Program of Fall 2010 Poster Presentations

1. Anderson, Ian. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Is Gunnison, CO preferable to a town of the same latitude but a lower elevation?

Is Gunnison, CO preferable to a town of the same latitude but alower elevation? Yes, it is. It is more preferable
because within a certain area surrounding the town, there are morerecreation opportunities as opposed to a
similar town on the plains. I plan to test this by identifying howmany national parks, recreation areas, camp ground,
and movie theaters are within a certain distance of each and thencomparing this to the results from a survey that
asks people what it is they prefer to do. This will show me ifGunnison really would be preferable to the people of the
sample demographic.

2. Cervantes, Mark. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Irrigation and crop yielddiffereces in high elevation basins versus the low elevation plains

There has always been the question whether a high elevation townlike Gunnison is a more preferable
place to live than a town on the same latitude, at a lowerelevation. Well, it is in fact true that higher elevations
(mountain valleys) are a more preferable place to live than theplains. This is due to the availability and proximity
to surface water, it also relates to how the water is distributedamongst the town. The plains of Colorado have less
water availability, and therefore they must manipulate how thewater is distributed to the people. This is different
than the mountain valley towns because they have the first rightto the water. Due to these factors the plains and
mountain regions use their landscape differently, from how theland is distributed, to whom gets the water. After
gathering information from the Nation Agriculture StatisticsService, the Colorado Division of Water Resources, and
the Colorado Water Conservation Board the evidence will show thatmountainous regions are a more preferable
place to live than the plains.

3. Ewing, Gaia. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Plains or Mountains.

Using tool type frequencies to assess location desirability forresidential housing: The problem of whether
high elevation areas such as Gunnison are a more preferable placeto live, than similar towns on the same latitude
at lower elevation will be analyzed. Using the hypothesis that thediverse tool kit at the Mountaineer Folsom sit
and the reliance on local raw materials shows a thrivingcommunity, as well as a location where people do not need
to travel as frequently. Lower elevation sites such as Agate Basinand Hell Gap (I) will have a less diverse tool kit,
and show use of more non-local raw materials, and therefore is aless convenient and preferable place to live. In
order to test the hypothesis, research will be done on bothassemblages comparing tool types, and raw materials
used at each site. The diversity of the tool types will be used todecipher what types of activities took place at each
site. From the location on procurement of raw materials, one willbe able to see which occupation had the opportunity to utilize their surroundings more to better their lives.

4. Gibbs, Amanda. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Comparing Crime Rates Between Higher and Lower Elevated Towns in theSame Latitude

When comparing two townsof similar size and economy, but at different elevations, the town with less
crime is a moredesirable location to live. Gunnison is a town at an elevation of 7,703 feet,with a population
of 5,468. To test howdesirable Gunnison, Colorado is compared to lower elevated towns, the townSmithfield, Virginia was examined.This town stands at 30 feet above sea level, at the same latitude of Gunnison. Its population is 7,115.These towns are ideal to compare to one another, as they both are located neara vacation spot; Gunnisonnear a ski resort, Smithfield near the beach. The data used to compare thesetowns will be the violentcrime rates in 2009. To test this data, T-score tests will be created to showhow close they are to one another inregards to crime. Also, a survey will be conducted to find out what makes aplace desirable, and if crime ratesinfluence  this at all. If the surveyresults shows that high crime rates have a large impact on desirability, than thehypothesis will be supported. It is suspected that the higher elevated townwill have a statistically highercrime rate than the town at sea level, and the evidence will support that it isa less desirable town to live in.

5. Redzinak, Kira. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Are people living in high elevation basins healthier than those living in the lower elevation plains?

This paper will discuss the differences in living at higher orlower altitudes at the same latitude. The question is,
is it healthier to live at a higher altitude or lower altitude?Doing research to find people’s blood pressures at
higher and lower altitudes using Channel 9 news and birth rateinformation from the census this paper will
prove that people living in a higher altitude at the same latitudeas a lower altitude than they will be healthier.

6. Smith, Collin. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Modern day large gamepopulation and prevalence of archaeological sites:

The Gunnison valley was a popular place to live in prehistorictimes which is evident through the remaining
archaeological sites. In looking at archaeological sites of thesouthwest, it is predicted that areas with abundant
large game populations will also harness more archaeologicalsites. There are thousands of archaeological sites
around the Gunnison basin as well as plentiful populations oflarge game. To find correlations between
archaeological site prevalence and large game population,population samples will be taken from areas across
Colorado in comparison to Gunnison Colorado. The density ofarcheological sites will be used in correlation
with large game population in areas across Colorado. The resultswill support whether or not the abundance
of archaeological sites in Gunnison is influenced by abundance oflarge game populations.

7. Winter, Mike, Marrisa Markus, Mike Tarantino, John Logan. Biology, Patrick Magee . BROWN TROUT (Salmo trutta) INFECTED WITH WHIRLING DISEASE (Myxobolus cerebralis) IN THE EAST RIVER OF GUNNISON, CO

Whirling disease is a parasitic invasion of trout by Myxoboluscerebralis. Oligochaeta digest the parasite and
release microspores into the water. The microspores attach to thefish and feeds on the bone and spinal
structures causing deformation and neurological damage. RoaringJudy Fish Hatchery operates on the East River,
which has tested positive for whirling disease, and it is requiredto meet aquatic health regulations to continue
operation. The Division of Wildlife monitors the level ofinfection in the East River of the Gunnison Basin, CO around
Roaring Judy Fish Hatchery. We collected two samples of browntrout (Salmo trutta) by electrofishing and tested
for the parasite. We determined the number of brown trout infectedby observing their body structure for deformations and by counting the number of spores infecting each trout head.Our data determines Roaring Judy Fish Hatchery’s ability to continue operation.

8. Waller, Bethany, Rebecca Doll, Brandee Wills. Biology, Robin Bingham. Induction of the shadeavoidance response in Brassica rapa:

Phenotypic plasticity is a change in plant phenotype in responseto changes in the environment. One well known
example of phenotypic plasticity in plants is the induction ofdefense traits in response to herbivory. Another well
described plastic response in plants is the shade avoidanceresponse (SAR). In this response localized cell elongation
increases internode length. Plants often experience herbivory and shade simultaneously whichtheoretically forces
a tradeoff between growth and defense. In this study we initiatedan investigation into how plastic responses to
one environmental challenge (shade) affect responses to a second(herbivory).  Our goal was to testwhether
treatments intended to induce the SAR were successful. Severalmethods were utilized to induce the SAR including
filter canopies, filter collars, and  shading with lettuce leaves. Only the plantsshaded by the lettuce leave responded with the classic SAR phenotype.  Further experimentation is needed to find theoptimal treatment for inducing the SAR in B. rapa.

9. Waller, Bethany, Rebecca Doll, Brandee Wills Biology, Robin Bingham. Variation in herbivoreresistance traits in Asclepias speciosa across an elevational gradient

The objective of our research was to investigate variation inherbivore resistance traits in Asclepias speciosa
populations from different elevations. We collected data from20-30 individual stems in each of four populations,
spanning approximately 1000m in elevation. The highest population exhibited the greatest herbivoredamage.
Significant differencesamong populations were found in field collections of latex, specific leaf area(SLA) and fruit set.
There was no relationship between latex production and fitness. Ina preliminary investigation of genetic variation
in herbivore defensivetraits fruits were collected from a population of A. speciosa at 2347m in thefall of 2009.
Seeds from these plants were germinated in the spring of 2010,grown for 8 weeks in the greenhouse and then
planted into a common garden on the WSC campus. Latex production wasmarginally significantly different among families.

