvedincluding foreign-based oil companies and foreign governments.

62. Davis, Danielle. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Conflict in Angola

Afterindependence in November 1975, Angola faced a devastating civil war whichlasted several decades and claimed millions of lives and refugees. Followingnegotiations held in Portugal, itself under severe social and political turmoiland uncertainty due to the April1974 revolution, Angola's three main guerrilla groups agreed to establish atransitional government in January 1975. Within two months, however, the FNLA,MPLA and UNITA were fighting each other and the country was well on its way tobeing divided into zones controlled by rival armed political groups. Thesuperpowers were quickly drawn into the conflict, which became a heated pointfor the Cold War. The United States, Portugal, Brazil and South Africasupported the FNLA and UNITA. The Soviet Union and Cuba supported the MPLA.

63. McConnell, Eric. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. How the Hooves Have Trampled: A Historical Evaluation ofGrazing in the Southwest

Early boarder ranching operation, historically, tended tohave minimal impact on the region’s ecosystem. However, with westward expansionin the U.S. and the introduction of large scale ranching operation north andsouth of the boarder, the regions fragile ecosystem was threatened. As grazingincreased, environmental and economic challenges have fallowed, resulting indesertification, private verses public land use, and technological impacts. Acritical event in this process was the Taylor Grazing act of 1934 whichattempted to stabilize grazing policy. A critical short coming of the act wasthat it failed to take into consideration the verity of ecosystems in whichgrazing occurs.

64. Peterson, Erin. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Endangered Species of the Borderlands

A rich biodiversity of plants and animals is necessary tothe health and integrity of our environment. However, the industrial andsecurity development in the borderlands between U.S. and Mexico have had anegative impact on the plant and animal species that inhabit the area. Byresearching what the government and private organizations have done in the pastand what they are doing today to protect and preserve species, many effectivesolutions can be reached. Local conservations groups, like the MalpaiBorderlands Group, have had the greatest impact reversing the negative affectsfrom the past and curbing the potential problems species could face in thefuture. Although the problem of endangered species in the borderlands is amajor issue that cannot be easily solved, the current efforts in place providehope for the future.

65. Mitchell, Mark. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Anglo Zulu War 1879

The 1879 Anglo Zulu war, also known as the Boer War, was the culmination ofmany events which origin was from 1488 AD when Bartholomew Diaz was trying toreach the India Trade by ship. The Dutch would colonize South Africa andestablish Cape Town. While a Dutch Colony, many people’s from Europe migratedto South Africa. Many of the new arrivals were French Huguenots who werefleeing persecution from the Catholic Church. The blending of the FrenchHuguenots, the Dutch, and a few German sailors resulted in an unintended colonywhich became autonomous from Europe. These people were known as the Boers. TheBoers would be pushed north into uncharted territory because of the British banon Slavery, which was essential to Boer survival and way of life. Zululand wasa loose confederation of tribes which were controlled by chieftains. The Boersfleeing now British controlled South Africa made a treaty with a Zulu King tosettle on a new partial of land. The Boers would offend the Zulu King and theresult would be an embittered hatred between the Boers and the Zulu’s. The warwould end with the Annexation of Zululand by the British in 1887 AD.

66. Eriksen, Weston. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Anglo-Zulu War of 1879

During the 19th century it was said that the sun never seton the British Empire. The extensive distance between the home government andher majesty's colonial extension lead to a policy of giving British HighCommissioners the ability to work at their own discretion. Sir Henry BartleFrere was sent to South Africa with the intentions of bringing together theDutch Boers under British rule by challenging the Zulu nation. Bartle Frere'shope of becoming the first British governor over the South African dominion wasdashed with Britain's defeat by the Zulu, the worst defeat Britain had sufferedby any indigenous tribe. Britain's Home government put the blame at Bartle Frere'sfeet and blamed him for taking actions in his own self interests. The homegovernment made Frere the scapegoat for the embarrassment and then proceeded tobecome much more aggressive against the Zulu, literally subduing the Zulunation with a second invasion. Was Frere really to be blamed for the firstdefeat? The Zulu nation were a problem in unifying South Africa under Britishrule and from Britain's perspective they needed to be dealt with.

