Program of Fall 2011 Poster Presentations

Fall 2011

WSC Celebration of Scholarship Undergraduate Research Symposium

Thursday, December 1, 2011, College Center Ballroom

12:15 pm - 12:30 Poster set up and Keynote Performance of West African Drumming by Mark Gibson's ROE 491 Capstone class

12:30 pm Introduction and opening remarks

12:30 pm- 2:00 pm Poster Presentations (Posters will remain up and available for viewing after the formal poster presentation from 2:00-5:00)

The posters are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the submitting author. The discipline and supervising instructor are listed after the authors. Because a central goal of the event is to explore the practices of communication and critical inquiry across disciplines in the tradition of the liberal arts, the disciplines and course levels (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) are intentionally mixed.  We hope this encourages cross disciplinary interactions as well as providing opportunities for cross class communication and role modeling. Where a poster is part of a specific course project the course number is indicated at the end of the abstract. 

1. Abbott, Ryan. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Wear Usage on Stone Tools

Stone tools were used in so many different ways and there fore some tools lasted longer preforming certain tasks than others.  I am looking at the ware usage on sharp flakes that are used on bone, wood, and hide.  I chose those three items for a reason.  I chose bone, because people used flakes to process animals all the time, so the flake would constantly come in contact with bone.  Wood, because people used to use sharp flakes to create points on wood or to create some adornment.  I chose hide as well, because you need to scrape all the meat off the skin to then create cloths.  I am going to create my flakes out of chert, because that was commonly used rock for tools.  After I use the flakes on the bone, wood and hide; I'm going to look at the different marks that are created under the electron scanning microscope.  With this study we can see what type of marks are made when used on different surfaces to then reference other points that have similar markings.  Then we will have a better understanding of what tools were used for preforming specific tasks.

2. Anderson, Nate. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman and Lynn Sikkink. Three Sisters Succotash

By converting the starches (adjuncts) found in maize into fermentable sugars through enzymes (alpha amylase) found in saliva (muku), one is able to replicate the process of making a more traditional styled chicha beverage. The varying degrees of temperature will also have an effect on the outcome of the beverage's alcohol content, considering that top fermenting versus bottom fermenting yeast strains will have an effect on the outcome. In an attempt to modernize the process, bottling considerations of primary fluids as opposed to priming (corn) sugar in order to carbonate chicha is also to be examined. Future research is to include: Muku processing versus germination in converting adjuncts found in Maize. ANTH 219

3. Anderson, Ian. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Mississippian Culture and Why We Know Them

This project focuses on the Mississippian Culture that existed around the Mississippi River and its tributaries from A.D. 800 up until contact with Europeans in the mid-1500s, and how they utilized the resources available to them to create an advanced society with trade networks, stratified social structure and monumental architecture. It will look at the areas Mississippian people inhabited, and what they exploited as well as what they imported from elsewhere on the continent. I address the question how this allowed them to build their society. I suggest that their rich natural resources were the reason that they left behind the mound structures that we still see to this day. ANTH 344

4. Armstrong, Ben. Tyler Patterson, and Josh Newcomb. Biology. Amy Honan. The effects of herbicide resistance on temperature acclimation of Brassica rapa.

Herbicide resistance is becoming a problem in agriculture. Negative ecological effects have been found to be tied to herbicide resistance in in plants. This experiment was designed to test if herbicide resistance has any negative effects on the ability of Brassica rapa to acclimate to different temperatures. Non-resistant and Atrazine resistant Brassica rapa were grown in three different temperatures and their biomass, number of flowers, and the height of each plant was measured to test their ability to acclimate. The data were collected at the end of the growth period and it was discovered that the Atrazine resistance was not a problem for acclimation to cold temperatures. The Atrazine resistant plants that were grown at room temperature and the warmer temperature did have negative effects. The biomass, number of flowers and height were all less than that of the non-resistant plants grown at their respective temperatures. This is important because herbicides are being constantly used and are possibly creating devastating ecological effects on the plants they are being applied to. BIOL 151


In this paper I explore the critical intersections and differences between the Inca people of the Andes. Specifically I will explore their irrigation systems, terracing, and crop rotation systems. I focus my attention on the frameworks used by other anthropologists to better understand these complicated land use patterns and how this connects them to their environment. Using, Nigel Davies' studies and theories, I argue that in order for the Inca to have survived and flourished for so long we must focus on their highly skilled land use patterns. I will show how these land use patterns are directly correlated with much of their culture. I suggest that farming in the high mountain environment of the Andes was the basis for much of their culture as well. The results of this paper are to inform and show people at Western State College the whereabouts, and culture, and environmental adaptations of these peoples. ANTH 320

6. Ballard, Lisa. Forest Ecology. Jonathan Coop. Changes in Gunnison Basin Sagebrush Assessed Through Historic Re-Photography 

In this research, differences in sagebrush habitats will be re-photographed from an earlier study conducted in 1995. In 1995, transects were set up all around the Gunnison basin, with a total of 2.5 million acres for the study area. Once they collected their data, the site was marked with a piece of rebar. Old photos and location directions, to relocate the rebar, were obtained through the BLM. Transects selected to be re-photographed are from areas around Gunnison, Signal Peak, and Parlin. At the transects, A transect line is laid out in order to count the number of live and dead sagebrush. Photographs are being taken by a Canon Rebel. Data collection will be complete in approximately two weeks. Comparisons from the old and recreated photographs is intended to provide visual documentation about the changes in the sagebrush ecosystem due to disturbances mainly caused by big-game and livestock herds. BIOL 397

7. Beene, John, Jessie Dodge, Heather Miller and Matthew Wampler. Biology. Patrick Magee. Response of Sagebrush Cover and Herbaceous Understory to Sagebrush Restoration Treatments within the Gunnison Basin, Colorado

The sagebrush steppe ecosystem is in a state of decline across the western United States.  Various treatments have been applied to plots throughout the Gunnison Basin of Colorado to restore the viability of these ecosystems. Four plots were treated with a brush mower, four were disked and four were untreated. To assess the effect of the two treatments, canopy height and percent cover of shrubs and herbaceous understory for treated plots was compared to that of untreated plots. A line intercept method was used to measure percent cover and canopy height for vegetation within the plots. We found a higher percentage in grass coverage between disked and control plots but found no significant difference for the other vegetation types between plots. This analysis may be used to inform the decisions of land managers as whether or not and which treatments might be applied for the improvement of sagebrush habitat. BIOL 302

8. Beene, John. Biology. Jonathan Coop. An Analysis of Community Structures in the Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystem within the Gunnison Basin, Colorado

The sagebrush steppe ecosystem is in a state of decline across the western United States. Beginning in the early 1980's and continuing through the late 1990's, the United States Forest Service established permanent transects throughout the Gunnison Basin as part of its efforts to monitor the sagebrush steppe ecosystem within the Basin. Detailed species occurrence and coverage data were collected along these transects.  I will present the preliminary results of a multivariate analysis of these data as part of a larger effort to ascertain potential change in the structure of the plant communities found along these transects. This analysis may be used to inform the decisions of land managers as to the nature, condition and evolution of sagebrush habitat within the Basin. BIOL 397

9. Bell, Courtney. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Resource Management Amongst the Coastal Aborigines of Australia

Australia's Aboriginal people are a wide spread cultural group that inhabit both inland and sea coast areas of Australia. This paper focuses on the Saltwater People of Australia, which are coastal residents on the North and North East coast. These people lived off of resources from both the sea as well as on land, but they focused much of their lives on the sea, using its plant and animal life for their survival. The Saltwater People grew to understand the intricate working of the sea and developed an extensive knowledge of plant and animal ecology and understood seasonal and tidal changes. This knowledge allowed them to travel the seas visiting islands and reefs, many of which were given names representing the aboriginal lifestyle. This paper explores how the Aborigines used the ocean resources, what they thought about them and whether any of their practices were those of resource management. ANTH 320

10. Bell, Courtney. Psychology. Roger Drake. Maltreatment Toward Children and Its Effects on Learning Ability

Maltreatment of a child is something that will follow them throughout their life. When a child is mistreated, whether through mental, physical or emotional abuse, or through neglect or malnourishment, the development of the child's brain is significantly altered. During the early years of development the brain goes through major growth processes that will aid in proper functioning in the future. Maltreatment can hinder any of these processes causing severe learning disabilities and social learning dysfunctions. This paper will explore the implications of maltreatment and offer suggestions on how to correct or change the already hindered growth. PSY 498

11. Bell, Courtney. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Comparison of Growth and Flower Production in Herbicide Resistant and Susceptible Brassica rapa

Plant growth and flower production of Brasaca rapa was measured over a three week period. We used two types of Brasaca rapa; Triazine resistant and Triazine susceptible. We also varied the amount of light the plants received so some were in full sunlight and some were in shade. In our experiment we found that the Triazine susceptible plants grew the tallest in the sunlight, while the shaded plants did not show a significant difference between the two. When comparing flowers we found that the Triazine susceptible sprouted more flowers in the shade than the others. The plants in the sun did not show a significant difference in the number of flowers produced. BIOL 151

12. Bennetts, Corbin. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Pieris rapae show no preference in herbicide-resistant or herbicide-susceptible strains of Brassica rapa

It was hypothesized that herbicide-resistant Brassica rapa would be more prone to herbivory than herbicide-susceptible Brassica rapa. To test this hypothesis, two caterpillars were placed in seven separate cages containing three herbicide resistant Brassica rapa plants and three herbicide susceptible plants each. After monitoring which plants the caterpillars were on and how much leaf area was eaten off of each type of Brassica rapa it was determined that the caterpillars do not prefer one over the other. The data suggests that herbivore susceptibility is not one of the herbicide-resistant's tradeoffs. BIOL 151

13. Booton, Eric, Mary Wilson, Caleb Woodworth and Dana Shaw. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Intensive Haying in Riparian Areas

We have been looking at the effects of haying on stream bank stability on Tomichi Creek east of the airport in Gunnison.  Hiking along our monitoring site has revealed a number of extreme haying areas.  By recording measurements of stream bank stability, river and channel width, and max river depth throughout this section of the river we plan to determine the effects of intensive haying.  So far, observations have revealed a trend of reduced stream bank stability in areas that we have determined to be intensively hayed. ENVS 390

14. Britton, Taylor and Michael Winter. Biology. Jonathan Coop. Forest Structure Along an Elevation Gradient on North Aspect of Tomichi Dome Gunnison, Colorado

Elevation affects the growth, distribution, and abundance of trees.  The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of elevation on forests on Tomichi Dome in Gunnison, CO.  We sampled five circular, 100-m2 plots on the north face spaced incrementally across an elevation of 2900-3250 m. Trees were mapped using degree-distance method.  Tree heights and cores were taken from a minimum of one unsuppressed member of each species per plot.  Composition changed with elevation; however stand age and density did not.  Spruce-fir forests dominated above 3000 m with mixed aspen-spruce-fir forests below 3000 m.  We quantified one late-successional aspen community surrounded by spruce-fir forest at 3000 m.  Limber pines were found in open scree fields above 3100 m. BIOL 397