10. Weir, Chris, Cassie Krzeczowski, Rachel Davenport. Biology, Amy Honan. The Effects of Soil Type onthe Overall Health of Brassica Plants:

The purpose of this experiment was to determine which soil typesgrew Brassica plants the best. The soil types included Miracle grow,sagebrush steppe, and creek-bed soil. Our initial hypothesis was that theBrassica plants
would be the most successful in Miracle Grow soil based on leafand flower/bud production. Based on our results
it can be said that our initial hypothesis was proved correct.

11. Shunk, Monica, Julie Wingate. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Cytospora infection and dieback of Alnus along Tomichi Creek inGunnison, CO:

Thinleaf alder (Alnusincana subsp. tenuifolia) has been declining in the Southern Rocky Mountain region
according to a studyperformed by the Forest Service. Methods were adapted from Worrall (2009) toconduct a survey of alder alongTomichi Creek through Western State College property at the base of Tenderfoot Mountain. The surveyfocused on a 30m section of alder along the creek to determine standcomposition and if there were signsof the common pathogen cytospora. A cytospora canker was found on one genet of alder along thetransect, affecting a single stem. Only one genet, without cytospora, showedsigns of complete die-off with the numberof dead stems outnumbering healthy stems. All other genets had a higherabundanceof healthy stems replacing dieback. Removal ofthe infected stems is recommended as well as further monitoring of dieback and cytosporainfection of the alder at this site.

12. Allen, Craig R., Sarah R.McClernan, Courtney M. Adams, Allen, Craig R. , Shelby L. Neese. Biology, Becky Sears. Fox Activity Levels in a 24hour period in Gunnison County, Colorado

The activity level of two red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, one juvenilefemale and one juvenile male was studied
by radio telemetry from September 29th to November 11th 2010.Topography maps were used to analyze the
cardinal location of the foxes in a 24 hour period. The primarypurpose of this experiment was to study two juvenile
red foxes in the Gunnison area and support pre-existing data ontheir peak and dead hours of activity. Our data
showed that the male fox was primarily active during nocturnalhours, whereas the female fox was active during
nearly all 24 hours of the study.

13. Barker, Kristin. Biology, Patrick Magee. Does the home team reallyhave an advantage? Investigating whether home-field advantage (HFA) holds truein sagebrush ecosystems:

Recent scientific studies indicate that forest ecosystems exhibita “home-field advantage,” in which
soil biota decompose organic litter from the specific tree speciesabove them more rapidly than they
decompose litter from other species, but no known researchers haveexamined home-field advantage
in shrub ecosystems. Determining whether home-field advantageexists in sagebrush ecosystems can
greatly assist professionals in determining the most beneficialmanagement and reclamation practices
within these areas. This study determined that sagebrush soildecomposed sagebrush litter at a rate of 0.257 g/wk;
sagebrush soil decomposed aspen litter at a rate of -1.040 g/wk;aspen soil decomposed sagebrush litter at a rate
of -0.980 g/wk; and aspen soil decomposed aspen litter at a rateof -2.125 g/wk. Sagebrush soil decomposed
sagebrush litter at a significantly faster rate than it decomposedaspen litter; it also decomposed sagebrush
litter significantly morequickly than aspen soil decomposed aspen litter. No significant differenceoccurred
between decomposition rates at low and high elevations. However,numerous limitations of this study severely
limit confidence in the data.

14. Bernier, Kathryn, Clayton BonDurant, Aleshia Fremgen, and MarcellaFremgen. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Leaf Decomposition and Shredder Colonization in Tomichi Creek, GunnisonCounty, Colorado, USA

Allocthonous input isenergy from outside sources, such as riparian leaves that fall into the stream.
This is the primaryenergy input in stream systems but the energy is inaccessible to most organisms
until the solutesdissolve, microbes and fungi colonize the leaves, and shredders break down theleaves
into smaller particles.We used one location at Tomichi Creek to investigate in-stream leafdecomposition.
We collected streamsidewillow (Salix exigua), narrow-leaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), and
alder (Alnus alnus)leaves. The leaves were weighed and placed in open containers, and ninereplicates
of each vegetationspecies were placed in the stream next to the other two species. After threeweeks,
the leaves were removed,dried, and re-weighed, and the macroinvertebrate colonies were counted and
identified. The changein leaf mass represents the loss of soluble components in the leaf, bacterialand
fungal colonization, andthe leaf mass loss to macroinvertebrate shredders.

15. Bingman, Matt, Cody Butero,Hannah Cottier, Logan Cottier, and Austin Harper. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Harsh WinterConditions on Odocoileus hemionus (Mule Deer) Populations in Game ManagementUnit Fifty-Four:

The populations of Odocoileus hemionus, Mule deer, in the Gunnisonbasin of Colorado are affected each winter.
Harsh winter conditions such as extreme cold and deep snowfall canlead to high rates of deer mortality. The Division
of Wildlife conducts population estimates each year during themonth of December. We attempted to replicate these
surveys as closely as possible by observing transition areas inGame Management Unit Fifty-Four and recording the
number of deer observed and the estimated size of the areaobserved. Our estimates were then compared to the
DOW’s estimates of 2005. The numbers of Mule Deer observed thisfall were fewer than those observed in 2005
due to the extremely harsh winter of 2007-2008. However, thedifference was not as large as expected due to the
two and a half year period of population recovery.

16. Brown, Karélia , Amy Hale,Julie Iacino, and Amber Morrow. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Bisphenol Aon Xenopus laevis Tadpole Development:

Bisphenol A (BPA) has long been suspected to have adverse effectson living organisms. The experiment
used Xenopus laevis to observe effects of BPA on tadpoledevelopment. Using three groups: glass control
jars, BPA free Nalgene bottles, and BPA positive Nalgene bottles,development between tadpoles was compared.
It was hypothesized that there would be a noticeable difference inthe development of tadpoles raised in the BPA
positive environment. After noting morphological differences andanalyzing data using an ANOVA, a significant
relationship between BPA and developmental variations was developed. Thehypothesis was supported.


B. rapa is a mustard plant known for its ease of growing andmaintaining. This experiment aimed to
increase the existing pool of empirical data on how growing plantsunder different colored filters affects
their overall health through four variables: overall height, leafcount, ending weight, and root depth.
Twenty four plants were grown under four light filters. Six weregrown under no filter, six were grown
under a red filter, six under a blue filter and six under a greenfilter. For five weeks data was collected on
the aforementioned variables of plant health. It was discoveredthat the varying color filters did have a
significant effect on the in all four variables. As we expected,the plants grown under the red filters
demonstrated the greatest health as the wavelengths associatedwith photosynthesis (namely blue light)
were not blocked.