67. Eriksen, Weston. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Rio Grande Water Tensions

The Rio Grande is a river that has had politicallycomplicated past and now has become even greater source of conflict between theUnited States and Mexican interest as environmental concerns have been added topolitical concerns. This river starts in the San Juan mountains in southernColorado and makes its way into Mexico and then swings back to act as the“natural” borderline between Texas and Mexico. As a result, the Rio Grande is aimportant source of water to both nations, water quantity and quality issuesare of increasing importance and there is a growing concern about what is putinto the water on both sides of the border. In 1944 the U.S signed watertreaties with Mexico designating how much water the U.S would receive from theRio Grande when the river swung back towards Texas and how much water Mexicowould get from the Colorado river. The Treaties didn't deal with the quality.This paper explores the political and environmental implications of thedegradation of the Rio Grande River.

68. Davis, Danielle. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Ranching in the Borderlands

The creosote-dominated landscape that characterizes thesouthern Arizona/New Mexico border region is perceived as “natural”, byvisitors and residents alike, but it is largely the result of overgrazingduring the livestock boom of the late nineteenth-century. After readinglandscape descriptions from the boundary surveys of the 1850s and otherscholarly material which study the physical indicators of overgrazing, one willsee the landscape around them in a whole new light as a product of history, asmuch as of nature. Ranchers, overgrazing, and the frustrating fire suppressionpolicies that contributed to the spread of woody shrubs and loss of forage grassesmade severe degradation possible.

69. Parr, Tim. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Rise of Fundamentalist Islam in Africa and its ResultingConflicts

The rise of Fundamentalist Islam across Africa has givenrise to many local African conflicts. Many African countries including Algeria,Egypt, Mali, Senegal, Tunisia, Niger, and Chad have instituted Islam as thestate religion meanwhile Sudan, Nigeria, Somalia, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania,and Western Sahara have instituted Shari’a as the national law. With theincreased fundamentalist Islamic presence and enforced Shari’a amongnon-Islamic African communities, conflicts have developed and grown asreligious groups face conflicts with different state territories. The conflictscaused by Shari’a, especially evident in Sudan and Nigeria, are primordialconflicts and a direct result of the religious limitations and constraints thatIslamic fundamentalists enforce through Shari’a law and activist or terroristactivities. The rejection of freedom of religion and learned intoleranceincites these conflicts further offering no end in sight.

70. Perkins, Brittany. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. OurAmerican Slums: Colonias Along the U.S.-Mexico Border

Colonias are low-income settlements along the border betweenthe United States and Mexico. These towns often lack adequate infrastructuresuch as potable water and waste treatment systems, making them a human healthhazard as well as an environmental hazard. These areas are often inhabited byemployees of maquiladoras; factories owned by U.S. companies that are locatedjust over the border in Mexico. Through delving into a history of the colonias,the factors and forces that led to their existence can be studied. Otherimportant aspects to a study of the colonias will be a background of theircharacteristics and also the environmental degradation that they create.Although life in colonias is difficult today, the future is not bleak for allof these towns. Aid is being given to help clean up these areas and provide thecitizens with basic services.

71. Hunt, Jeff. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Rise and Fall of Mengistu Haile Mariam: Ethiopia'sJourney into the Age of Independence in Africa

Ethiopia’s path into the modern age and through the decadesof African independence is a unique one. Colonial European rule was largelyavoided and strong native rulers like Menelik II and Haile Selassie enjoyedlong and successful reigns. This makes the rise of Mengistu Haile Mariam especiallyquestionable. I explore the combination of events and historical precedentsthat enable a man like Mengistu to succeed Emperor Selassie, focusing onSelassie’s use of Big Man politics, the changing political culture in Africa atthe time and analyzing Mengistu’s motivations: nationalism, socialism and lustfor power. I will also investigate the factors that lead to Mengistu’s downfalland the absentia trial conducted in his exile, paying specific attention to theRed Terror and political genocide perpetrated against the people of Ethiopia.