15. Britton, Taylor, Lisa Ballard, Andrew Baran and Makinsey Harmon. Biology. Patrick Magee. Abundance of Invasive Thistle (Cirsium spp.) in Riparian Corridors of the Gunnison Basin

In Colorado, Cirsium is a class B noxious weed in the Asteraceae family; it is currently the target of weed management efforts by the USDA nationwide.  We quantified abundance of Cirsium as a function of distance to an open water source.  We hypothesized that Cirsium would occur in higher numbers closest to water as its extensive root network is capable of extracting groundwater from depths of up to 5 m, and horizontal distances of 7 m.  We measured stem counts in 80 1 m2 Daubenmire quadrants over 8 transects at Tomichi Creek (UTM 13 S, E 0333621, N 4267012).  Preliminary results show data consistent with our Ha, however statistical significance, variance, and standard deviation will decide if these data can provide some correlation between distance and abundance. BIOL 302

16. Brookens, Kyle, Amanda Skaja and Ian Gilchrist. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Altered Geomorphology of the Tomichi Creek State Wildlife Area, Gunnison, CO Using Historic Aerial Photography

The Tomichi Creek area has been altered dramatically due to centuries of anthropogenic use and alteration. The greatest changes have recently occurred due to the expansion of industry, climate change, increased populations, and new technologies. This report attempts to study the changes caused by anthropogenic use on the Tomichi Creek riparian corridor by utilizing historical aerial imagery provided by the City of Gunnison and Google Earth (1955 - 2011). To understand the full scope of the impact on the Tomichi Creek in its current state, this report delves into the geomorphology of the area. Changes in overall pattern, rates of lateral migration, sinuosity Channel planform, size of channel bars, number of channel bars and major sediment sources will be studied. Braiding, Wavelength, Area, amplitude, and the perimeter of the creek will also be measured for significant changes. ENVS 390


A comprehensive study carried out by the Colorado Division of Wildlife demonstrated the potential for introduction of invasive species in the sagebrush steppe through land disruption. Increased traffic through frequent recreational use, as established by recent studies done by Bureau of Land Management, could prove to further upset the soil, allowing the introduction of invasive species. Data was collected at Hartman Rocks Recreational Area, located southwest of Gunnison, Colorado. We analyzed three study areas based on proximity to the base area. In, total, one hundred twenty randomly selected plots were analyzed. Plants were identified as either native or invasive genera and density was calculated. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics on Microsoft Excel. Our results indicate significant differences in density within a study area. While not significant, we observed greater numbers of invasive genera closer to the base. BIOL 302

18. Burris, Christopher. Exercise Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Squat versus Deadlift: Improving

The aim of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to determine whether performing squats versus deadlift would improve overall sprinting speed.  Four subjects total, all male, mixed between trained and untrained (Age, 20-23 years) performed four sets of four repetitions using either the squat protocol (SP = 85% of 1RM), or the deadlift protocol (DP = 85% of 1RM) over the course of three weeks.  Prior to training subject were tested in the 20 yards (18.228 m) and 40 yards (36.58 m), where the control (CP) dash protocol was initiated and implemented.  After three weeks of training, the subjects were tested again in the 20 yards (18.228 m) and 40 yards (36.58 m).  Results and conclusions are to be completed. ESS 495

19. Butero, Cody, Whitney Zerr, Brett George and Josh Whitton. Ecology. Patrick Magee. Effect of Spawning Time on Fitness of Oncorhynchus Nerka on the East River in the Gunnison Basin, Colorado

The purpose of this experiment was to determine when the healthiest Kokanee salmon spawn in the East River within the Gunnison Basin of Colorado. The health of the salmon was quantified by the overall length and the percentage of Saprolegnia fungus covering their epidermis. We hypothesized that the healthiest fish (being the longest, and exhibiting the least amount of fungal growth) would spawn earlier in the run, whereas the less healthy fish would spawn later during the run. Working with Division of Parks and Wildlife we were able to collect a sample of 60 Kokanee salmon each week for four consecutive weeks during the spawn. Each fish was measured and visually examined for fungal growth. Our results showed insignificant amounts of fungal growth on the majority of the salmon throughout the entire run despite the length of the fish. Based on our results we rejected our original hypothesis. BIOL 302

20. Clark, Emily. Mathematics. Jeremy Muskat. Finding the Density at the Grizzly Giant

This past summer I worked for Yosemite National Park in the Social Science Department. My duties included gathering descriptive data in different areas of the park, including: counting beach users; counting the number of vehicles at one time in a designated parking lot; and counting the number of people at a designated trail head using trail counters and GPS units. This data was gathered in high use areas to address issues of overcrowding and the preservation of solitude, as well as to monitor human impacts on natural resources. There were "4,047,880 visitors came to Yosemite in 2010 and 53,139 visitors on wilderness trails in 2010" (YOSE). With this much traffic each year Yosemite National Park is focusing on predicted high use areas of the park to better manage them. My proposal is to use data from the social science department to answer analytical questions that the department wants to know. MATH 495.

21. Cona, Krista. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. How does alcohol impact athletic performance?

The purpose of this descriptive mixed methods study was to explore how alcohol consumption affects women basketball players at a NCAA Division II level. Methods: The subjects in this study were eleven female basketball players. Their ages ranged from 18-22. Surveys were given periodically after practices throughout a two-week period. These surveys were targeted to find out if these athletes were conscientious of alcohol affect on their performance. Results and Conclusions: The data will be analyzed descriptively. The results for this research are pending. ESS 495.

22. Conrad, Callie. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Dispersal of limbs from scavengers

This experiment is going to test how far scavengers will drag an elk limb to reach some kind of protection such as trees and shrubs. Three elk limbs will be placed in some trees to see how far they get moved. Then I will put three other limbs in an area where trees will be about 50 yards away to see if they get taken all the way to the trees. Finally I will place three more limbs in an area where the nearest trees/cover is about 80-100 yards away, to see if they get taken all the way to the trees. Limbs that are placed in trees won't get moved more than 10 yards while the ones that are within 50 yard of the trees will get relocated to the tress and the limbs that are 80-100 yards from trees will only get moved about 50 yards before the scavenger gives up and just eats it there. Testing this will show us how important being hidden in trees while eating is to scavengers. ANTH 219.

23. Daly, Brian. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Put Your Ego in Your Pocket, You're Ruining the Game

This was a qualitative study aimed at understanding how athletes respond to trash talk. The focus was to shed light on the nature of trash talk and how athletes use it to their advantage during competition.  In order to accomplish the aim of this study, three central questions were asked: 1) What are the athlete's view on trash talk? 2) Do opponents participate in trash talk in the athlete's particular sport? 3) During competition is trash talk viewed as positive or negative? A group of six individuals from different sport backgrounds provided their insight on their views of trash talk with regard to these questions. These athletes, although coming from different backgrounds, came to the same conclusions: a) Trash talk is part of the game. b) Some players are better at trash talking and this does influence the competitive environment. ESS 495.

24. Dempsey, Madison.  Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Does 5 Hour Energy Meet its Claims?

The purpose of this mixed methods case study was to test the claims of the supplement 5 Hour Energy as a sustainable source of energy. The product claims to be "the cure for mornings" "it's me, just a better awake me," and the famous slogan "hours of energy now, no 2:30 feeling later" in a little shot with only 4 calories. Method: This case study included one 21 year old male subject who workouts daily. He was given 5 Hour energy for breakfast 3 days in a row before working out; then a well balanced breakfast 3 days before the workout; then both 5 hour energy and a balanced breakfast for 3 days before the workout. Each treatment was separated by three days. He kept a log of his water, caffeine, protein, and glucose intake during the study. ESS 495.

25. Dole, Jeremy. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Southwest Pueblo Irrigation Systems

In this paper I explore the way that Eastern and Western Pueblos used irrigation to have success in planting and growing their crops. Eastern Pueblo people lived near the Rio Grande River which brought life to their crops. Pueblo people built canals that ran to their fields and they used the water in the canals to flood-irrigate their crops. As for the Western Pueblos they lived in a much drier and harsher area. To survive they used a form of dry land farming that relied strictly on rain water for growing crops to survive. In using this technique they created terraces that allowed rain water to pool in the area that they wanted to use so that the crops could get more water. The main focus of this paper is to compare and contrast the techniques that two horticulturalist groups from different areas used to help their crops thrive and allowed them to have a better chance of survival. ANTH 320.

26. Dorzweiler, Kayla. Exercise and Sports Science K-12. Christina Buchanan. Is the Kinect for Xbox 360 Equivalent to a Daily Workout?

The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to compare a workout on the Kinect for Xbox 360 to the recommendations for daily exercise in college ages individuals in a small western mountain town. Methods: This study involved 10 female participants between the ages of 18 and 25. The data was collected in the researcher's home between 3:00 and 8:00PM over a two week period. The subjects performed a 15 minute exercise game on the Kinect. During the game, heart rate, calories, and lactate were measured. Data was compared to the daily exercise recommendations to determine if this game is a good form on exercise. ESS 495.

27. Drake, Spencer, Mark Mykol, Joe Mestre and Matt Martinez. Biology. Kevin Alexander. The Effects of Pieris rapae Caterpillars on Brassica rapa

Brassica rapa is a mustard plant known for its ease of growing and maintaining. This experiment aimed to determine whether or not the number of Pieris rapea on a plant had an effect on plant height and number of buds and flowers. Our control consisted of ten plants grown without any caterpillars, and two experimental groups varying the amount of caterpillars. Before and after caterpillar herbivory, data was collected on the plant height and number of buds and flowers. It was discovered that the number of caterpillars had a significant effect on both the height and the number of buds and flowers. BIOL 151.

28. Easley, Nic. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Medicinal, Edible, and Utilitarian Plants of the Gunnison Basin and their use by Traditional Peoples

This paper will explore the various plants of the Gunnison Basin and examine from a historical perspective, how Native Peoples of this area utilized the plants located here for food, clothing, shelter, medicines, spiritual ceremonies, and other utilitarian purposes.  I will demonstrate proper harvesting, identification, and methods of preparation of various common plants and provide mundane examples for people to better understand, utilize, and communicate within our local environment.  As the environment changes so too do the plants that inhabit that environment.  Anthropogenic changes have altered our local ecosystem and I will suggest how these changes over time have influenced which plants people have utilized and will be able to use to fulfill people's needs in the future. ANTH 320

29. Ellis, Amanda, Bethany Waller, Amber Morrow, Lindsay Hart and Skylar Swedberg. Ecology. Pat Magee. Abundance of Northern Crayfish At Two Different Depths in Blue Mesa Reservoir Gunnison, Colorado

The northern crayfish (Orconectes virilis) is an invasive species to Blue Mesa Reservoir in the Curecanti National Recreation Area in Gunnison County.  In this study, we compared the abundance of Orconectes virilis in shallow and deep water.  The site occurred at the North Willow turn-off at Blue Mesa Reservoir. We set a total of 16 traps at eight different locations along the parameters of North Willow.  There were two traps per location, one set in shallow water (0.25 m) and the other in deep water (5 m).  The sex of each crayfish was recorded to determine differences in distribution of crayfish by gender.  We repeated sampling twice using the same procedure and location.  After correlating these data we found a strong positive relationship between deeper water and northern crayfish abundance.  The mean number of shallow crayfish was 2 + 2 while deep crayfish was 5 + 3 (p= 0.0036).  We also found gender stratification at the two different depths.  Our research emphasizes the relationships between northern crayfish and distribution relative to water depth. BIOL 302.