18. Conrad, Callie HannahKingsbury. Biology, Amy Honan. Effects of of BrassicaGrown in Soil and Fertilizer

 The goal of the experiment was to investigate the effects ofgrowth in Brassica plants when comparing
their growth in regular soil compared to fertilizer. The plant’sheight (cm), number of flowers (seeds), length
of root (cm), root to shoot ratio, and weight in grams (Biomass)were measured. The hypothesis for the experiment
was; after growing Brassicaplants in both regular soil and fertilizer it is expected that the plants grownin the fertilizer
will be taller, have more flowers (seeds), the roots will belonger, and they will have a greater biomass. After all the
measurements were complete the hypothesis proved to be partiallycorrect because the plants grown in fertilizer
did prove to have a greater biomass, but plants grown in soil wereon average taller, had more flowers (seeds),
and the roots were longer.

19. Clayton, Alex, MickKnudsen, Tim Curry. Biology, Becky Sears. Why are Aspens SAD?

Sudden Aspen Decline (SAD) is the name given to a phenomenon thatis occurring among aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands across the Rocky Mountains. The objective of this study wasto test the predisposing factors of elevation and stand aspect on aspen size, density, and mortality in order to see ifSAD was present in the Gunnison Valley. If SAD is present, then southern facing aspen stands at low elevation will show loweraverage diameter and density in addition to a higher mortality rate. Data was collected from north and south facing aspen standsat three different elevation levels. The results demonstrate that aspen stands at higher elevations have a lower mortalityrate. Elevation and aspect do affect mortality, but they have little or no effect on diameter or density. Therefore, the datademonstrates that SAD is not present in the populations which were studied in the Gunnison Valley.

20. Courkamp, Jake, JustinNoland, Clayton Weaver, Mike Tarantino. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Periphyton Colonization of Three Substrate Types in the Gunnison Basin,CO USA

We examined diatomcolonization on three different types of substrate (unglazed tiles, cobble, and
cottonwood logs) in apond in the Gunnison Basin to better understand how diatoms utilize distincthabitats.
Unglazed tiles served asour control, while cottonwood logs and cobble are naturally occurring diatomhabitats. Diatoms are a type ofunicellular algae with cell walls made of silica. They, along with other algae,cyanobacteria, and detritus, form theperiphyton community which is attached to submerged surfaces in aquaticenvironments. In this periphytoncommunity, diatoms are important because they serve as the dominant primaryproducers. Thus, we counted andidentified 300 individual diatoms from each of our fifteen samples (fivesamples of each substrate) after theyhad been submerged for fourteen days.

21. Cuprisin, Chip. Biology, Becky Sears. Gunnison River Trout andTrout Habitat

Macroinvertebrate populations are an indication of a healthystream. Macroinvertebrate populations are high
in streams where the trout population is high. There are manyfactors that account for a section of water to be
designated Gold Metal Water: A lake or stream that supports atrout standing stock of at least 60 pounds per acre,
and contains an average of at least 12 quality trout per acre (CODOW). This experiment investigated macroinvertebrate populations, by counting and collecting larval and adult forms ofaquatic insects. Many factors go into such designation, and the presence of macroinvertebrates is merely anindication of, not a determining factor in such a label. When invertebrate populations are slightly lower,provided the stream is healthy, can result in the fish being more opportunistic in their feeding habits, not keying in on aspecific species, resulting in more fish being caught.


We investigated the effects of removing vegetation from thesurface of ponds in the Gunnison Basin, Colorado
by comparing two similar ponds. We left one of the ponds alone andwe removed all of the surface vegetation
from the other pond. We then tested the pH and the temperature ofboth ponds multiple times over the course
of the following month. We observed downward trends in thetemperature of both ponds, thought to be due to
the weather. We also observed slight differences in the pH of eachpond, but this difference was present
pre-treatment and cannot be attributed to the removal of thesurface vegetation from the treatment pond.
Our study found no significant difference in either pH ortemperature between the control and the treatment pond.


Brittle prickly pearcacti (Opuntia fragilis) is a vital food source to many animals in desert andsemi-desert ecosystems in the UnitedStates. Cactus spines serve as protection against solar energy by shading themain
plant and reducing heatgain. Sun exposure differs between slope directions, with south facing enduringmore
sun exposure throughoutthe day than the north. A total of 676 cacti spines were collected from twosites in the Gunnison Basin, Coloradoduring the fall of 2010. T-tests were used to analyze the data and to determineif there were significantdifferences between north and south facing slope cacti spine length and width.South facing slope cacti spines were foundto be significantly longer and thinner than north facing slope cacti spines.Although we found that spines on thesouth facing slope cacti allocate energy into spine length growth, spine widthwas thinner than north facing slopecacti spines due to unknown reasons.

24. Donahue, Emily. Biology, Robin Binham. Quantitative geneticanalysis of herbivore defensive traits in Asclepias speciosa

We quantified mechanical and chemical herbivore defensive traitsin a population of Asclepias speciosa in the
Gunnison basin. Using a quantitative genetic approach 62 plantstaken from 5 full-sub families were grown in a
common garden and analyzed for constitutive levels of latex, watercontent, specific leaf area, and cardenolides.
We found marginally significant differences among families forlatex production only and no evidence for significant
genetic correlation between any of the traits measured. Theseresults provide a foundation from which future
studies on genetic variation in herbivore defensive traits in A.speciosa will be developed.

25. Else, Alex, Sarah Schmitz, Amber Summer, Brandee Wills. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Analysis of theMacroinvertebrate Community and Stream Health in Spring Creek, Gunnison County,CO USA:

We investigated waterquality in Spring Creek, Gunnison County, CO USA compared to Colorado
Aquatic Life standards.We collected semi-quantitative samples using a 500 micron dip net and followed
Colorado Department ofPublic Health and Environment Water Quality Control Division Standard Operating
Procedures. Wesub-sampled 300 macroinvertebrates and these were indentified to lowestpractical taxon
using relevant taxonomickeys. Following identification and enumeration, we determined tolerance levels
and functional feedinggroups. Our data was then entered into the Ecological Data Application System
software and the resultscompared to Colorado Aquatic Life thresholds for assessing stream health.

26. England, Julian, KevinDonaldson. Biology, Becky Sears. Effect of Recreation onDeer in the Gunnison/Crested Butte Areas

The Gunnison and Crested Butte areas are seeing an increase inrecreation use every year with an unknown
impact on animal and plant populations. Our experiment focused onthe numbers of deer in recreation areas
around Gunnison and Crested Butte, and how recreation use impactsthese numbers. We believe higher use areas
will have fewer deer than lower use areas. To test this, wevisited six different recreation areas and investigated the
number of deer signs. Deer signs included tracks, scat, rubbingson trees, and actual deer sightings. We found that the areas with the most sightings were areas of both high and lowrecreation use. Therefore, we reject our hypothesis; recreation has no apparent affect on deer. There is no substantialevidence suggesting recreation use affects the number of deer in the Gunnison and Crested Butte areas.