72. Dorr, Brandon, Anne Mitsch, and Adrienne Stratton. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. World War II Posters

World War II propaganda, as represented in these warposters, was a form of government communication that was created to encouragepatriotic behavior among Americans and produce an emotional response. Theseposters emphasized the role of the individual citizen as it pertained to thewar effort and also attempted to dehumanize the enemy.

73. Welty, Allison. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Aftermath of the Rwandan Genocide

This research paper will examine the genocide that tookplace in Rwanda in 1994. It will give a brief history of previous conflictsbetween the Tutsi and Hutu tribes and the events leading up to the genocide. Itwill briefly look into the history of Tutsi rule in the country after gainingindependence from Belgium and focus on the remaining hostility between the twotribes. The main scope of the research paper will then be looking into theaftermath of the genocide and the current state of the country and the twotribes. There will be a focus on the displaced Hutu in the Democratic Republicof the Congo and how the conflict has carried over into other neighboringcountries, such as Burundi and Uganda. The paper will examine whether or notthe displaced Hutu are organizing in these countries and whether or not thereis a current threat of retaliation.

74. Brooks, Nina, Nick Edwards. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. WPA State Guides from the New Deal

TheWorks Progress Administration, a public works project implemented during theNew Deal era of the 1930s, allowed for unemployed writers to work in publicservice for the government. Of all the WPA's programs, the Federal WritersProject was the most successful; its state guides program grew to be the heartand soul of FWP success. The FWP not only fulfilled the WPA's initial goal ofemploying writers, but went above and beyond these goals by informing people offacts previously unknown. As the only profit-producing institution of the WorksProgress Administration, the Federal Writers Project grew to be the mostsuccessful of all its programs.

75. Benson, Troy, Samuel Johnson, and Andrew Strosnider History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. Federal Theatre Project of the New Deal

TheFederal Theatre Project (FTP) was a New Deal program that was established tobuild a national theater troop of unemployed actors that would perform in manymajor cities as well as travel rural areas producing plays. The long termpurpose of the project was to establishtheater as an integral part of communities and so would outlive the programitself. Actors involved in the FTP could also be hired out to smallerproduction crews in other areas. The founder of the FTP was Hallie Flanagan, atheater professor who stated that the productions done by the organizationwould be “free, adult, and uncensored.” During its four years of existence theFTP hired over 50,000 people and performed thousands of productions.Unfortunately, the FTP lost its funding due to leftist commentary in some ofthe productions before it could have a lasting effect in many communities.

76. Santangelo, Robert. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Water Issues Facing the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

 The United States Mexican Borderlands face water issuesevery day and it is a struggle to get through each day for the people livingalong this border both on the Mexican and United States side. This paper willexplore how population growth in this region has caused water shortages and waterquality degradation over time. It will also examine the effects which have beenmade to address these issues and possible solutions that are needed to resolvethe border’s water crisis. The water problems facing the borderlands are notjust a present problem but have evolved over the years and will need directattention if these issues are to be prevented.

77. Roland, Jacob. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Rwanda  Conflict

This paper discusses all the major factors resulting in themass slaughtering of over 800,000 people during the Rwanda Genocide in 1994.This particular paper covers all actions prior to the Belgian Colonial Era.Questions will be answered about what caused and aided the strong ethnic andsociopolitical tensions between Hutus and Tutsis and how did Belgium and otherWestern nations contribute to the chaos of those two cultures. The role ofenvironmental factors like drought will also be discussed. The final questiondiscussed is how did the world allow this to happen?

78. Callahan, Max. History, Heather Theissen-Riley.Groundwater in the Borderlands

Mostdisputes over water between the United States and Mexico have been primarilyconcerned with the capture and distribution of surface waters. The Borderlandsgroundwater issue is a relatively new development in US-Mexican relations. Onlyas recently as post World War II was the nature of the area’s subsurfacehydrology fully discovered and understood. Previously unexamined quality anddistribution issues; movement of subsurface flows; and aquifers were studiedand mapped to a certain degree. Unfortunately, this only worked to compound thealready fractured US-Mexican relations in regards to water resources “shared”by the two nations. This work seeks to examinehow the groundwater resources of the Borderlands region that were relativelyunknown/untapped before 1973 have become the prominent issue furthering theconflict over water between the United States and Mexico.