30. Ewing, Gaia. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Cross Cultural Examination of the Rise of Agriculture

This paper explores the origins of agriculture and its implications for humans and the environment.  Through comparing the various theories regarding the rise of agriculture, and cross cultural analysis of different areas, a better understanding of the reasons and implications of agriculture will be gained.  Comparing Mesoamerica and the Fertile Crescent areas, it can be noted that agriculture developed in different places independently, with unique environmental and social factors can be seen in each area.  The research in this paper will be framed with a cultural ecology theory, meaning a wide range of topics will be covered from crops, time periods, technology, environment, and social implications. ANTH 320.

31. Florian, Jenna. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Trade-offs of Brassica rapa Being Herbicide Resistant

Brassica rapa is a plant from the mustard family that was chosen for this experiment because it is easily grown and does not require an extensive amount of care.  This experiment was intended to determine if there was a trade off with the resistance gene in Brassica rapa growing in light and shade through three variables: height, flower number, and bud number.  Thirty-two plants were grown; eight resistant and eight susceptible in light while eight resistant and eight susceptible in shade.  After four weeks data was collected to determine the health of the plants.  It was concluded that the herbicide susceptible plants placed in the direct sunlight grew taller while the herbicide resistant plants grown in direct sunlight grew more flowers and buds. BIOL 320.

32. Forseth, Madalyn. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. An Examination of Spacial Use in Hunting Campsites

This poster explores humans and their use of space to show that cross-culturally and over time, space is used in a similar fashion.  Using the Mask Site in Alaska, which was excavated by Lewis R. Binford in 1987, I argue that even locations that are technologically and spatially different will show congruency in how humans organize specific tasks within a camp boundary in response to site-specific circumstances.  Through using the methods of experimental archaeology I mapped modern seasonal hunting camp sites and compare them to the Mask site to show the similarities in how land is used.  Hearths, tent site, latrines and meat stands were my key features in understanding the boundaries of campsites and how hunters use and reuse the space. ANTH 219.

33. Gillespie, Andrew. Biology. Patrick Magee. Feeding Habits Of Mallards In The Gunnison Basin, Colorado

Feeding habits greatly differ between drake and hen mallards (Anas platyrhrnchos) during their migration through the Gunnison Basin, fall and winter. We studied feeding patterns between drakes and hens in the Gunnison Basin, Colorado by collecting thirty hens and thirty drakes from several locations. Mallards were observed feeding for ten minutes in an area then collected using twelve gauge shotguns, starting on September 24, 2011, and extending to October 10, 2011.   Immediately after collection, the entire digestive systems were extracted from each bird and placed in ethanol for preservation. Once all specimens were collected, they were taken to the lab and dissected to determine diet composition. We measured the mass and weight of invertebrates, seeds, leafy vegetation and other for each individual and compared the diets of drakes to hens at each location. BIOL 302.

34. Gonzales, Brandi, Samuel Fyler and David Goodman. Biology. Jonathan Coop. Effects Of Elevation On The Growth Rates Of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta)

Warming temperature, increased CO2, and altered precipitation are effecting tree growth globally. The purpose of this study is to see if there is a correlation between climate change and the growth rates of trees throughout their elevation distribution near Monarch Pass, Colorado.  Our hypothesis is that if the most recent rings are larger on the upper range of Lodgepole distribution, then global warming must be increasing growth rates. If recent growth rates are higher at all elevations, then another factor is influencing it such as increased CO2.  We will analyze and compare the widths of the most recent rings (when atmospheric CO2 is at its highest) with previous rings to compare growth rates. BIOL 397.

35. Goodman, David, Spencer Hemker and Cassie Wahl. Biology. Patrick Magee. Occurrence Of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) Between Riparian And Desert Ecosystems

Our project looks at the presence of red foxes in two different ecosystems in the Gunnison Basin. Foxes in the basin are seen as pests and our often killed for disturbing residences raising chickens. Our study focuses on the occurrence of foxes at a riparian ecosystem (Tomichi Creek), and a desert ecosystem (Hartman Rocks). We set up scent stations transects consisting of a 100 square meter circle covered with a layer of sand with a Q-tip dipped in tuna oil placed in the center. The foxes pick up the scent of the tuna and when they step in the plot leave a track that can be identified in the sand. We will find the percentage of fox occurrence at each sit and can determine where foxes are more dominant and estimate how present they are. BIOL 302.

36. Goodwin, Mary. Biology. Cassandra Osborne. The environmental estrogen, Bisphenol-A, alters early development in Xenopus laevis. 

Environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides, and industrial solvents are believed to have deleterious effects on development by disrupting hormone-sensitive processes. Recently, we exposed gastrula Xenopus embryos to the common environmental estrogen, Bisphenol-A (BPA) at low concentrations and examined them at tailbud stages.  Exposure to BPA increased mortality, induced morphologic deformations, and caused an increase in vasculogenesis.  The marked changes in vasculogenesis observed after BPA treatment prompted examination of expression of a growth factor necessary for proper formation of the vascular system, vascular endothelial growth factor.  The actions of several growth factors of the nervous system are inhibited by environmental estrogens, thus it seems plausible that a similar mechanism may occur during vasculogenesis, as well.  Our data indicate that acute exposure to BPA induces deleterious effects on early vertebrate development and that the differentiation of the vascular system may be particularly sensitive to the disruptive actions of BPA.

37. Graves, Tyler, Walker Tatum and Nic Easley. Environmental Studies. Brooke Moran. Sustainable Landscaping 

College President Jay Helman challenged the campus to become a more sustainable campus when he signed the Presidents Climate Commitment (PCC) in 2007. Our ENVS 400 group decided to look further into the landscaping practices of the college and seek out alternatives that could take the place of existing expensive and environmentally destructive practices.  We created a Sustainable Landscaping Blueprint that provides information for current and future student projects that will help create a more sustainable landscape at Western State College. Current problems addressed are: student garden locations and possible future expansions, xeriscaping gardens, and native plant gardens.  These new sustainable practices will initially be implemented into new construction projects. A new approach to the current fertilizing practices will also be implemented as a change from synthetic fertilizers to organic fertilizers such as Compost Tea.  The blueprint seeks to implement efficient water use, better ecosystem health, and educate students at Western and the surrounding community. ENVS 400.

38. Griggs, Stephen, T. Collins, S. Hempker, M. Knudsen, N. Lawson, S. May, J. Munda, G. Orosz, D. Piquette, K.Ruff, J. Saunders, K. Sherpa, B. Singer, L. Sullian, W. Voegeli and R. White. Chemistry. Steve Griggs. Determination of Dye Identity and Concentration in Drinks

The objective of this lab was to determine the concentration of dyes in grape Powerade using paper chromatography, scanning spectrophotometer and visible spectroscopy (Spectronic 20). Using paper chromatography, the colors of dye in the drink were determined.  A scanning spectrophotometer identified the dyes in the solution and their wavelength peaks. After the dyes were determined, the concentration of each of the dyes could be measured using Beer Law through visible spectroscopy.  A standard curve and the absorbance was used to find the concentration of the dyes present in the drink. From the equation of the line, the actual concentration of each individual dye in the drink was found.  Red dye #40 and Blue dye #1 were found. Concentration of Red #40 was 1.51 x 10-5 M±6.82 x 10-7 and Blue #1 was 4.42 x 10-6 M±6.85 x 10-7. CHEM 112

39. Griggs, Stephen, C. Bennetts, S. Cappella, M. Cernoia, K. Dirksen, A. Friedel, D. Gomes, C. Jackson, H. Kessler, D. Markley, C. Moore, M. Nevin, B. Pendergraff, J. Powell, J. Sabatka, E. Tango,' E. Varga and C. Zundell. Chemistry. Steve Griggs. Determining the Dye Concentration in PowerAde

The purpose of this lab was to determine the dye(s) in grape PowerAde utilizing paper chromatography and the concentration of said dyes using spectroscopy.  To identify the dye(s) we measured the absorption spectrum with the scanning spectrometer and used paper chromatography to separate the dyes present in the PowerAde.  By means of a standard curve using Beer Law, which states there is a direct proportionality between concentration and absorbance, we found the concentration of the dyes present in the PowerAde.  In the grape PowerAde we found the two dyes present are blue and red.  The concentration of the blue dye was 4.87x10^(-6)and the red dye was 1.54x10^(-5)M.  Also, found was the molar absorptivity, the equation of the standard curve was ε(y)=mx+b, for the blue dye, the equation is .2907=5879x-.0068 and for the red dye, we found the equation to be .3665=22711x-.0041. CHEM 112.

40. Griggs, Stephen, C. Antolini, S. Cade, B. Condor, T. DeLory, M. Dolan, S. Dominguez, B. Crosby-Ice, F. Itaaehau, B. Johnson, E. Kater, R. Klodzinsky, C. Kurahara, J. Lamphere, K. Metzger, G. Proctor, J. Putman, G.Ruhmann, Z. Smith, J. Stone and J. Young. Chemistry. Steve Griggs. Determining Dye Identity and Concentration

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the concentration and identity(s) of dye(s) in Powerade Zero. In order to find the identity of the dyes in the drink, we used a scanning spectrometer. The peaks found within the absorption spectra of the drink where then compared to the spectrum of the individual dyes. The paper chromatography indicated the dyes found in the drink were indeed blue #1 and red #40. These two dyes, at different concentrations, along with the drink were tested for absorbance with the use of the spec 20. The known concentrations and the found absorbance formed a standard curve that helped calculate the concentration of the dyes within the drink. The results showed that the concentration of the red #40 dye was 2.17x10-5 M and the concentration of blue #1dye was 4.63x10-6 M within the drink. CHEM 112.

41. Griggs, Stephen, W. Barber, T. Bennett, K. Brooks, T. Cox, B. Fulton, C. Gomez, I. Jones, M. Jury, W. Manter, T. Peck, K. Ratkovich, M. Stansberry, A. Wallace, P. Wheeler-Larsen and J. Whitton. Chemistry. Steve Griggs. The Death of Beverages! When Fruit Juice Dyes

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identity and concentration of dye in Lemon Lime Drink using paper chromatography, visible spectroscopy, and Beer Law. We first had to identify the dyes that were present in the drink; which were unknown. After testing our drink for the dye identity using paper chromatography, we found that our drink contained Yellow #5 dye and Blue#1 dye. The UV Spec. readings were used to provide us with the wavelength of the maximum absorbance of each dye, which was found to be 631nm for Blue #1 dye, and 426nm for Yellow #5 dye. Four dilutions of each dye were made, as well as a pure sample, all of which were then run through the Spectronic 20, providing us with percent transmittance which allowed us to determine absorbance. Using this data, we were able to construct a graph measuring absorbance in relation to concentration of known dilutions of all dyes. A line of best fit was constructed based upon the data points, which provided us with a linear equation to help solve for concentrations of each dye present in the Lemon Lime Drink based upon the measured absorbance. Using Beer Law and the equation of the line of best fit. CHEM 112.