27. Fields, Morgan, NickHeller, Ryan Lundy. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Altitude onCognitive Ability:

Whether a skier, climber, or mountaineer, the call from high peaksis one that will be answered with little regard to
the inherent risks. Thinner air requires one’s body to work harderto perform basic functions such as breathing,
however; does it make it hard for the body to do something as easyas thinking? This experiment studies the effects
of altitude on cognitive ability. A series of cognitive tests thatevaluate memory, reasoning, mental flexibility, and
verbal skills were used to examine the differences in cognitiveability at altitude. The results show that there are
notable changes in cognitive ability at altitude however; it isdifficult to exclude factors like hydration and physical fitness.

28. George, Anna, AshtynRossman, Shayna Keller, and Stephanie Bollini. Biology, Becky Sears. Difference in Blood-OxygenSaturation Levels in Intercollegiate Wrestlers:

Hemoglobin in the blood transports oxygen to different parts ofthe body. The level of oxygen in the blood is oxygen
saturation or SpO2. This measurement is taken by a pulse oximeterwhich records the oxygen saturation and the pulse. The hypothesis states that the pulse will increase and the SpO2will decrease after exercise. Measurements were taken pre and post match from the Western State College wrestlingteam. On average pulse increased and SpO2 decreased, as predicted.

29. Goodwin, Mary, DorothyHoule, and Whitney Zerr. Biology, Becky Sears. The Effects of Caffeine onthe Growth and Development of Brassica rapa:

Caffeine has known adverse developmental effects on manyorganisms, including Brassica rapa, also known as the Wisconsin Fast Plant. Brassica rapa was treated with 0.005M caffeinesolution in water twice a week, and data was collected after each exposure. The treated plants began to visually demonstratethe effects of the caffeine after only three treatments. There was a significant difference in the number of leaves,flowers, and buds produced by the caffeinated plants. These results suggest that caffeine has harmful effect on Brassica rapaplants.

30. Griffin, Emma, CarsonWagner, Cale Fry, and Eric Copeland. Biology, Becky Sears. Effects of trails onvegetation density:

Outdoor activities such as hiking, biking and dirt biking arepopular in Gunnison County, but these activities have
some negative effects on the vegetation on the trails. We pickedthree different trail sites to test the density shrubs,
forbs and grasses along and off the trails. We predicted that thevegetation density along the trails would be less due
to these kinds of outdoor activities. The results state that thedensity along the trail was slightly less as well as less
mature since human activity is higher right along the trail compared tooff the trail.

31. Peterson, Miles, NicoleStone, and Daniel Piquette. Biology, Becky Sears. Lake Trout Removal and itsImpacts:

Over the last 2 years, the CDOW has been gill netting lake troutin blue mesa reservoir to help balance the
fishery. Lake trout smaller than thirty inches are targeted, butuntargeted lake trout and other species are
inevitably caught. Our study aims to measure the impact of thegill netting on other fish species in blue
mesa by reviewing the quantitative data provided by the CDOW. Thedata revealed that in addition to the lake
trout there were six other species affected by the gill netting,but the number of mortalities of non-target fish
was not high enough to negatively impact those populations.

32. pfannenstiel, jordyn, codyfrankum, jon kelly.Biology, Amy Honan. Invertebrate diversity andhow it indicates water quality:

 The water quality in Gunnison can be tested by collectinginvertebrates from the rivers and depending on
how solution tolerant the invertebrates are, tells the quality ofthe water in the river. We collected invertebrates
from four different rivers in Gunnison and found the quality ofwater in each river. We researched how the Taylor
River, Tomichi Creek and the East River’s water quality affectedthe water quality in the Gunnison River because
all three flow into the Gunnison River. We found that even thoughmajority of the water that flows into the
Gunnison River is fair quality but the Gunnison still has goodwater quality, so it mostly affected by the East
river which also has good water quality.

33. Lloyd, Chelsea, MaryEmanuel, Jerrett Swarr. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Brook Stickleback PreySelective or General Feeders:

Brook Stickleback (Culea inconstans) is a non-native invasive fishspecies that is now found in the upper Gunnison
River basin, Colorado, USA. Commonly thought of as a generalistfeeder, we investigated their feeding preferences
in their non-native range to determine whether the sticklebackremains a generalist feeder or if they have shifted
towards selective feeding. By using Ivlev’s Electivity Index, weanalyzed the feeding habits of brook sticklebacks
inhabiting a section of Tomichi Creek compared to the community ofmacroinvertebrates. We sampled macrovertebrates in order to determine the species diversity and food availabilityin the habitat for the brook stickleback. We also collected three gut content samples from brook sticklebackrepresenting three different feeding times (morning, noon, and evening), to determine if brook stickleback selectedcertain prey items and if this prey selection varied between times of day.

34. Knight, Adrian and JoePecharich. Biology, Jonathan Coop. Accelerating tree death in“healthy” aspen forests of the upper Gunnison Valley, Colorado:

While recent concern about aspen forests in Colorado has focusedon Sudden Aspen Decline (SAD) evidence from
across the western US suggests that even healthy forests may beexperiencing increasing rates of tree mortality. We
resampled forest structure, canopy cover and understorycomposition in 19 healthy aspen stands (not showin SAD)
originally sampled in 1964and 1994 near Crested Butte, Colorado. Annual rate of tree mortality has morethan
doubled from -0.96% to -2.38% over the two sampling intervals(1964-1994, 1994-2010). Over the last 46 years,
stand density has declined from 3151 ha-1, a 49% decrease. Basalarea, which did not change 1964-1994, declined
significantly and rapidly from 1994-2010, from 41.2m2 ha-1 to 33.7m2 ha-1 (-18%). Even in these apparently healthy
aspen forests, accelerating dieback is leading to significantchanges in forest structure with possible consequences for
biological diversitiy, ecosystem servieces, and aesthetic andeconomic values.

35. Jacob Powell, ChaseBunting, Cater Mueller, Dave Jenkins. Biology, Becky Sears. The effect of Brown Trouton other fish species:

Browntrout were introduced to the state of Colorado’s waters in 1890. It isnaturally more aggressive thanrainbows, cutthroats, and brooks, which could lead to them being larger thanthe other fish.  This poses thequestion for our hypothesis: Do brown trout significantly affect the populationof other trout speciesin their environment? To test our hypothesis we compared trout populations inwaters with browntrout against those without. We analyzed the average fish sizes and made anestimate whetheror not brown trout truly affect the environment.The results we collected were somewhat conclusive; we caughtmultiple examples of multiple species in each habitat.  The fish caught in each comparison group hadsimilar sizes in fish. The spring creek / Texas Creek had the most conclusiveresults because theaverage size of fish in spring creek (No browns) was on average larger than thefish in Texas Creek.

36. Hardin, Tim,Matt Toensing, Nick Rzygska-Filipek, Adrian. Biology, Kevin Alexander. Anthropogenic Impacts on Periphyton Colonization Rates in Tomichi Creek,Gunnison, CO, USA:

Colonization oforganisms onto a new substrate or habitat gives an indication of thebiodiversity and ecosystem health of a stream. We studied thecolonization rate of periphyton in Tomichi Creek near Gunnison, CO to determine ifanthropogenic impacts altered the periphyton biodiversity and colonizationrates in the stream. We hypothesized thatcolonization rates and biodiversity would be greater where there was lessanthropogenic impacts. We studied onesite with heavy grazing by cattle that has resulted in visible degradation ofthe streamside vegetation inthis area. Another site further upstream that has not experienced recentgrazing by domestic livestock wasalso studied for comparison. The periphyton community was measured for threeweeks to determine whetheranthropogenic influences cause a reduction in the colonization rates of primaryproducers in Tomichi Creek.