79. Stuller, Walter, Sean Fredinburg, and Scott Murtaugh. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. Women in World War II

Women participating in World War Two are traditionallythought of as industrial workers brought in to replace the men who went tofight. However, some women chose to participate more directly. Women air forceservice pilots, or WASPS, were civilian women employed to fly for the UnitedStates Army Air Corps. The OSS and British SOE employed other women who playedkey roles in the war effort by serving as spies. These women showed that awoman could do far more for her country in a time of war.

80. Daniels, Tyler, Heather Davis, and Jordan Owens. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. Farm Security Administration and the Dust Bowl

The Dust Bowl was a series of severe dust storms that causedmajor agricultural damage to the prairieland in the 1930s. These storms were aresult of drought, as well as poor farming methods. The storms caused so muchdevastation on farms that many families were forced to pack up their belongingsand head west looking for work. These families stayed in camps along theirjourney that had been set up by people in the same situations. As a part of theNew Deal, the Farm Security Administration (FSA) was established to combatrural poverty and assist the farmers that had been affected by the storms. TheFSA provided the many families that had exhausted all their financial meanswith loans to purchase new equipment and livestock. Although the FSA played amajor role in the survival of rural communities, its lasting legacy today maymostly be the photographs it produced.

81. Golan, Tal. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Life Line to Border Line- exploring the transformation ofthe Rio Grande from a natural ecosystem into a political border

Thispaper explores the historic events that lead to the reshaping of the mainfunction of the Rio Grande from past to present; from life line which allowssocieties to prosper along its banks, to a political border serving as a guard ofgeographic and political interests. In the past, societies have learned torespectfully use the meandering, Great River to sustain their people forgenerations. At the present, the length of Great River serves mainly as apolitical border, a diminishing water source for farmers and an imaginary linethat disrupts the natural functions of the river ecosystem. This researchstudies the environmental and social implications of transforming a wholesomeecosystem which provides for an entire community of species, into a controlledboundary which provides for very few species.

82. Brooks, Nina. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Sierra Leone Civil War

They sing diamonds are a girl’s best friend but in SierraLeone in the 1990’s they brought nothing but misery. From 1991 to 2002 SierraLeone experienced a bloody civil war, over control the of the nations diamonds.Whoever controlled the diamonds controlled the power. I will use a Marxistbased conflict theory to understand how the Sierra Leone conflict was resourcebased. This paper focuses primarily on three aspects of the illegal diamondtrade which fueled the conflict: the role of Sierra Leone neighbor, Liberia, inthe conflict, the role of child soldiers and finally how the internationalregulation of diamonds helped bring an end to the civil war.

83. Palmer, Robin. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Water Scarcity and the Colorado River

The overuse of the Colorado River is a significant problembecause many people, as well as countless numbers of species and a variety ofecosystems, in the Southwest and in Mexico depend on the Colorado River. Thisproject seeks to investigate several aspects of water scarcity on the ColoradoRiver. The first aspect explores the short term and long term effects of waterscarcity on both the ecosystems that are touched by the Colorado River as wellas the indigenous populations that depend on it. The next issue related towater scarcity includes how current water policy could be amended to reducewater scarcity on the Colorado River.

84. Shaw, Dana. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Environmental Consequences Resulting From

Ciudad Juarez and its U.S. sister city El Paso are the twooldest metropolitan areas that have developed along the U.S. Mexican border.Population growth and urbanization have characterized these cities, especiallyafter World War II. Early years in the economic development of Juarez createdthe beginnings of commercial and industrial development that would eventuallytransform not only the city, but the ecology of the surrounding ecosystems,watersheds, and quality of air. This process has intensified with the rise ofthe maquiladora industry. The connections between industrial and populationgrowth have created major environmental concerns including air and waterquality issues, as well as hazardous waste disposal issues. This posterexamines the connection between historic population growth andindustrialization and resulting environmental consequences of this rapid growthin the borderlands.