42. Hadford, Jessica. Psychology. Roger Drake. Recognizing and Preventing Eating Disorders in Athletes

This is a review of the causes of eating disorders in athletes and how it may be different than eating disorders found in nonathletes.  Clinical definitions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are used in the explanation of eating disorders.  Physical, psychological, and personality factors are explored, as well as separate onset factors that can be both social and environmental.  Not only were athletes specifically looked at but also the certain types of sports that may promote eating disorders.  The difference between males and females and the different forms in which they experience eating disorders are discussed.  Body Dismorphia and how that effects male athletes is elaborated on as well.  The most effective ways of treating individuals and preventing disordered eating is also presented.  The differences between the two main types of eating disorders during the recovery process is also distinguished. PSY 498.

43. Hamacher, Bryan. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Inuit and Lapps: Different Arctic Adaptations

In this paper I explore the similarities and differences between two arctic groups, the Inuit and the Lapps. Based on different adaptations this paper will demonstrate the similarities and differences between the two groups: The Inuit are reliant on sea animals, whereas the Lapps rely mostly on domesticated reindeer. This paper will also explore the two groups foraging techniques, and the tools they use to survive in the harsh arctic environment.  Even though these two groups live in different areas in the arctic, many similarities are still present. The Lapps today live in several countries including Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Russia whereas the Inuit occupy the arctic regions of Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. The Lapps are mainly pastoralist but still have many qualities of foragers whereas the Inuit mostly rely on their foraging lifestyle to survive. ANTH 320.

44. Hapeman, Nolan and Jay Logan. Ecology. Jonathan Coop. Effects of Fire Disturbance on Lichen Communities in Saguache County, CO.

Lichens have been used historically as bioindicators of the disturbance regime in an area. We hope to find use of lichen species in Gunnison County as bioindicators of fire disturbances in place of costly, time consuming methods currently employed. Our hypothesis is that regions that have endured a recent fire disturbance will host more lichen diversity and younger lichen communities. We hope to find a specific lichen species that is abundant and quick to recolonize a disturbed area that can be employed as a bioindicator of recent fire disturbance in the Rocky Mountains. We are interested in the effects of fire disturbance in Saguache County on lichen communities and how lichens may be used as bioindicators for fire disturbance. BIOL 397.

45. Hart, Lindsay. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Environmental Influence On Three Pastoralist Groups Of Africa; The Ariaal, Gabra, And Maasai

This paper examines the lifestyles of the Gabra, Maasai, and Ariaal pastoralist groups.  Explorations will be made into how the environment shapes similarities and differences between these three unique peoples.  All of these aforementioned groups are indigenous to the African continent.  The Gabra reside in northeastern Kenya and Ethiopia, the Ariaal in Kenya, and the Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania.  Therefore, the ranges inhabited by all three of these groups sometimes overlap.  The Gabra, Maasai, and Ariaal peoples all have different cultures and beliefs while also sharing ideas similar to those found in the other groups.  It has been suggested that culture is determined solely by the environment people live in.  This hypothesis will be used to examine the relationships that these three pastoralist groups maintain with each other and with their environments.  The resulting information will show just how much influence the environment truly has on shaping cultures, and which other factors might also be important.

46. Hart, Megan and Brandy Harrison. Biology. Amy Honan and Kevin Alexander. Herbicide Resistances effect on Photosynthesis in Brassica Rapa

Brassica rapa, belonging to the mustard family; Brassicaceae,  is a highly used scientific specimen due to its agricultural importance. It has been specifically altered to be herbicide resistant. The goal of the experiment was to provide evidence that herbicide resistance has an effect on leaf thickness due to the mutation's effect  on the photosynthetic process. The average leaf thickness of non-resistance plants compared to resistant plants were nearly equal although, non-resistance plants did have a faster photosynthesis process. The lab did not dismiss, nor prove the hypothesis to be correct so additional testing would be needed to draw any further conclusions. BIOL 151.

47. Herbert, Sarah. Exercise and Sport Science. Kathleen Kinkema. Effectiveness of Popular Marijuana Detoxification Methods Based on Urinalysis Testing

This study looked at which of four popular detoxification programs yields the lowest detectable traces of THC in urinalysis testing in college-aged male subjects. The aim of this study was to find an effective means of detoxing for an employer administered urinalysis test on an employee who legally uses marijuana for medicinal purposes. This study was conducted over ten days and included a convenience sample of four male subjects with low body fat percentages who all used marijuana habitually. Subjects were instructed to smoke with their usual frequency until day one of the testing wherein they offered a urine sample on days one, three, five, seven and ten of abstinence. Before day one of abstinence subjects were assigned one of four detoxification programs which they adhered to for the duration of the study. Results and Conclusion to be announced. ESS 495.

48. Hill, Brunner. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Meat Preservation

When concerning the methods of preserving meat in traditional Native American ways, there are two prominent methods that have been used in the past.  First and most readily used was the preservation method of drying the meat out into thin individual strips of meat now known as beef jerky.  This jerky was cut as fresh as possible from the source and hung over a low flame medium to low temperature fire for several hours until dried.  The other method was to again hang the meat in an enclosed space this time with a very low temperature fire that yielded and high amount of smoke.  This would dry the meat out and prevent from spoiling.   The second most popular method of story meat was to dig some type of cache pit where the meat would be kept cool for the time needed.  There were many types of cache pits with varying levels of complexness.  The purpose of this experiment will to determine whether the drying of meat or the burring of it in a traditional cache pit is more effective. ANTH 219.

49. Hoff, Chelsie, Tim Speka and Fred Gross. Environmental Biology. Randy Spydell. Avalanches and their Environment

We are conducting a study to find out the relationship between the frequency of avalanches and how the environment responds. We have studies three different avalanche sites in the Gunnison Valley. We hope to educate others about the dangers of avalanches and the resounding effects on the environment. BIOL 135.

50. Holabird, William, Kirt Achenbach, Sunshine Quintana and Tim Juul. Environmental Biology. Randy Spydell. Stock of Kokanee Salmon in Blue Mesa

Our Hypothesis is that the Kokanee can not currently thrive in Blue Mesa without being stocked. There have been efforts in the past several years to preserve the biodiversity of Blue Mesa Reservoir by aiding the kokanee salmon population.  This has been attempted by the removal of predatory fish such as the lake trout and stocking of more kokanee fingerlings each year. Through the multiple interviews with the DOW and tours through the Roaring Judy Fish Hatchery we were able to collect the appropriate data that proved our hypothesis true. BIOL 135.

51. Houle, Dorothy. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. History of Gunnison

The purpose of this study is to explore the history of Gunnison through its demography- particularly the births and deaths of current and past residence. I will examine the number of births/deaths in this area and what may have been the main causes of death at certain time periods. this will reveal if there were any major causes of death such as tuberculosis and influenza. comparing my research to other relevant studies. may also gain a perspective on what the town's past was like as well as its culture. this study has implications for the understanding connections between demography and culture in general. ANTH 219.

52. Iacino, Jules. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Staying Warm in the Gunnison Valley

Staying warm in Gunnison can be difficult due to the winters reaching extremely low temperatures consecutively. This task can be even more difficult without the help of modern hating systems. To study how people would keep themselves warm in the winters without this modern technology, a study will be conducted including three different types of miniature scaled houses, measuring the amount of heat that can be accumulated and retained during harsh winter conditions. Through data collected, it will be assessed which style of housing works better for warmth during the winter months. ANTH 219.

53. JoHansen, Brittany. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Preference of Physical Activity.

Obesity in children today is on the rise in part because P.E is being cut from schools. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to compare high school and elementary P.E students regarding their physical activity preferences. This knowledge is important to help P.E teachers know what physical activities are best to implement in their curriculum. Methods: This was a qualitative survey with 7 questions regarding physical activity. The survey was taken by various aged elementary and high school boys and girls that attend P.E class on a regular basis.  The data was analyzed and used to determine physical activity preference among the different age groups. Results: The results to this study will be ready to be viewed by December 16, 2011. ESS 495.

54. Johnson, Anders. Anthropology. Casie Dukeman. Ancient Coal Carriers.

Before matches, lighters, and other controlled fire starting technologies, one had to find natural sources of fire and carry the chemical reaction to one's hearth where one can use fires copious benefits such as light, heat, cooking, protection, etc. I am going to experiment with the methods used to transport fire and hot embers, (before fire-making tools were used to start synthetic fires). I plan to test the longevity of hot-ember-carriers and the physical properties of keeping a hot ember alive enough to restart a fire elsewhere. The utility value of these fire carrying techniques will hopefully provide substantial evidence to accurately estimate the time one could have before having to set up camp and rebuild a fire using hot embers. ANTH 219.


55. Johnson, Kathryn, Cullen Bass, Cree Clark and Sierra Fairfield-Smith. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Base Line Evaluation of Upper Tomichi Creek Ripairan Area

Livestock and grazing along river channels may lead to erosion and the degradation of the overall ecology of the stream. While grazing, livestock seek out water, sufficient forage, and shade from the sun, leading to the degradation of the stream banks, soil erosion, declining water quality, and drier, hotter conditions (Belsky, 1990). We hypothesize that stream bank erosion and increased river width will positively correlate to an increase in cattle grazing. Our group is collecting data from ten transects along Tomichi Creek riparian area in-between Dick Braton's property and the industrial park east of Gunnison.  We will measure the deepest part of the river, stream bank stability, and the width of the river from green line and water line.  Our findings show a correlation between all of these elements, in areas with a larger difference between green line and water line tend to be shallower due to cattle eroding the stream bank. ENVS 390.

56. Kennedy, Jordan, Justin Dirks, Benjamin Hayden, Conor McBrierty, Clayton Pruitt and Sunshine Quintana. Business Administration. Dr.Vieregge. Front Office of the Future.

Technology is increasingly more important for hotels, supporting need to identify technologies guests expect. Research question: What technologies do guests expect?Three objectives: to identify emerging technologies;
to measure consumer expectations for  technology; to test expectation differences across groups. Little academic literature deals with this topic. Exploratory study with primary data collection best suited. Focus group, industry journal review, meetings with front office employees, and crowdsourcing are used to identify technologies to answer Objective 1. Pool of 50 questions was reduced to 19 in final questionnaire (five-point Likert-style scale).  Online surveying was used with convenient sampling including faculty and students at Western and other schools, in all about 400 people make sampling frame. Data collection is on-going with n = 96 collected responses.  The survey closes Friday, Nov.12. Collected data is summarized to answer Objective 2, and analyzed with SPSS(19) to address Objectives. BUAD 334.

57. Kesler, John, Antony Di Rocco, Michael Schmidt, and Ryan Mudget. Biology. Robin Bingham. Herbicide Resistant Brassica rapa versus Herbivore Susceptible Brassica rapa.