37. Fremgen, Marcella. Biology, Robin Bingham. Effects of Shading onCaterpillar Performance:

Plants are sessile organisms and therefore must be capable ofobtaining resources and avoiding predation
without moving. Plants that experience competition for light, animportant resource, induce the shade avoidance
response. Plants also have a number of methods to repel insectherbivores, including chemical defenses. Light
competition and herbivory are antagonistic selective forces and aplant must allocate resources towards one or the other. Light competition is induced by decreasing the red: far red lightratio. This hypothesis predicts that plants growing in sun will be better defended than shade plants. A preliminary testrevealed that insects do not grow as quickly on shade plants as on sun plants, indicating better defense in theshade. Though field studies have found similar results, other laboratory studies with a bioassay indicate that shadedplants are poorly defended when compared to sun plants.

38. Gillespie, Andrew. Biology, Amy Honan. The Effect of Caffeine onthe Temperature Recovery Rate in Humans:

Caffeine is one of themost addictive substances in our world and is consumed by more addicts than any
other compound. This experimentwas conducted to see if there is a direct correlation between the
concentration ofcaffeine in the human body and the recovery temperature rate after anartificial temperature
decrease. Tenindividuals were tested after consuming limited amounts of caffeine and afterdrinking a full
can of Red Bull energydrink. Skin temperature was measured to determine if there is a correlationbetween
the caffeine andrecovery rate. This experiment proved that there is in fact a directcorrelation between caffeine and body temperaturerecovery rate.

39. Kowall, Nathan. Business Administration, Susan Taylor. Transits of ExtrasolarPlanets:

Hereat Gunnison Valley Observatory we are using the telescope to find the transitsof extrasolar planets in front
ofother stars. With every planet we find we are closer to finding a planet thatone day may suit our needs to colonize
oreven find evidence of life. 

40. Mizel, Max, ChristianSquire, Ross Metler, Angela Fioretti, Alyssa Keith. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Analysis of Vanilla usingGC-MS with SPME and HPLC:

Themain ingredients found in store bought vanilla extract include vanillin,p-hydroxybenzaldehyde,
p-hydroxybenzoicacid, vanillic acid, and ethyl vanillin. Each of these compounds are foundnaturally in vanilla
exceptethyl vanillin which is added as a substitute for pure vanillin. By determiningthe amount of each
compoundin five different extracts, a quality control and cost effectiveness can bedetermined with regard
tothe amount of added ethyl vanillin, an artificial flavor, to the naturallyoccurring vanillin. Instrumentation
inthis experiment includes High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and GasChromatography-
MassSpectroscopy (GC-MS) which were each used to support separate results. Theresults of this experiment
are pending.

41. Helling, Mitch, Max Mizel,Angela Fioretti, Ross Metler, Alyssa Keith, Christian Squire. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Determination of Zinc andCadmium in Natural Water near the Mount Emmons Fen:

 TheAnalytical Chemistry class went to Crested Butte early in September andcollected several water samples from
thefen near the water treatment plant on Mount Emmons. The samples were analyzedusing an atomic absorption
flamespectrophotometer. Standards used for the calibration of the instrument wereprepared from Fischer Chemical
certifiedstandards. The concentration of cadmium was found to be 9.167×10^(-3) ppm whilethe concentration of zinc wasfound to be 3.327 ppm.

42. Fioretti, Angela. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Novel Approach to LithiumBattery Failure Analysis:

Duringuse and storage, uncontrolled decomposition of commonly used electrolytes forlithium batteries has been
shownto play a considerable role in lowered battery capacity and decreased power,but techniques for studying
thisphenomenon are limited. This study shows how capillary electrophoresis (CE), atechnique that can analyze
traceions (<10 ppm) in small volumes (<10µL), can be used for studyingelectrolyte decomposition. Detection of
batteryelectrolytes was achieved by manipulating the surface charge of barefused-silica capillaries with buffer
modificationsand capillary wall coatings. Reproducible decomposition data was obtained forPF6-, BF4- , and
N(SO2CF3)2-samples that supported the expected decomposition mechanisms previouslyreported in literature.
Observedfeatures that make CE well suited for the study of battery electrolytedecomposition were fast separation
timesand high sensitivity for ionic species with similar mobilities. This studydemonstrates that CE is an invaluable
technique to the battery community that can beapplied to many facets of battery technology and research.

43. Chem 112 Weds Pm Lab. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Dying to Know the DyeConcentration in Jones Green Apple Soda?:

Theexperiment used three methods to determine the concentration of dyes present inJones Green Apple Soda.
Byusing paper chromatography, it was determined that blue and yellow dyes werepresent in the soda. The UV-VIS
spectrophotometerwas used to identify the wavelength settings needed for the Spectronic 20 andverified the use
of Blue#1 and Yellow #5 dyes within the soda. Each group made concentrations of thedyes and then measured
their% transmitttance using the spectrometer. With this information, theconcentration of the dyes within Jones
Sodawas determined using the slope of the graph and Beer’s Law. The class averageof the concentration of Blue
#1was 2.247 x 10-6 M±1.16 x 10-6 and the Yellow #5 had a concentration of 2.012 x10-5 M±7.14 x 10-6 M.

44. Chem 112 Tues Pm Lab. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Big K Purple Soda Mystery:Who Dyed?:

Thepurpose of this experiment was to determine the dyes present in Big K grapesoda, and calculate
theirrespective concentrations. Using paper chromatography, we determined Red #40and Blue #1 dyes
werepresent in the soda. The maximum absorbances of the dyes were found using anAgilent 8453 Spectrophotometer. Thesepeak wavelengths were then used to determine the concentration of the dyespresent in the soda using visible spectroscopy.The Spec. 20 was used to measure % transmittance in order to calculateabsorbance. We created standardconcentration curves and used Beer’s Law with the slope of the standardconcentration curve to find theconcentration of Red #40 and Blue # 1 in the soda. The concentration of Red #40was 7.12x10-5 M ± 2.44x10-5 andthe concentration of Blue #1 was 1.78x10-5 M ± 5.96x10-6.The purpose of thisexperiment was to determine thedyes present in Big K grape soda, and calculate their respectiveconcentrations. Using paper chromatography, wedetermined Red #40 and Blue #1 dyes were present in the soda. The maximumabsorbances of the dyes were foundusing an Agilent 8453 Spectrophotometer. These peak wavelengths were then usedto determine the concentrationof the dyes present in the soda using visible spectroscopy. The Spec. 20 wasused to measure % transmittancein order to calculate absorbance. We createdstandard concentration curves and used Beer’s Law with the slope ofthe standard concentration curve to find the concentration of Red #40 and Blue# 1 in the soda. The concentration of Red #40 was 7.12x10-5 M ± 2.44x10-5 and the concentration of Blue #1was 1.78x10-5 M ± 5.96x10-6.