85. Myers, Dax. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Phoenix's Dependency on Rocky Mountain Rivers

Thispaper examines Phoenix’s rapid growth based on its dependence of Rocky MountainRivers. While the city does not get all of its water from Rocky MountainRivers, it is suchsubstantial amount that the human habitat of Phoenix canbe looked at as artificial, meaning (on the current growth scale), the area ofPhoenix should not be as densely inhabited as it is, based on the resourcesthat it needs to function. As a result of the rapid growth (after 1950- and thearrival of central air conditioning), the mass development destroyed thesurrounding desert and the influx of population growth caused the city torequire more water than what the Indian Bend Wash Watershed could support. Theresult of this was Phoenix turning to other sources of energy and waterresources. Glen Canyon Dam now provides the hydroelectric power needed tosupport the cities growing air conditioning needs. In the 1980s, the Central ArizonaProject planned to divert water from the Colorado in order to satisfy thecities growing needs. The implications of this expansion are tremendous, andhave already led to the destruction of many delicate ecosystems.

86. Knopf, Clifton. History, Heather Theissen-Riley. Rescaping the Landscape of a Desert Community

This paper explores the concept of xeriscaping in the Tucsonarea and the historical processes that have led to changes in urbanlandscaping. Arguably the greatest negative changes to the environment in thearea were caused after World War II by the landscaping mentality of incomingsettlers many of whom had little or no regard for or understanding of thenatural landscape of the desert. The impact of the suburban lifestyle ofnuclear families and retirees to the desert created an environmental crisis. Inthe 1970s the concept of xeriscaping became popular as a way of mitigating thecrisis and by the end of the 20th century, Tucson began implementinglandscaping laws.

87. Foster, Sarah. Honors, Heather Theissen-Riley. Sandstone Summer

For the spring 2010 City as Text course we are spending atotal of six days studyin and exploring Santa Fe, New Mexico. I was inspired bythe rugged terrain, rich color, and depth of culture of the city and opted toexpress my experience through a creative writing piece. I decided to use theform of the ficitonal short story paying special attention to characterdevelopment, regional influence and poetic language. I seek to capture theemotions and feelings Santa Fe evoked in me and to share them via a literaryavenue.

88. Honors, Heather Theissen-Riley. The Value of a WSC Liberal Arts and Sciences Education

Thisproject analyzed the qualitative and quantitative characteristics thatcontribute to the value of the Liberal Arts and Sciences education provided byWestern State College. The project's goal was to try to ssess the value of aWestern State College Liberal Arts and Sciences education. In this study welooked into demographics, economics and the geographic opportunities availableto students in Gunnison. We conducted interviews and surveys with professors,alumni and current students to determine what makes Western a desirableatmosphere that fosters both personal and financial success. We investigated someperceptions and realities of a Liberal Arts and Sciences education, statisticaldata regarding college life, and the impacts of extracurricular opportunitiesto fully comprehend how these factors contribute to the cultivation of generalintellectual abilities rather than technical or professional skills. This analysisis applicable to former, current and perspective students in order for them tounderstand the potential of and utilize their Western State College education.

89. Hove, Jesse. Honors. Heather Theissen-Riley. ELL Methods and Teaching

I am undertaking a field based independent Honors projectwith the Gunnison Literacy Program working with advanced ELL students. Thisproject allowed me to gain practical teaching experience with ELL students,develop my Spanish skills and to apply techniques learned in my classes in areal world environment. I explored various methods of ELL instruction whichincluded reading, discussion and presentation approaches with special emphasison writing strategies. Through this project, I have become familiar with thechallenges that can arise from both the learning and teaching experience in providingELL education and have gained a greater awareness of how to meet those teachingchallenges.