The objective of this experiment was to determine if Brassica rapa herbicide resistant strains were more or less resistant to predation from Pieris rapae, a caterpillar that commonly feeds on them.  Our hypothesis states that the herbicide resistant plants will not be more resistant and possibly be even more susceptible to predation. This is based on the research of Aaron J. Gassman who performed a similar experiment. Our experiment was to place two leaf cores from a resistant and two from a non-resistant in with a caterpillar. We used a total of six caterpillars that were starved for 45 minutes to facilitate them making a choice for which cores to eat. After leaving them to eat for 24 hours we removed the caterpillars and recorded which cores were eaten and which were not. Our results showed that four of the caterpillars ate both resistant and non-resistant cores showing no preference among the caterpillars or resistance from the plants. BIOL 151.

58. King, Pamela, Michele Parenti, Megan Seidel and Marina Loeper. Biology. Dr. Bingham. Growth and development in herbicide resistant and susceptible Brassica rapa

Brassica rapa, otherwise known as field mustard of the mustard family, and also a noxious weed, is the organism of this study.  Rapid-cycling populations of Brassica rapa has a growing period of about 35 days from seed to seed. The rise of herbicide resistance among plants has become a growing issue/trend worldwide. This experiment used rapid-cycle populations of Brassica to conduct a study comparing the overall vigor of growth development between the herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible strains.  Data was collected over the course of 5 weeks on plant height, internode length, and bloomed flowers. It was observed that the difference in plant height and bloomed flowers were significant in support of the hypothesis, were internode length was opposite of the expected result. BIOL 151.

59. Kittel, Lance, Logann Peterson and John. Biology. Amy Honan. Feeding habits of Pieris Rapae on Brassica Rapa

In our experiment, we tested to find if a Pieris rapae butterfly prefers an herbicide resistant Brassica rapa plant to a non-resistant Brassica plant. First, we grew 24 B. rapa  to flowering stage. Then we randomized the plant placement in our growing tray and introduced the P. rapae butterfly caterpillars. After the caterpillars matured (roughly 2 weeks), we pulled the plants, let them dry under a light and weighed them. The results from the dry mass we measured showed that the caterpillars ate more of the non-resistant plants than the resistant plants. This is shown through the resistant plants having more final mass, which means that they were eaten less. Therefore, we can say that Pieris rapae butterflies have a preference to eat a non-resistant Brassica rapa plant over a resistant plant. BIOL 151.

60. Krzeczowski, Cassandra, Rachael Carpenter and Sarah McClernan. Ecology. Patrick Magee. Density of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Pine Squirrel) in Relation to Human Activity in the Gunnison Basin, Colorado

The pine squirrel is a territorial species that caches seeds from coniferous forests and indirectly replants the seeds. The purpose of this experiment was to quantify if human activity has a negative effect on the density of pine squirrel populations. We hypothesized that pine squirrel abundance would be greater in wilderness areas than locations more closely associated with human commotion. We set up two separate, 750m line transects in the general area of West Elks, Colorado; and another 750m line transect in Fossil Ridge, Colorado. We counted the number of visible pine squirrels and then compared the densities of wilderness areas and human activity areas to determine if human influence had an effect on the density of pine squirrels in Gunnison County. Within the three individual locations there was a significant difference, however when combined the overall data showed no significant difference. This may be due to the Summerville location because the squirrels were more abundant in human activity locations rather than wilderness areas, whereas in the other two locations, squirrels were more numerous in wilderness locations. BIOL 302.

61. Lamb, Andrew. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Comparing Trade of the Aztec and Maya

In this paper I explore the processes that influence trade among the Aztec and the Maya, including how the role of draft animals influenced trade as well as land and sea routes. I demonstrate how the absence of draft animals has significantly influenced the ability and distance at which goods are traded. I argue that the technology available influenced how and where goods were traded. I also explore how the government influenced when and where these markets were held. This tells us that these factors may have also influenced how often and where these markets were attended. I also explore how these factors influenced how needed goods were attained versus luxury items. ANTH 320.

62. Lavoie, Sarah. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Eastern and Western Pueblos Irrigation Systems

In this paper I explore the Western and Eastern Pueblo culture. My main focus is how the two groups overcome their water constraints in order to survive. The Western Pueblos had to deal with unpredictable precipitation while the Eastern Pueblos had many water resources with much more predictable precipitation. Although my main focus is irrigation, irrigation affects the culture of each group indistinct ways. Water is such an important element for survival that not having enough or having too much can influence the organization of the group. Although both groups are Pueblos they have different social organizations, grow different crops and their households set up various subsistence practices. I suggest that water and irrigation is at the center of a group's culture. Depending on how much water they have they function in very different ways. ANTH 320.

63. Lenney, Emily, Emily Virzi, and Bryce Fisher. Environmental Studies. Brooke Moran. Environmentally and Socially Responsible Purchasing Plan.

As students of the Appllied Environmental Studies class, we were responsible for the continuation of the Sustainability Blueprint, drafted by the spring 2010 class. Our focus is on advancing a preferred purchasing plan that is environmentally and socially responsible as well as economically viable for WSC. Our efforts have consisted of working with SODEXO to imiplement the real food challenge, and gathering a student and administrative assistant signed petition that we have presesented to both SGA and the SAC committee. We are also hoping to subsidize any additional costs of responsible products by having future students write sustainability grants. ENVS 400.

64. Lovett, Heidi. Biology. Ann Honan. Additional Phosphorus Avalibility to Brassica and its Effect on Herbivore

Brassica rapa is generally known as a field mustard or turnip. This experiment was designed to measure herbivore of Brassica rapa by Pieris rapa by testing the variables of resistance (R) vs. non-resistance (NR) and phosphorous (P vs. NP) availability. In this experiment P was added to six different pods of R and NR Brassica rapa seeds. The biomasses of dried leaf disks pre and post-herbivore were determined at week four. It was discovered that our data showed no statistically significant relationship between additional P to Brassica rapa plants, plant resistance, and their susceptibility to herbivore. BIOL 151.

65. Lucas, Heather. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Past and Present Settlement Geography of New Mexico's Rio Grande Valley

In this paper I will explore the pre-colonial settlement patterns of the Rio Grande Pueblo Region, focusing on the settlement size in relation to the geographic setting. I will then compare these patterns to present day towns and cities along the Rio Grande corridor. From there I will suggest that both settlement patterns are due to differences in productivity depending on proximity to the floodplain as well as differences between Northern and Southern regions. Then, using the ecological concept of carrying capacity and in consideration of other factors such as Spanish colonization, tribal wars, and disease, I argue that the ephemeral nature of Pueblo settlements was ultimately due to New Mexico's arid climate. This has implications for present settlement along the Rio Grande and the limits to the populations that this area can support. ANTH 320.

66. MaGee, Ross, Chris Jones, Drew Gillespie and Kyle Graulus. Biology. Jonathan Coop. Age Structure Of Gambles Oak (Quercus Gambeli) West Of Kebler Pass, Colorado

Gamble's oak (Quercus gambelii) responds very quickly to disturbances, especially fire, and is one of the least understood forest types in Colorado. Our study examined ages of gamble's oak on the west side of Kebler Pass, Colorado along three transects with four plots in each. Four cross-sections were cut from each plot using the point-quarter method for a total of forty-eight cross-sections. Once the cross-sections were sanded and polished, we counted the tree rings to find an average age for each transect and for the entire region of study. These data will allow us to distinguish when these oak stands were regenerated and the date of the last stand-replacing disturbance. BIOL 397.

67. Markus, Marissa and Nick Heller. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Riparian Health of Tomich Creek in Gunnison, Coloardo

The Tomichi State Wildlife Area has been designated as a riparian ecosystem.Historically, riparian areas have been left unprotected and used for food and water sources for non-native grazing species.Grazing decreases soil stability and porosity and increases soil compaction and erosion, which impair stream hydrology. Abiotic factors like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were used to monitor the present condition of Tomichi Creek, Gunnison, Colorado. Seven upstream samples were compared with seven downstream samples. Although data did not show significant difference between upstream and downstream sites, data can be used to monitor changes in the riparian ecosystem once management practices have been implicated. ENVS 390.

68. McCallum, Jonathan, Ethan Dull and Sean Suzuki. Environmental Studies. Randy Spydell. User Impacts on Recreational Trails in the Gunnison Valley

This project examines the effects of different types of recreational travel on trails. Our research focuses on the erosion effects of mountain bike travel versus horse/foot travel. Measurements include depth, width, and trampling (trail side effects of several trails of each type to measure the amount of erosion as well as trail side impacts. Our research shows that horse/foot trails are often wider with more braiding, trampling, and erosion. Mountain bike trails were noticably thinner yet they were often deeper. BIOL 135.

69. Mcgeorge, Brianna. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Experiment/lithics

The purpose of this experiment is to test the abilities of post modern lithics against modern cutting/butchering tools using several different variables, and to conclude which are more effective. Several different materials were used, deer hide, leather and several animals that were used to butcher. The tools both modern and post modern were rated on effectiveness, the results recorded include: time it took to complete the task and wear/breakage on the tool used. As well as overall ease of use and reliability.  The results were somewhat varied but both types of tools were fairly consistent in completing the tasks in a similar amount of time with a similar effectiveness. The only difference was the more modern tools took more wear and were less effective and harder to use as the task went on. Overall the experiments conclusion was that old tools are as useful as modern day cutting and butchering tools, and possibly for some tasks more effective. ANTH 219.

70. Mikos, Mark, Rebekah Parks. Geology. Dave Marchetti. Geologic Map of the Forsythe Reservoir

The Forsyth Reservoir quadrangle is located in Sevier County, Utah. It lies on the western border of the Colorado Plateau and consists of graben valleys, ridges, gentle sloping hills and small canyons. The geology of the quadrangle was mapped in the summer of 2011 by walking the region and identifying outcrops and contacts. The geology of this quadrangle is mainly composed of three Tertiary volcanic ashflows that cover Jurassic sedimentary rock. There are a few basalt flows confined to the southeastern section of the map, some Tertiary alluvial terraces in the Fremont River canyon and unconsolidated quaternary units. The terraces are cut on weakly consolidated alluvium derived from the ashflow units. The field map and data was transferred into AcrGIS and a geological map was constructed.

71. Milbert, Emily, Brendan Dutton, Jordan Davey and Logan Secrist. Environmental Studies. Randy Spydell. Ecological Impact of LEED-certified Buildings Compared to non LEED-certified Buildings

In this project, we examined how LEED-certified building projects compare to non LEED- certified buildings regarding overall ecological impact.  We believe that if a building is LEED-certified that it will have less of an ecological impact than a non LEED-certified building.  We first researched the LEED certification process, then we contacted members of the campus Sustainability Action Committee and the Office of Residence Life in order to obtain building records of a LEED-certified and a non LEED-certified building on campus, pertaining to overall ecological footprint of the building project as well as consumption during operation.  We organized our results into tables and graphs which compare the building, operating, and environmental costs of each building. BIOL 135.