45. Donahue, Emily. Chemistry, Polavarapu. Conformational analysis ofhibiscus acid derivatives using chiroptical spectroscopic methods:

Withindrug discovery, compounds such as (2S,3R)-tetrahydro-3-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,3-furandicarboxylicacid
(hibiscusacid) are vital for advancement of medicine because they are easily extractedfrom common plants and
havepharmaceutical relevance. Due to limitations in studying hibiscus acid,hibiscus acid dimethyl ester and hibiscus
aciddisodium salt were the compounds chosen instead. Chiroptical spectroscopicmethods and quantum mechanical
calculationswere used to identify the absolute configuration and all possible conformationsfor these compounds.
Resultsfrom these measurements confirm that the absolute configuration of bothcompounds is (2S,3R). and six
hibiscusacid dimethyl ester conformers predominate the population, but only two viablehibiscus acid disodium
saltconformers. The inequality in possible conformers for each compound is notablebecause studying a compound
thathas fewer viable conformers decreases calculation time and eases the analysisprocess. These results indicate a
possibletrend; examining a salt derivative of a compound is more advantageous than investigatinga dimethyl estercompound.

46. Chem 112 Mon. afternoonclass Chemistry, Griggs. Dye-dentity!

Theconcentrations of the red and blue dyes were determined using Beer’s Law. Knownconcentrations of the two dyes were mixed and a Spec 20 was used to measureabsorbance to make a standard curve. The test had a control of distilledwater to set the zero for the machine and compare to the other concentrations.The absorbance of the
PowerAid Zero was determined by using the Spec 20. The absorbance was then comparedto the standard curves
ofthe two dyes to determine the concentration of the dyes. The Power Aid Zero,grape flavor, contained 8.82 x 10-6 molesper liter of red #40 with 1.069 x 10-6 standard deviation and 3.72 x 10-6 molesper liter of blue#1 with 4.57x10-6 standard deviation.

47. Mizel, Max. Chemistry, Jason Mullins. Exploration of QuorumSensing Inhibitors and Biocides via:

Theincreased awareness of biofilms in recent years has created the urgency to findnovel techniques to prevent
biofilmformation. Biofilms form through a biochemical process of quorum sensing (QS) orcell-to-cell communication.
Bacteriaare continually releasing autoinducers (AIs) into the environment, and once inhigh enough concentration,
dueto a plethora of bacteria in the surroundings, biofilm formation is initiated.Once initiated, a cascade of gene
expressionsoccur, releasing exopolysaccharides, virulence factors and detergents. The goalof this research was to
mimicAIs which would act as antagonists to the QS pathway preventing biofilmformation. A naturally occurring
AIfound in pseudomonads was used as a model for quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI)synthesis. Many pieces of the
QSIswere synthesized; however the entire proposed scheme is currently incomplete.Once finished, bioassays
utilizingChromobacterium violaceum will follow.

48. Anderson, Richard, SpencerStorck. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Computers inTransportation: Computing for Sustainable Transportation

Planes,trains, and automobiles all use computing technology to improve efficiency andreduce emissions.
Forinstance, Boeing is marketing a product called Direct Routes which willautomatically tell an airlines operations
centerand flight crew when a more fuel-efficient path opens up. It can check fortraffic conflicts, wind conditions
andairspace constraints. Boeing’s projections show that this can save more than40,000 minutes of flight time
(2.5million gallons of fuel) per year for a medium-size U.S. airline. We describethis and other applications of computing to create sustainabletransportation networks.

49. Sears, Kevin, Alan Cleary,Michael Reed, Theron Grant. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Robotics and ComputerVision:

TheComputer Science vision and robotics team will be presenting their newestrobot. The team has assembled a
Roombawith a laptop and rocket launcher attached to it, which can be controlled bythe programming language,
Python.In addition to the Roomba, the team has been working with computer vision basedcontrol, such as low
levelgames that you can control by waving your hands. The team had a chance to go toLA California to visit Harvy
MudCollege and work with skilled students as they progress in the field of robotprogramming. 

50. Ley, Nathaniel, AaronGrinnell Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Water resources:

Wewill describe the role of computing in the sustainable use of water resources.Our poster shows how computer
technologyis used conserve and monitor water. We have investigated projects such ascomputer controlled sprinkler
system,computer controlled water distribution systems, and stream flow gaugingstations which use computer
technologyto monitor water resources in real time.

51. Jackson, Emily MaxMurchison. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Green City Computing:GreenCity Computing Abstract:

TheWorld’s cities have become the home of more that have the Earth’s population.Cities use natural resources
andcreate waste at an alarming rate. Urban designers are being challenged torevive our cities, turning them into
ecosystems.Managing the use and misuse of water, electricity and waste on a large scalewould be impossible with
technology.Smart City projects are being created around the world. These cities of thefuture has a brain and
nervoussystem that monitors the digestive, immune, vascular, skeleton, and muscularsystems of the city.

52. Contreras, Jose & KyleAdair. Computer Information Science, Marti Peterson. Computerized EnergyManagement

Computingtechnology is an essential part of energy conservation. We will demonstrate howcomputer technology is essential to sustainable energy use. For example, smartappliances that monitor and adjust energy use or software which allows remotemonitoring and control of home energy use. In the future individual homes,cities, and even entire power grids can be managed to minimize power usingcomputer technologies.

53. Williams, Susan. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Influence of Group Exercise on Women:

The influence ofexercise environments can have dramatic impacts on the individual, and thepurpose of this research was todetermine the extent to which a person is influenced by their work-out setting. This study focused onfour different aspects of group exercise and included social relationships, intensity, competitionand quality of life. Participants were questioned about their involvement with the group and wererequired to have met at least once a week and been actively involved for at least six months. Aqualitative research approach was used to determine the extent that a person isinfluenced by social exercise settings and conclusionswere drawn from the information provided by interviews and questionnaires. 

54. Violett, Sylvia. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Tougher Gender:

Thisstudy examines mental toughness between males and females to see which sex istruly tougher than the other
withoutfactoring in physical strength. Volunteers consisted of 33 males and 33 femaleswho participate in the same
sportsuch as cross-country and basketball at a small college in the central rockymountains. The mental toughness
ofeach individual was measured using the Sport Mental Tough Questionnaire (SMTQ).Each question was measured
ona Likert scale, 1 from 4, one being “Not at all true” and four being “Verytrue”. The survey was constructed of
questionsthat related to confidence, control, and constancy. The results of this studyhave not been analyzed at
thistime, but soon will be available to interpret once the surveys have beengathered for the subjects.

55. Azimi, Mariam. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema.  Got Energy?

The purpose of thisstudy was to determine which beverage; water, Gatorade, or chocolate milk is
most effective inrecovery and performance during a second bout of exercise.  Subjects in this study
included three NCAAathletes from a small Division II college in the Rocky Mountains. Each subject
participated in threeseparate cycling sessions until exhaustion. Exhaustion was measured when rateof
perceived exertionreached 20, RPM was 50 or lower, and/or the participant asked to end thesession.
After the session ended,each subject consumed 16 ounces of a beverage that was blind to the subject.
Perceived fatigue wasmeasured by the subjects during their second bout of exercise, before bed, andmorning after each session.