90. Rea, Mandy. Honors, Molly Mugglestone. Human Rights Implications for India: Women Entering the WorkForce

Women in India face extreme discrimination; sexualharassment is particularly common. Traditional gender roles and the increasingnumber of women entering the workforce are exacerbating this problem. Indianwomen generally have little control over their earnings and employment status.Poor girls and women are often sent to work to support the family, even thoughit is considered culturally inappropriate or wrong. Wealthy or educated womenare often prevented from working as a show of the family’s morality andfinancial stability. It is critical for India to uphold the human rightsguaranteed by the Indian Constitution, ICESCR, ICCPR, CRC and CEDAW. The Indianculture must be adapted to alleviate the societal burden on working women andto protect them from rampant and often institutionalized violence, harassmentand discrimination. This paper aims to examine the issues faced by working omen in India and to outline recommendations for preventing these human rightsviolations.

91. Finney, Conor. Mathematics, Dr. Robert Cohen. An Excellent Journey through Non-Commutativity

Have you ever gotten up in the morning and put your shoes onbefore your socks, then wondered why this is different from putting your sockson first? From a young age in math we are taught that certain operations“commute”, while others do not. Everyone knows that 5 + 4 is the same as 4 + 5yet 4 - 5 is not 5 - 4. Exploring the world of non-commutativity leads us tomany different mathematical settings. We will journey through subtraction,division, cross products, composition of functions, and matrix multiplication,finally arriving at conjecture attempting to capture non-commutative patterns.

92. Krenz, Joshua. Mathematics, Jeremy Muskat. Math is blowing in the wind

Abstract:What it wind? Wind is a driving force in most of the world’s weather. Winddrives the show dumping last Friday. Wind drives the hurricanes which destroythe Gulf Coast. But most important of all, wind supplies power for developingcountries, wind supplies power for homes, and wind supplies power for majorcities. In 1919 Albert Betz discovered an elegant expression for the maximumpower obtainable from the wind. In this talk we will discuss how to model thewind flow and derive the equations which describe how a wind turbine takes theforce of the wind and turn it into a useful power source. We will discuss theoverall wind using a simple wind tube, which we will call a streamtube as ourbasic model. Interestingly, this result can be obtained from elementarycalculus.

93. Ankoviak, Chris, KindraLuberski, Jeremy Johndrow, Jacob Tucker. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. Conserving Energy: By saving Money Through SustianablePractices

This project was done to show how implementing sustainablepractices can save money and the environment. Our goal was to isolate thenumber of rooms cut off from all electricity, thus eliminating their phantomload at the Grand Lodge, in Crested Butte. Comparing occupancy, electricitybills and evaluating the effect of disconnecting 50 vacant rooms for 30 days,we determined the cost associated with operating each room. Cost effective andsustainable practices were also introduced for the lobby, business offices,pool, restaurant and gift shop areas. Based on the level of involvement fromhotel employees, tactics were suggested to directly affect the amount ofelectricity and money saved. We found that on average the Grand Lodge couldpotentially save 10% to 15% annually on electricity bills. The findings of thisproject will be implemented throughout Crested Butte Mountain Resort in aneffort to become more sustainable.

94. Schifferer, Zach, Blaine Johnson, Bem Grinnell. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. Getting Sudsy: Strategic and Sustainable Planning for theFuture

Our purpose for this project was to take the recentlypurchased Southern Cross Laundromat, and compile all the existing financialdocumentation through data entries into excel formats. Financial trackingsystems, spreadsheets, and graphical representations were developed formanagement to track and record the business’ performance. Our challenge was toformulate a strategic plan for the Laundromat which included marketing,expansion, and environmental sustainability strategies. The marketing strategyrequired research of market trends and customer demographics. For the expansionstrategy we looked into the feasibility of acquiring a second Laundromatlocation. Upon request from the owner, a ten year plan for the environmentalsustainability and energy usage of the Laundromat was constructed. Lastly, wedeveloped a system for the owners to track how their facilities will beutilized and where their profits and expenses will be allocated.

95. Murray, Chelsea, Tim Jones. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. Western State College's High Altitude Performance LabWelcomes Adaptive Sports Center

AdaptiveSports Center (ASC) of Mount Crested Butte is a nationally known non-profitorganization that provides recreational services for people with disabilities;Western State College's High Altitude Performance Lab (HAP Lab) is a sportperformance and exercise physiology facility equipped to assess fitnessparameters and help athletes reach their full potential in sport and health& wellness. The three-fold purpose of this service-learning projectentailed 1. Helping the HAP Lab be capable of testing any experience level andtype (road or off-road) of hand-cyclist on VO2 max with gas analysis, lactatethreshold, muscular fitness and other performance testing on the largetreadmill; 2. Creating two brochures for ASC: one about the HAP Lab and its servicesand another about the effects of high altitude sickness and how to prevent it;and 3. Gaining experience and insight into working with people with disabilitiesand the non-profits that serve them.