72. Miller, Kylene. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Cross Cultural Comparison of Ceramic Vessels in the American Southwest & Andean Region

This paper explores clay and its functionality along with design motifs focusing mainly on Mimbres and Moche cultures.  I will demonstrate both the emphasis on visual communication, as well as ceramic uses within those two cultures.  I argue that ceramics were not just used for storage and domestic uses.  I suggest that ceramics were used for more political and dynastic purposes then commonly thought.  I hypothesize that Peruvian ceramics have more propaganda-based motifs than the American Southwest. This suggests the use of imagery for proof of lineage through dynastic images.  This affirmation of lineage helps prevent competition for future generations.  Along with propaganda related to politics there was also religious propaganda inscribed into two-dimensional graphics on ceramics as well.  This cross-cultural comparison is meant to emphasize the importance of both the ceramic vessels and the imagery found on them within the societies that created them. ANTH 320.

73. Nilius, Amy. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Lichen in the Gunnison Basin

There has been no documented study on the lichen dating in the Gunnison Valley. Lichen samples have been taken from all the major cemeteries in Gunnison and will show a lichen dating curve. Proving that lichenometry is a possible dating method in Gunnison. All samples have been documented by year of death on the headstone, type of stone, location using UTM coordinates, and millimeter measurements of the circular growths of the types of lichen found. Each sample of lichen has also been documented with photographs as well as some samples have been taken of each of the different types of lichen found. The cemeteries used in this study are all located at different elevations in the Gunnison Valley. Elevation could potentially have an effect on the study and growth curve of the lichen. The sample size taken is large enough to show a genuine trend in data. ANTH 219.

74. Noland, Justin. Biology. Jonathan Coop. Evaluation of Low Elevation Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Stands of the Gunnison Valley

The aspen stands in Colorado are in slow decline with what is known as SAD (sudden aspen decline). Many animals rely on the stands and promote biodiversity in the sage brush eco-system such as the Gunnison sage-grouse, and migratory ungulates. Four North facing aspen stands (Populus tremuloides) south of Highway 50 in Gunnison and Saguache counties between 13S 4260000N and 13S 4240000N UTM. The tallest two aspen trees were cord to estimate the stands age, and regeneration measurement were taken to measure the stands health. BIOL 397.

75. Ochoa, Josh. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Pre-modern Humans and their Relationship to the Environment

This paper will consider the time periods that are called the Middle Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene and Upper paleolithic. More specifically this paper will focus on two groups of pre-modern humans that occupied the Middle/Late Pleistocene and Upper paleolithic time period. These pre-modern humans are known as the Neanderthal and the Cro-magnon. The goal of this paper is to provide insight as to how the environment shaped certain aspects of these two groups of hominids. To accomplish this goal several avenues will be explored in an effort to gain a clear image of the environments impact. These avenues will include archaeological evidence pertaining to these specific time periods and peoples. In conjunction with this physical anthropological data will be introduced to better demonstrate how these pre-modern humans were adapted to their environment in a biologicial sense. Finally studies and data that bear on the environment of the aforementioned time periods will be exhibited. ANTH 320.

76. O'Hara, Pat and James Wilkie. Ecology. Jonathan Coop. Age of avalanche disturbances on Whetstone Mountain

This study was proposed to determine the age of past avalanches on the east face of Whetstone Mountain. Historically, avalanches have not been documented and optimal conditions exist given the climate and topography of this mountain. In attempt to chronologize these slides, core samples were taken from trees at various elevations in each slide. Tree species, UTM, dbh, and elevation were also recorded for each core taken. Severities of avalanches vary when considering what type of snowpack is released and how much volume or mass each slide contains. Rough age estimates will be supported by the analysis of core samples and it is understood that the species sampled may have survived a more recent, less severe avalanche than suggested. This study, then, will exclude low severity avalanches that left the area undisturbed and will focus on moderate to high severity slides that left a recordable impact. BIOL 397.


Brassica rapa is an annual plant in the mustard family Brassicaceae, which includes many ecologically important plants that have long been heavily cultivated. As a practice to improve production, many of these plants are specialized to resist against common herbicides such as atrazine and are feed supplemental doses of nitrogen. This study was proposed to investigate any effects atrazine and nitrogen in the form of bat guano had on the tendency of the Pieris rapae caterpillar to consume its regular diet of plants in the Brassicaceae family. Atrazine resistant and non-resistant strains were separated equally and contained in a mesh enclosure. Ten Pieris rapae caterpillars were placed inside and additional nitrogen was given to half of the resistant and non-resistant atrazine strains. It was predicted that the Pieris rapae caterpillars would favor plants grown with additional nitrogen because of increased growth rates and more available foliage to feed on. BIOL 151.

78. Orr, Katlyn, Dylan Gomes, Jordyn Pfannenstiel and Joy Lehman. Biology. Robin Bingham. Herbivore preference  between  herbicide susceptible and resistant strains of Brassica rapa

Pieris rapae caterpillars to have a higher affinity for the herbicide-resistant strain of the Brassica rapa plant as opposed to the herbicide-susceptible strain.  To test this we grew both atrazine resistant and atrazine susceptible plants in a controlled environment, both with the same light and water.  Multiple Pieris rapae were all raised in a controlled environment, then all isolated for two hours prior to the experiment.  The Pieris rapae were observed in dishes with a choice of herbicide-resistant or herbicide-susceptible leaf; their choice is the indicator of the presence or absence of a trade-off.  Area eaten was calculated and compared.  On average we found the Pieris rapae ate more of the herbicide-resistant Brassica rapa.  Our results display the presence of a trade-off between herbicide-resistance and herbivore-susceptibility in Brassica rapa, which may influence our approach to the agricultural problem of herbicide-resistance. BIOL 151.

79. Ortiz, Cassie, Naomi Cazares, Jt Pickert and Jared Thesis. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Growth Reduction in Brassica rapa Plants Due  to Caterpillars Feeding

Brassica rapa is known to be a fast growing plant which is ideal for experiments. This experiment preformed aimed to show that caterpillars would prefer to feed on a B. rapa that was non-resistant compared to the atrazine resistant B. rapa. The experiment consisted of putting three of each, resistant and non-resistant B. rapa, into a potting mat and was covered with mesh that was tied at the tops. Each mat had: zero, one, two, or three caterpillars in it. Over two weeks, these plants were measured to observe the rate of growth and to see what the caterpillars preferred to eat. The study shows that there was no significance whether caterpillar preferred the B. rapa that was pesticide resistant or pesticide susceptible. BIOL 151.

80. Parks, Rebekah and Mark Mikos. Geology. Dave Marchetti. Geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks in the Forsyth Reservoir, UT quadrangle

As part of our field-based geological mapping of the Forsyth Reservoir quadrangle in south-central Utah during summer 2011 we investigated the age and geochemistry of several of the volcanic rock units. These units include the Johnson Valley trachyandesite, Lake Creek trachyte, Osiris Tuff, and olivine basalts. One goal of the study was to determine if the volcanic units here were equivalent to those in the neighboring quadrangles. The olivine basalt flows that we tested were part of an isolated flow package near Forsyth Reservoir where they unconformably overlie the older units. A total of four samples were sent for geochemical and one sample for age analyses. Ar-Ar dating of a basalt sample produced total gas age of 5.07 Ma. Also examined was a previously unknown carbonate spring deposit found in the southeast corner of the quadrangle. It contains both wood and shell fossils that will be dated with 14C.

81. Pedone, Courtnee. Exercise Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Psychological Factors between Coaches and Athletes

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impact of coaching style on athlete behavior of a Division II women's volleyball program in Colorado. There were 14 female subjects ages 18-22 participating in this study. I observed a practice that was then followed up by a survey that only the athletes took. I analyzed the data by looking for similarities from each question. The four main themes that came from this qualitative study were positive coaching techniques, more encouragement from coaches, relaxed coaches, and that the athletes felt let down by their coaches. For this DII Volleyball program, these athletes prefer a non-yelling coach with positive energy in games and in practices. ESS 495

82. Pisel, Jesse. Geology. Tim Wawrzyniec. Petrophysical Characterization of the Depositional System for the Paleocene Raton Formation, Vermejo Park, New Mexico, USA

The Raton Formation lies within the Raton Basin, which spans the Colorado-New Mexico border within the foreland of the Sangre De Cristo Range. The formation consists of sandstone, shale, coal, and conglomerates that were deposited within a closed intermountain basin. The development of coal bed methane within the Raton Formation has provided a great deal of new petrophysical data, which is the basis of this research. Complete high-resolution correlations have been made between well data to evaluate the influence of orogenic uplift to the west on sedimentation patterns. Evaluation of differing models of uplift was conducted through a high-resolution correlation study of electrofacies throughout the data. A primary issue concerning the data is that many of the sand bodies within the system are arkosic and have a strong gamma response similar to shale. This required that we considered a range of petrophysical characteristics to accurately differentiate sand from shale.

83. Pisel, Jesse. Geology. Rob Fillmore. Sedimentology and Paleo current Analysis of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Maroon Formation, Gunnison, Pitkin, and Summit Counties, Colorado, USA
The Pennsylvanian-Permian Maroon Formation is an ~8,000 foot thick deposit of sandstones, conglomerates, and siltstones that drained the Ancestral Rocky Mountains into the Central Colorado Trough 350 million years ago. An ancestral Sawatch uplift in the south-central area of the trough has been proposed to explain the formation thinning towards the basin center. Measurements of fluvial paleo current indicators were made with measured sections at well exposed outcrops surrounding the hypothesized ancestral Sawatch uplift to evaluate the possibility of its presence. If the Sawatch uplift did exist during this time, paleocurrents should flow in patterns radiating out from the area of uplift. Detailed measured sections and associated paleo current directions for each bed delineate the specific directions of rivers flowing during the late Pennsylvanian through early Permian periods.

84. Query, William and William Forrest. Environmental Biology. Randy Spydell. Wildfires and Restoration

To present the different biomes of the Gunnison valley and evaluate the restoration methods used after a wildfire has scorched the area. Different time frames will also be given along with comparing the different methods of restoration. BIOL 135.

85. Redzinak, Kira. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink, Casey Dukeman and Gaia Ewing. Natural Resources: The Little Picture of Culture Creating Music

The use of natural resources such as food, water, or minerals, is often discussed in today's world, for example how much oil this world has, or how much groundwater is being used up. Often people look at the big picture, but sometimes the little picture has information to offer as well. This paper will look at the making of musical instruments around the world using natural resources in a smaller sense. This presentation will discuss the use of all natural medium in art and how religion is often the key factor in determining how an instrument must be made. The main focus of the presentation will be to show how natural resources are used in the making of the didgeridoo in Aborigine culture, the making of the djembe in African culture, the creation of the flute in Native American culture, while also involving other culture case studies. Also included in the research is the discussion of why these instruments must be made a certain way, whether by law or in most cases religion.

86. Rehn, Maddie, Emily Lenney and Jake Detman. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Contrasting Grasslands Conditions on the Van Tuyl Ranch and Tomichi State Wildlife Area, Gunnison, Colorado

In this study we monitored two parcels of grassland in the Gunnison Valley, the Van Tuyl Ranch and Tomichi State Wildlife Area. The Van Tuyl ranch has been under the supervision of Bill Parker for three years and he has implemented holistic ranch management to raise cattle, chickens, pigs and goats (Parker et al. 2011) The Tomichi State Wildlife Area is multi-use public land.  Environmental monitoring has been completed on the Van Tuyl Ranch according the Center for Holistic Management standards of Early Warning Biological Monitoring methods for the past three years (Fryer et al. 2010). We replicated those monitoring methods on the Tomichi State Wildlife Area. We then identified contrasting conditions on the Van Tuyl Ranch and the Tomichi State Wildlife Area in Gunnison, Colorado. ENVS 390.