56. Bakkie, Dustin. Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. Running Economy in BarefootSimulating Shod

Thepurpose of this study is to investigate the differences in running economy inbarefoot, Vibram
Bikilas,and a typical running shoe. As well as obtain data which may help determine ifeconomic differences
betweenconditions is due to kinematic changes or mass effect. Methods: This study willbe a pilot study
involving trained endurance runners, which runan average of 30 miles or more weekly. Economic variables
including:Respiratory exchange ratio, rate of perceived exertion, lactate, and heart ratewill be examined across conditions during pace runs at 50-,70-, and 90-percent of VO2 max in each condition. Jump height
ineach condition will also be assessed to determine which condition allows thegreatest jump height
Results:Data collection is currently in progress and results will be determined by theend of November 2010. 

57. Click, Tracy E. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Podium and Beyond

Whitewater slalom is aunique sport. This sport involves a moving playing field that is constantlychanging.
Success in the sportdepends not only on an athlete’s physical prowess but also on their ability tomake
sophisticated decisionsin less than ideal circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determinewhether
there was a relationshipbetween coaching style and performance among whitewater slalom athletes.
Participants included UScanoe and kayak team members, development athletes, and coaches. The athletes
and coaches wereobserved and interviewed. From these interviews and observations two types ofcoaching
styles were prevalent, adirective style and an autonomy supportive style. Results revealed that the useof an
autonomy supportivecoaching style can be extremely effective for Whitewater slalom athletes. Variables
that were discovered toaffect results were age, gender, competition, paddling experience, and thecoaching
style that paddler wasoriginally exposed to.

58. Courtney, Colin . Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum. The Physiological Effects of Backpacking With Trekking Poles

While the activity ofbackpacking has been done for hundreds of years, the use of trekking poles when backpacking is a muchmore recent adaptation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how an individual reacts tousing trekking poles, both physically and mentally, when hiking uphill with a backpack. Measures weretaken in an attempt to create the most realistic backpacking setting possible. Methods: Five olderwomen from a local hiking group volunteered for this study. Each walked at aself-selected walkin pace with agradient of 10 percent for 10 minutes while carrying a backpacking weighing 10percent of their totalbodyweight. These conditions were used for the two trials: once with poles,once without. Results/Conclusion: Inprogress. 

 59. Curry, Timothy. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Physiological Effectsof Cycling Cadence on Elite Mountain Bikers

Cyclingcadence is a highly researched area in the exercise science field with thepurpose of providing more
knowledgeto better coach cyclists. However, the research to date has used eitherprofessional road or amateur
cyclists.There is a lack of cadence research in the sport of elite mountain biking. Thispurpose of this pilot study
wasto look at the effects of cycling cadence on certain physiological variables(O2 consumption, substrate utilization,
andlactate accumulation) in elite mountain bikers. Data collected shows thelargest change with increased cadence
wasan increase in the percentage of carbohydrates used for energy production. O2consumption and lactate
accumulationshowed little or no change. While this study is limited in scope, the datasuggests that the largest
factorwith cadence determination is substrate utilization. This data can allowcyclists to more effectively select
theircadence based on competitive demands.

60. Delaney, Karen . Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Psychological Stress Exercise Relationship

Today’s society hasbombarded individuals with hectic schedules and increased stress levels. The
purpose of this studywas to examine if there is a direct correlation between college student’sstress
levels and theirphysical activity levels. The hypothesis was that those individuals who partakein moderate
physical activity mostdays of the week will have lower stress levels then those who do not. Method:This
study will survey studentsfrom eight of the top majors at a small college in the Rocky Mountains through
various questions onboth stress and activity levels. Twenty five surveys were handed out in thefollowing
majors: Exercise andSport Science, Recreation and Outdoor Leadership, Environmental Studies, Art,Business, Biology, and Psychology(N=200). Data compared and contrasted through percentiles to determine if a relationship existsbetween stress and physical activity levels. Results: (Still in progress).

61. Gravley , Hollan. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Comparative Analysis of Burnout among College Wrestlers

The purpose of thisstudy is to compare the levels of burnout in current college wrestlers andformer college
wrestlers, ages 18-25 ata small division II college in the Rocky Mountains. The subjects for the studywill be approximately 30 current wrestlers and 30wrestlers who have left the team. Burnout will be measured for three separate variables;emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and devaluation.

62. Haughwout, Annika. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Mileage and Performance : Motivation:

The motivation for thisstudy was to analyze training volume in relation to performance times and from
that distinguish optimaltraining for distance runners. Purpose: This study investigated therelationship between mileage andperformance in distance runners assessing other factors that go into one’straining load.
Methods: Data wascollected through questionnaires that members of a small division two crosscountry team, and ten post collegiateathletes completed. The questionnaire looked at training volume, injury history,
and performance times.Results: Results will be posted soon.

63. Henaghan, John. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. An Outdoor Recreational Program and Lifetime Wellness:

The purpose of thisstudy was to investigate an outdoor program and to find out if it can promotelifetime
wellness. Methods: Theparticipants in this study are alumni from a high school outdoor recreationprogram.
The age of theparticipants ranged from 18-35 years old. Both males and females participated.Participants
were given a qualitativesurvey that analyzes physical activity and lifetime wellness through outdoor recreation.The survey consists ofopen-ended and closed questions. Results: In progress.

64. Keeling, Shawn. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Type II Diabetes: A Worldwide Epidemic

The purpose of thisstudy was to perform a thorough investigation and analysis of scholarly peerreviewed
research articles tohypothesize about exercise and nutritional considerations that will help reducethe
symptoms or prevent TypeII Diabetes Mellitus (T2D). This study is non-experimental so the methods will
involve an investigationof prior relevant research and an interview group of 5 T2D diagnosed patients.It is
hypothesized that peoplewith T2D or at high risk will benefit from exercise and a proper diet whilebettering
physiological(internally and externally) and mental aspects. The results are still inprogress. 

65. Lokie, Benjamin. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. How different types ofexercise at different intensity levels effect a 42 year old male with type 1diabetes:

Thereis currently no cure for type 1 diabetes, nor is it believed to be preventable.However, there is present
researchin ESS focused on specific benefits of certain types of exercise at variousintensity levels in type 1 diabetics.
Inthis case study of a 42 year old male with type 1 diabetes the participant wasinvolved in both aerobic and
resistancetraining at various intensity levels. Two different intensity levels of 150watts and 250 watts were
performedon a cycle for the aerobic training. Two different intensity levels of 60% and80% of 1 repetition max
(1RM)were performed for the resistance training. The participant’s insulin doses andBGL’s were monitored
throughouteach training session and reviewed for possible correlations. The results wereinteresting but
difficultto generalize due to small sample size.

66. Miller, Michelle. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Exercise and Nutrition:

Inthis day and age it can be overwhelming to answer the question, what should Ieat? There is so much to know and earnabout nutrition and what we should consume based on our activity levels that itcan become very difficult to
answersuch a simple question. The purpose of this project is to examine how nutritionand exercise work together
inorder to provide optimal levels of performance for our bodies. By examining thethree macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteinsand fats and how they work in the body, we can clearly understand thefundamentals of what we eat and why inorder to achieve the highest levels of performance.