96. Wadas, Adam, CoreyDusin, Jerad David. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Brooke Moran. BLM Capstone Project

A group of students from the OLRM capstone course aregaining knowledge of land management agencies by volunteering their time withthe BLM. Through their volunteer work with the Gunnison BLM field office theyare providing services for land management operations. They have assistedwildlife biologists in the construction of blue bird houses and haverecommended changes for the Gunnison field office’s webpage. Students providedguidance in properly operating the Gunnison’s Field office permitting databaseand have summarized the interpretive panels which are located on the SilverThread Byway. Research has been conducted for an interpretive display in LakeCity that will contain information about the vast amount of species that callthe Gunnison basin home.

97. Wilder, Eli. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Mangement, Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Colorado River and its Troubles

This paper explores the historical changes that haveoccurred within the Colorado River drainages, specifically located downstreamof a few select dams. Areas inquiries include the changes in water temperaturesand clarity and the effect this has had on the specific ecosystem. As a resultof changing ecosystems, the dams have also had social and economic impact. Fromthe creation of jobs and drinking water to the destruction of native fish andbeautiful vistas, the dams’ impacts have forever changed our lives in the west.This report will touch on a few of these impacts and how they developed throughout history.

98. Case, Leah. Psychology, Roger Drake. Significance of Outdoor Education on Youth's Overall Healthand Self esteem

The basis of my research was focused on how adolescentsbeing involved in some form of outdoor education can positively impact theiroverall health and self esteem. Most youth who collaborate with those of theirown age, and are active, have a high sense of self, as well as dramaticallyreduce their likelihood of having serious health problems later in life.

100. Otis, Jourdan. Psychology.“Practicalityof the Working Memory to the Brain”

Theprefrontal cortex is involved in a great deal of work because of all of theinformation that it has to receive. It processes incoming information that canbe involved with either visual or auditory senses. It helps in the assistanceof carrying out specific actions and processes of the long-term memory. There arecertain requirements for any physiological system for memory to holdinformation after the original stimulus is gone. With this said it isinteresting to note that the stimulus is not always present, which was foundapparent through an experiment done by Funahashi. Through the researching ofarticles on this topic, there was information retrieved thatsupports the idea that prefrontal cortex is essential for holding informationfor brief periods of time. Collaboration is also a significant variable in whatthe memory retains.

101. Coots, Timon. Psychology, Roger Drake. Effective Uses of Visual Imagery in Problem Solving

This presentation addresses ways which we can use visualimagery as a means for solving problems. It also attends to the ongoing debateof whether visual imagery employs mechanisms involved in language(propositional) or those involved in perception (spatial). The articlescontained within this presentation attend to this debate and offer evidencethat supports the theory that visual imagery is related to the mechanismsinvolved in perception. Visual imagery can be a powerful tool for study as wellas other applications. These applications include, but are not limited to:stress reduction; memory improvement; relaxation and; skill development.

102. Happel, Michael. Psychology, Roger Drake. The Reciprocity Rule and Tactical Retreat

Social psychologist Robert Cialdini proposes that humanshave a strong will to execute reciprocity. Cialdini’s “reciprocity rule” positsthat all humans, in every society throughout history and across the globe, feelobligated to perform a reciprocal favor to another individual or entity if thatfirst entity gives or concedes something first. Cialdini notes that anindividual can use the reciprocity rule to manipulate others to perform a favoror task, or to avoid being manipulated, using a method he calls “tactical retreat.”Research found two experiments that examined the efficacy of the reciprocityrule first by testing willingness to reciprocate sharing and taking, andanother surveying the obligation felt by employees to their employers. Bothexperiments suggested that performing favors for others was a successful way tosway opinion, as well as to have favors reciprocated in the future, supportingCialdini’s purported rules.