87. Roper, Brennan. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Barefoot Rehabilitation

The rate of barefoot runners has increased: More effort should be guided toward understanding claims as well as providing more research regarding the benefits of a barefoot lifestyle. Methods: A pretest was used to gather measurements of muscular strength in the foot and lower leg, and of relative proprioception of the individual. 9 subjects were then randomly assigned to either a control (shod) group or an experimental (barefoot) group. We ended up with 3 controls, and six experimental the ages ranged from 19-26yrs. The experiment then proceeded with a progressive walking program. Beginning with a 20min walk four times per week and progressed by 20 min intervals for 6 weeks. The fourth week a fifth day was included into our subjects routines. Experimentation concluded with a post test conducted in the same manor as our pretest. The measures were used to asses individual development over the six weeks. ESS 495.

88. Roundy, Adrianna. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. Bones As Firewood

This paper explores the idea that bones can be used as a source of firewood. Bones possibly being used as firewood has implications for our understanding of archaeological sites. Using experimental archaeology we will understand what burned bone in hearths might look like. For instance, there could be settlements where there is less wood because bones are used as firewood. My research draws on earlier studies that show that bones can be used as a fuel source (e.g., The´ry-Parisot 2002). Studies describe the ratio of wood to bone and how the fires burn according to that ratio. This experiment tells us that bones can be used as a source of fuel and that the bone fragments in fire pits may match the ones in the experiment showing people were burning bone as fuel for their fires. ANTH 219.

89. Russell, John, Brian Goldstein, and Ian Oster. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Assessment of Woody Riparian Conditions on the Tomichi Creek State Wildlife Area.

Riparian areas are important for the inherent benefits that are received to direct and indirect users of the land. This study looks to provide baseline data on the woody riparian health on the Tomichi Creek. Our study will cover approximately 5 miles along the Tomichi Creek, putting in at the Gunnison Industrial Park and pulling out at the BLM boundary close to the Gunnison Municipal Airport. We will layer a GIS map of the Tomichi Creek that outlines woody areas and ground truth the maps UTM (NAD 83) points. The data points will be selected at 50 in the woody areas and 50 out checking yes or no for woody cover to see how accurate the map is. We will float the Tomichi Creek, stopping at each pre-determined UTM (NAD 83).  ENVS 390.

90. Rydquist, Alexa. Psychology. Roger Drake. Prenatal Effects of Marijuana

Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide variety of maladaptive outcomes. The information found, could later be given to physicians for medical purposes, for instance, helping inform pregnant mothers of the long and short term prenatal effects of marijuana.  Overall, this topic sparked some research questions, such as, why pregnant mothers thought it was ok to smoke marijuana, why there wasn’t much research about marijuana use during pregnancy and the long and short term effects on the children.  In general, there was a lot of contradicting research about the prenatal effects of marijuana, but the overall the consequences are that it may cause irregular sleep patterns in the child, premature births, possible stillbirths and symptoms that may not show up immediately, such as attention and learning disorders. PSY 498.

91. Ryter, Anne, P Buckner, B Butler, KClark, H Dunlap, TJ Fernandez, N Huckaby, J Larason, S Larson, L Lave, A Lehmkuhl, A McLelland, H Miller, A Morrow, B Patten, E Romsdahl, S Stewart, M Strode, B Waller, M Wampler and C Wiegand. Chemistry. Anne Ryter. Dye: Is it in you? Determining Dye identity and concentration in G2 Tropical Blend using visible spectroscopy

Visible spectroscopy can be useful when determining the identities and concentration of dyes in commercial drinks.  Some dyes, when ingested in larger quantities, can cause unwanted side effects.  Using visible spectroscopy, we identified the dyes present in G2 Tropical Blend, as well as, the concentration of these dyes.  By comparing the absorbance spectrum of the G2 Tropical Blend to the spectra of red #40, blue #1, and yellow #5 dyes, we determined dyes present in the G2.  Using a Spectronic 20, we measured the percent transmittance and calculated the absorbance of the two dyes at various concentrations and diluted G2.  The data for each dye was compiled into a scatter plot and a line of best fit was used to determine the concentration of the dyes in the G2.  We concluded the concentration of yellow #5 was greater than of blue #1 in the beverage. CHEM 112.

92. Ryter, Anne, J Bain, C Birchfield, S Bowman, K Doherty, G Golightly, A Gowins, B Hemenway, S Keene, G Kellman, S Kurtz, P Lykens, D Petersen ,K Porter ,B Roper, D Shaw and N Sherpa. Chemistry. Anne Ryter. Jones Soda (5-1) Concentration

Our mission was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in Jones Green Apple soda using paper chromatography, visible spectroscopy, and Beer law.  Paper chromatography indicated both blue and yellow dyes are present.  We obtained pure samples of the yellow #5 and blue #1 dyes and determined their light absorbance by diluting the dyes to 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% original concentration as well as measure the initial 100% concentration.  After the light absorption of the two dyes was obtained, a standard curve was created for each dye with a line of best fit. The equations of those lines were used to determine the concentrations within our Jones Green Apple soda.  We determined concentration of the blue dye to be 2.27 x 10-6 ± 1.24 x 10-7 moles/L and the yellow dye to be 3.05 x 10-5 ± 3.14 x 10-6 moles/L within our sample of Jones soda. CHEM 112.

93. Ryter, Jarral, R. Anderson, A. Ferraro, B Kelly, G. McGlothlen, A. Mull, M. Nogrady, B Pendell, D Schlichting, M Seidel and M Sturm. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Not Just Purple, But Red & Blue. Determination of Dye Identity and concentration of G2 Grape Gatorade

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the identity and concentrations of dyes in Gatorade G2 Perform grape beverage. Spectroscopic analysis was conducted using the Agilent 8453E UV-visible Spectroscopy system as well as thin layer liquid chromatography. Together, these tests revealed the presence of FD&C Red#40 dye and FD&C Blue #1 dye in the G2 beverage. A series of standard solutions of each dye were prepared and tested with the Spectronic 20. Based on the graphs of these standards, the average concentration of Red #40 dye present in G2 beverage was found to be 8.49x10^−6 ± 2.5x10^−7 M.  The average concentration of Blue #1 dye was found to be 3.38 x10^−6 ± 1.1x10^−7 M. CHEM 112.

94. Ryter, Jarral, Hallie Hardrick, Benjamin Jackson, Gabrielle Kellman and Levi Peery. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Determination of zinc and cadmium in natural waters by atomic absorption spectroscopy

The purpose of this lab was to determine the concentration of Cd and Zn in a sample of water collected at a natural water source at a Mt. Emmons Fen in Crested Butte, CO. Check Standards, samples, spiked samples and a blank were run on an atomic absorption spectroscopy using air-acetylene flame to determine their concentration of Cd and Zn. The concentration of Cd was found to be 0.149 M and the concentration of  Zn was found to be 4.52 M. CHEM 306.

95. Ryter, Jarral, Hallie Hardrick, Benjamin Jackson, Gabrielle Kellman and Levi Peery. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Analysis of flavor compounds in comercial vanilla

Vanillin, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid are the main flavor compounds in vanilla. Concentrations of these ingredients will be measured in four brands of vanilla extract available a local grocery stores. The concentrations will be tested by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) utilizing solid phase micro extraction (SPME). CHEM 306.

96. Sears, Kevin, Michael Reed, Theron Grant, Jose Contreras, Eric Peterson and Kaeli Pfenning. Computer Science. John Peterson. WSC Robotics

The poster will include information on our newest robot, the quad copter.  We will talk about how we've integrated the Microsoft Kinect into our control scheme, using body gestures to control the Roomba.  Finally we will talk about the Robot Operating System (ROS).

97. Smith, Cody. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Dodge Ball in Public Schools

Dodge ball headlines the group of games and activities which are no longer considered suitable for physical education classes. The purpose of this quantitative study is to understand fourth and fifth graders attitudes toward physical education classes in curriculums that do include dodge ball type games/activities and those that do not. Using a six question survey that used happy, indifferent, sad or angry faces to convey the student's feelings and attitudes about physical education class. Twenty fifth grade males, twenty fifth grade females twenty fourth grade females and twenty fourth grade males were surveyed. The data was analyzed using a Pearson coefficient (p.2, 2005). ESS 495.

98. Smith, Soleil. Psychology. Roger Drake. "The Effective Measures of Decreasing Aggressive Propensities of Criminals during and after Incarceration"

Aggression is a focus of therapeutic interventions that is already implemented in the legal system and is a concern for those who may be on their way to establishing stubborn behavior patterns. These patterns usually carry into adulthood and affect recidivism by increasing rates to almost 50%. This research paper examines the effective measures of decreasing aggressive propensities of criminals during and after incarceration, which is a conglomerate of research compiled to create a broader understanding of why criminals are who they are, why they do the things they do and how aggression is one of the leading factors in their lives. PSY 498.

99. Standard, Elizabeth. Anthropology. Casey Dukeman. The Effects of Different Water Concentrations in Soil on Bone Degradation

Water has a significant affect on the deterioration of bones. This test is to determine how much water a bone can absorb sitting on the surface of soils with different concentrations of water that are comparable to different soils found in the Gunnison Valley. If a bone is sitting on the surface of a soil with a higher concentration of water then it will absorb more water than bones sitting on soil with a lower concentration of water, which can then lead to more deterioration of the bone as time goes on.  Sand will be used as a control soil to hold different water concentrations as it has a neutral pH and contains no foreign contaminants that could effect deterioration like microorganisms.  Bones will be weighed before and after being placed with the sand medium and will be left to absorb water for one week. Weights and relevant data will then be assessed and discussed. ANTH 219.

100. Stillman, Molly and Tayler Birdsall. Computer Science. Dan Schuster. Frogger: A New Kind of Game

Presenting our CIS 190 final, Tayler Birdsall and Molly Stillman have created a unique version of the classic arcade game "Frogger". Extra features were added to make the game more interesting while utilizing what was learned throughout the semester in Computer Science. The game is made up of roughly 750 lines of code, yet it became apparent that making a frog jump precisely across lanes was not so simple. The code included everything gathered throughout the semester period such as: loops, commands, if-then statements, and random variables. In this version, instead of having levels; lily pads were inserted to keep the frog safe, flies appear at random so that the frog can increase health, the frogs color indicates health status, and the frog can only be hit a limited number of times. This game exploits every part of CIS 190, and it took a lot of time and effort to create.