103. Givan, Emily. Psychology, Roger Drake. Recommendations for Increasing Spelling Accuracy and LexicalPriming

This presentation explores the ways in which humans perceiveand understand words, focusing on the word frequency effect and context. Italso examines two recent articles on the subject: 1.) "Associative andrepetition priming with the repeated masked prime technique: No primingfound", and 2.) "Phonological skill, lexical decision and letterreport performance in good and poor adult spellers". The first articleinvestigates whether performance in a lexical decision task correlates with aperson’s overall ability to spell words. The second article explores how visualmasking effects repetition and associative priming in a lexical decision task.This information can be applied by students and educators to increase spellingaccuracy and lexical priming.

104. Happel, Michael.Psychology, Roger Drake.The Reciprocity Rule and Tactical Retreat

Social psychologist Robert Cialdini proposes that humans havea strong will to execute reciprocity. Cialdini’s “reciprocity rule” posits thatall humans, in every society throughout history and across the globe, feelobligated to perform a reciprocal favor to another individual or entity if thatfirst entity gives or concedes something first. Cialdini notes that anindividual can use the reciprocity rule to manipulate others to perform a favoror task, or to avoid being manipulated, using a method he calls “tacticalretreat.” Research found two experiments that examined the efficacy of thereciprocity rule first by testing willingness to reciprocate sharing andtaking, and another surveying the obligation felt by employees to theiremployers. Both experiments suggested that performing favors for others was asuccessful way to sway opinion, as well as to have favors reciprocated in thefuture, supporting Cialdini’s purported rules.

105. Niesman, Stephanie. Psychology, Roger Drake. Procedural Memory to Aid Patients with Episodic MemoryDamage

Proceduralmemory is a type of implicit memory. Implicit memory involves the use of aprevious experience in correlation to an improved performance. Implicit memoryincludes the completion of a certain task without consciously remembering howwe are aware to complete the task. Procedural memory can be more specificallydefined as a skill which exists without a memory of learning the skill. Anexperiment using patients with short term memory loss which impaired them fromstoring new long term memories involved teaching the patients a new taskthrough procedural learning. The results show that the patients were able toperform the task quicker each time proving that the patients could learn newtasks through the use of procedural memory. Another study shows that sleepconsolidation can be used to enhance the effectiveness of procedural memory inbrain damage patients. Patients with short term memory loss may not be able toremember what they did last but, they are still able to learn new tasks. It ispossible for patients suffering from episodic memory damage to learn new tasks,or form procedural memories, by procedural learning after their injuries.

106. Kicklighter, Alison. Psychology, Coykendall, Thiessen. Public Service: TAT

Throughthe use of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), personality traits of controlsand those who work or volunteer in emergency services were contrasted. The TAT(Murray and Morgan, 1943) is a widely used projective personality test of blackand white images that attempt to uncover unique personalitytraits of individuals. Test subjects tell stories based on ambiguous images.For the purpose of this study, seven story cards were chosen and presented in aset order to all test subjects. The experimental group consisted of twelvesubjects involved in public service. The control group consisted of twelvesubjects with similar demographics. Results are expected to yield stories witha higher frequency of heroic attitudes and a propensity to aid others withinthe experimental group as compared to the control group.

107. Frankmore, Samantha, Bethany Waller. Science, Sarah cerra. Effects of Acidic and Basic Water on Brassica Growth

If the pH level is more balanced the seeds will grow mostsuccessfully as they are in healthiest conditions. We observe overall healthwithin different pH level conditions. Brassica rapa seeds were planted two perpod in a six pack pod to be three treatments watered with acidic (pH 5) basic(pH9) and neutral water (pH 7). Heights of each plant were recorded. Plants inneutral water thrived, growing the tallest, while ones in acidic water didfairly well, while the plants watered in basic water died after two weeks. Ourhypothesis, the plants grown in neutral water would grow the best was supported(P-Value of 5.73 of bases to neutral).Effects of various types of watercontamination are relevant ecologically and economically.