101. Swiatek, John and Dustin Brendan. Biology. Robin Bingham. Brassica rapa Hydration

The goals in performing this study were to observe any difference in growing strength between Brassica rapa strains that are both herbicide resistant and susceptible. Our teams hypothesis stated, that if strains of herbicide resistant and susceptible Brassica rapa plants were tested for their reaction to different water consumption rates then the herbicide resistant strain that receives inadequate water is going to be the least likely to survive because it already possess genetically altered traits. Our experiment consisted of 3 main groups: adequately watered, under and over watered test groups. In each of these three groups we had twelve Brassica rapa plants, six that were a wild strain and six that were from a strain that resistant to herbicides. Each group underwent differing water consumption rates and were observed for growth characteristics including: height, stem diameter, bud sites, leaves and branching. The results of our study showed no significant correlation between growth and genotypes. BIOL 151.

102. Thompson, Gavin, Bryce Fisher, Emma Griffen, Samantha Hirt,  Brandi McBride, kaitlyn Mincey, Miles Peterson, Amanda Sanchez, Rachael Sandhagen-Turner, Katherine Short, Elizabeth Tango and Elizabeth Tarrant. Honors. Heather Thiessen-Reily. Social Networking and Socratic Questioning

The main focus of this project is answering this central question: How does social networking affect people's answers to and understanding of these Socratic questions: (1) What is Friendship? (2)What is Self? (3) What is Community? These questioned were posed  through means of one live Socrates Café and a corresponding cyber café addressing the same topic. Students examined social networking influence on shaping our communal understanding of these philosophical ideas. The spirit of this project was to investigate not only how people construct social networks, but how in turn those social networks create us as well. The major benefit of this project and its corresponding methodology is that by its very nature students are constantly engaged with the community as well as with the subject matter with which they are involved. Other models of studying discourse typically involve a more remote approach in which rhetoric is simply exemplified and then studied without any analysis as to the process of studying itself as a form of discourse. But this approach is a constant questioning not only of society, but also of the process of producing questions as well as answers itself. HNRS 200

103. Tomlinson, Ned, Benjamin Hayden, Michael Dooley and Leslie Lauck. Biology. Randy Spydell. Effects of Mining on Water Quality in the Greater Gunnison Basin

This study explores the effects of mining on water quality and its implications for macro invertebrates. It suggests that streams with mining activity within the past 100 years will have significantly lower water quality based on a decreased number of macro invertebrate taxa present in the effected stream. These results are compared to streams with little to no mining activity to judge the environmental effect that mining has on water quality. Taylor River, and Tomichi Creek will be our controls as they have had no significant mining activity near their watersheds within the past 100 years; Henson Creek and Slate River being our test sites as significant mining activity has occurred in both watersheds in the past 100 years. BIOL 135.

104. Torin, Power. Archaeology. Casey Dukeman. Optimal group return rates of cervis canadensis humerus bone marrow extraction

The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the caloric return rates of the humerus bone marrow of Cervis Canadensis and the relationship to the amount of individuals working to extract that marrow. This relationship should accurately express the optimal amount of calories from marrow extraction directly resulting from the number of individuals in the group. There are three trials that will be performed for the different group sizes which consist of 1 person, 2 people, and 4 people. The variables that are tested to promote an accurate conclusion are contained to the amount of bone marrow collected and time of operation while controlling the amount people within the group. Expectations of the experiment are that one person working on a single humerus will benefit the most from the calories derived from extracted marrow in comparison to groups consisting of 2 and 4 regardless of the fact that the time utilized might be greater. ANTH 219.

105. Tree, Jonathan. Geology. Allen Stork. Lava Flow Emplacement of the 9-mile Hill Volcano, Gunnison, Colorado

The Hinsdale lavas exposed at 9-mile Hill, Gunnison, Colorado are 19.0 m.a. in age and are differentiated into seven units composed of shoshonite to latite. These flows represent a paleo-valley from the early Miocene than are observed today as the mesa tops. The modern topography represents a classic case of inverted topography where the prehistoric lowlands are now modern highlands. This is due to the fact that eruptions first ponded in the 9-mile hill region until gaining enough elevation relief to descend down a paleo-valley. This flow direction was shown by measurement of the plunge direction of elongated vesicles contained within the flows that utilized this valley. The data indicate a mean vector of flow direction of 294.8^o with a 99% confidence cone error of ±4.9^o, 95% confidence cone error of ±3.9^o.  These data indicate that there was a strong preferred direction of flow to the northwest down the paleo-valley/

106. Trujillo, Nichole. Exercise and Sports Science. Christiana Buchanan. Eating Habits of Division II Women's Basketball Players and its Effects on their Performances

A group of Division II women's basketball players were examined by what foods they ate and its effects on their performances. Purpose: The purpose of this mixed methods comparative study was to examine if daily eating habits had an effect on Division II women basketball players in their abilities to perform at their highest potential. Methods: Eleven female subjects were analyzed. Ages rang from 18-21. Data was collected by survey and a food diary. The diary lased a week, over a 7 daytime period. The research compared the eating habits of the young women and their perceived performances on the court. This research took into consideration the food they ate days before practice and games, and also the days of practice and games. The data also analyzed the amount of food they were eating and whether it was healthy or not. ESS 495.

107. Walstrom, Ryan. Exercise and Sports Science. Christiana Buchanan. The Perception of Hydration in Division II Cross Country Runners

This purpose of this mixed method descriptive study was to understand athlete's perception about personal hydration. This study enables a better understanding of hydration beliefs and practices among athletes. The participants in the study were 24 Division II cross country runners (12 male, 12 female) on a nationally ranked team. Each athlete was given a questionnaire at the beginning and conclusion of the study regarding their perception, behaviors, and knowledge of hydration. Urine samples were collected five times over a five week period to measure hydration. The questionnaire results were compared to the results of the urine sample tests (specific gravity) given to each athlete. ESS 495.

108. Weaver, Stacy. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Soil Composition and Percolation Rates of Grazed, Ungrazed and Rebound Areas of Riparian Ecosystems after Domestic Cattle

This study was designed to provide baseline data for future studies, and help aid in future grazing management considering the impact cattle may have on the riparian ecosystem. Varying soil composition caused by over use of cattle traffic is hypothesized to slow percolation rates influencing water absorption leading to erosion of soil and impaired riparian systems. To test this assumption soil texturing and percolation tests were conducted in the Tomichi Creek State Wildlife Area by the Gunnison Airport. Data shows significant variation between test holes one, two and three of each plot, with high variability of soil texture influencing percolation rates.  It appears that cattle are impacting the percolation rates of water through the soil, organic material in soil seems to affect the percolation rates as well. ENVS 390.

109. Webb, Rachel, Brooke Lockard, Kathryn Bernier and Kristin Barker. Ecology. Jonathan Coop. ASPEN FOREST AGE STRUCTURE NEAR KEBLER PASS, GUNNISON COUNTY, COLORADO

Quaking aspen (Populas tremuloides) forms extensive forests around Kebler Pass, Colorado. Recent studies have shown that the aspen population is currently in a state of decline. This study will determine the age and stand structure of these aspen forests using size data and tree cores from 10-15 plots. By collecting historical data including documented fires and elk populations, we can assess whether stands were influenced by anthropological influences or if this is a natural occurrence. BIOL 395

110. Wenner, Lindy. Exercise and Sports Science. Christiana Buchanan. How Do Shape-Ups Shap Up?

The fitness claims made by many shoe companies about their new toning shoes are in striking contrast with recent lawsuits and media attention; however, little scientific research exists to support either party. Purpose: This quantitative study sought to assess the effectiveness of Shape-Ups by SKETCHERS in increasing the caloric demands when used by women while walking. Methods: Gas analysis was performed during two trials to assess caloric expenditure. Five average Colorado mountain-town women (25+yrs) walked on a treadmill at a self-selected speed for seven minutes; during one trial they wore Shape-Ups and in the other they wore a pair of traditional athletic shoes. Result and conclusions will follow. ESS 495.

111. Weprin, Torie, Madi Samblanet, Cody Rowe and C.J. York. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Competiton for Resources Between H(r) and H(s) B. rapa

Trade-offs help determine what quality plants risk loosing in return for another quality that might be more useful in that plants life.  Trade-offs also allow a wide range of genetic diversity in the plant world, however, their survival may depend on ecological factors such as the need for resources. In the case of limited resources, in a small growing area, we predict that the herbicide-resistant Brassica rapa will trade-off its ability to compete against the herbicide-resistant Brassica rapa for resources such as water and sunlight.  Our methods for tracking the different plants process was in rate of growth over three weeks.  Over these weeks we measured the height of each plant to determine which plant is competing more efficiently.  The results show that herbicide-resistant seeds do indeed trade-off their ability to compete for resources against herbicide-susceptible seeds.  Not having a trade-off, the herbicide-susceptible plant was able to sufficiently obtain vital resources for growth from its competitor, the herbicide-resistant plant. BIOL 151.

112. White, Erika, Kim Rollins, and Shawn Stoddard. Economics/Mathematics. Sally Hays and Andy Keck. How Does Conservation Information Change Residential Water Use?

The Truckee Meadow Water Authority (TMWA) is a not-for-profit, community-owned utility that services Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Various state laws, local ordinances, and operating agreements mandate that TMWA operate a water conservation program to help protect the natural resources within this region. Our study sought to answer: how does the Water Watchers program influence the quantity of water demanded by individual households in the region?  In answering this question, we will help to establish the value of this program to TMWA and its residential customers.  Regression methods are used to determine whether households tend to change their behavior after having contact with the Water Watchers program, and to determine what factors affect the amount of water conserved as a function of household size, irrigated landscape, income, weather, type/purpose of Water Watcher's contact and other factors. The panel data includes the years from 2003 through 2011, and are limited to residential single-family units.

113. Wilkie, James. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. The Anasazi Life Source

In this paper I explore how the Anasazi Indians recognize, use, and express the importance of water for their culture, society, and ultimately their survival.  I demonstrate the Anasazi design, construction, and maintenance of water capturing systems.  Over 70% of the Earth is covered by water, and without it there simply is no life.  For the Anasazi, water was everything because of the location they lived in.  Using the Anasazi hydrological principles, I argue that the Anasazi Indians were ahead of their time, with an unprecedented use of ideas and innovations that would help this civilization thrive in an environment where water was scarce.  They built conical turrets, watchtowers, and terraced fields with check dams, expressing their obvious concerns about their livelihoods and survival in an environment that makes it hard to do so. ANTH 320.

114. Yeamans, Christopher. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Same Place, Different Times:  A Ute and Ancestral Puebloan Comparison

Same Place, Different Times:  A Ute and Ancestral Puebloan ComparisonIn this essay it will be shown that though Environmental Determinism can be a useful tool in analyzing the resource procurement habits as well as social and cultural development of peoples based on their resource availability, it is insufficient to explain why groups who live in near identical regional and climactic settings develop different resource procurement strategies.  This will be demonstrated through a case study of the Ancestral Puebloans compared to the Ute Indians.  Both groups occupied overlapping regional areas at different periods in time.  These areas had nearly identical environments; yet different resource procurement strategies were utilized by these groups.  The Ancestral Puebloans were horticulturalists and the Utes were nomadic hunter gatherers.  The reason for this difference is that social and cultural differences dictated or account for a different resource procurement strategy for the Ute's then the Ancestral Puebloans. ANTH 320.