67. Moore,  Sanja. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Why Physcial Education and Activity is Important to Todays' Youth

The purpose of thisstudy is to look at the relationship between academics, obesity, physicaleducation,
and physical activity.An interview was administered to seven physical education teachers withinDistrict
51 in Grand Junction,Colorado. All physical education teachers were asked a series of 11 questionsthat
focused on how physicaleducation and activity can help students perform better and also how physical
education and activitycan help fix the obesity epidemic. Questions were compared to the literature to
find links betweenphysical education and activity. The hypothesis of this study is that physicalactivity
has more of an impact onchildhood obesity and academics, whereas physical education can have little
to no impact in thesetwo areas.

68. McMahill, Donovan. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Mental Toughness:Development and Maintenance in Collegiate Athletes:

Mentaltoughness is a concept that has been paired with successful performance inathletics. The relationship
betweenmental toughness and success motivates athletes of nearly all levels to gain abetter understanding of
thisconcept. This study approached four NCAA Division II collegiate athletes toinvestigate what mental toughness
wasin their individual experience as well as which factors facilitated thedevelopment and maintenance of mental
toughnessthroughout their collegiate career. This was done through a phenomenologicalinterview process similar
tothe process done by Dale (1996). The results of this study will be compiled bythe end of November.

69. Sanders, Cody. Exercise and Sport Science. Anna Swisher. The Relationship Performance Between High Jump and Vertical Jump:

 The high jump is thoughtto be immediately related to the vertical jump test because in both, theathlete
attempts to jump as highas possible. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is arelationship
between vertical jumpheight and a high jumper’s personal record height. Ten high jump subjects were
chosen from a smalldivision II school’s track and field team. All subjects participated in fourdifferent
types of vertical jumpson a jump mat and a Vertec system. The tests performed were static jumps with
the use of arms/no arms,and countermovement jumps with the use of arms/no arms. Subject’s personal
records were ranked bythe 2008 scoring table. Scores from that and the vertical jump heights
will be compared andanalyzed. The vertical jump tests and the process of analyzing the data isstill in
progress so the resultshave not yet been concluded.

70. Maxcy, Andrew.  Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. The Benefits of A CrossFitWorkout Program with Firefighters

Toanalyze the benefits of implementing a CrossFit workout program as a part offirefighter training and physical upkeep. Firefightersvolunteered for the study and were picked at random. The firefighters were togo through the local firefighter'sfitness test which consists of a two minute pushup and sit up test to be doneat tempo as well as a
Gerkinprotocol treadmill test to predict VO2 max. The subjects were familiarized withCrossFit before completing
anyworkouts. They performed CrossFit workouts for five weeks and repeated theinitial firefighter fitness test.
Thetest results from the initial physical fitness test and the final fitness testwere analyzed and compared.

71. Harms, Jamilyn. Honors. Heather Theissen-Reily. Pursuing Prosperity:

Webster’sNew World dictionary defines prosperity as “a successful, flourishing, orthriving condition.” However,
whatdoes this definition mean for the individual and his or her life? We posed thisquestion in the quiet streets of
Gunnison, in the diverse cities of Chicago andNew York, and in the slums of the Philippines. Individuals in different
regions,with different religions, backgrounds, and races reveal similar ideas of aprosperous life. This project explores
theconcept of prosperity, starting with the early philosophers and moving tomodern day thought. How does the
humanbeing define a prosperous life? Is there a universal and timeless definition ordoes the definition of prosperity differ byplace and time?

72. Nikki De Rosia, CalliDeRuby, Rebecca Doll, Max Lindsey, Brandon Montoya, Sarah rodriguez. Honors. Heather Theissen-Reily. I Sing the BodyEclectic:Understanding the Influences of Body Modification:

Thisproject explores the reasons and effects of body modification through time andculture. The information used
inthe project was gathered from research, interviews, and observation frommultiple sources including Gunnison
Valleyand the Western Slope. Students studied body modification including; how it hasbeen observed throughout
historyand locality as a means of communication, aesthetic expression, ritualisticsocialization, and as a passage
withinculture. Students investigated the legal and ethical issues associated withrunning a business of body
modificationthrough interviews and observations of local tattoo shops. In addition,multiple employers from
aroundthe Gunnison Valley were interviewed regarding hiring policies concerningtattoos and piercings.
Inexamining the aforementioned areas of study associated with body modification,the students gained a
muchbroader understanding of body modification and the role it plays in societytoday.

73. De Rosia, Nikki and SarahRodriguez. Honors. Heather Theissen-Reily. I Sing the Body Eclectic;Tatoos as Social and Artistic Expression

Generallywhen people are asked why they get tattoos, they respond that they did it forthemselves. However,
tattoosare also a form of art and art gains meaning from society. So despite seemingintensely personal, tattoos
willoften reveal more about an individual’s relationship with society than simplybeing a reflection of individual
choice.As a form of artistic expression, tattoos also are a reflection of the visionof the tattoo artist as much as that
ofthe person getting the tattoo. Tattoos are a way of expressing society’s forceson individuals and art is a reflection
ofthese forces. As tattooing has become more accepted as an art form it has alsobecome a more recognizable social
expression.All of this culminates in meaning that tattoos are equivalent to art, which isequivalent to social expression.

74. Boucher, Rikki, Rene HaroSipes, Michael Howard, Brad Stanfield. Political Science, Maria Struble. Poverty reduction andnatural resource dependency

Theproblem of poverty is broad and overlays many issues. We find the issue of theparadox that exists
betweenthe abundance of natural resources and the sever poverty inside of countries tobe the most striking.
Nigeriaprovides a very obvious example of this problem. We believe the disconnectbetween natural resources
andthe wealth for citizens exists in three main areas; one the lack ofdiversification that arises from focusing on
one natural resource, two the lack ofdemocracy and therefore lack of consideration for the people and three is
the clientelism that limits the distribution of resources.

75. Lindholm, Aurora, AdamNickerson, Andrew Hannon and Christian Schwiegerath. Political Science, Maria Struble. Moving away from coal -Brazil and the USA: 

Wewill look at the ways in which Brazil and the United States are attempting toensure environmental sustainability,
especiallywhen it comes to coal usage. The United States and Brazil are two of the topcoal consumers in the
Westernhemisphere. Global warming debate and the attempt by world governments to curbtheir green house
emissionsis cause for the two countries to look for sustainable energy resources. Brazilis the second leading
producerof ethanol in the world and the United States produces both solar and windenergy. We will focus on the
shift in energy production from coal to other,alternative resources by researching clean coal, wind, solar, and biofuel
policiesthat both countries have put into place. We will also compare and contrast theeffectiveness and efforts of
bothcountries in moving away from mass coal consumption.

76. Nash, Brett, Scott Stuller, Ashley Stephens and Colton Volpe. Political Science, Maria Struble. AIDS: South Africa and the United States:

In 2008 there wereroughly 1.4 million aids deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa and 22 million livingwith the diseases. South Africaalone has an infection rate of 10.9% of the population in 2008, while theUnited States had an infectionrate of less than one percent of the population. We are going to show in this presentation that theUnited States has lower infection rates of AIDS than South Africa because ofdifferences in the way they treatand prevent the disease. Differences such as access to lifesaving drugs andbetter sex education have led tothe United States have fewer infections and deaths from HIV/AIDS. This is an important issue becauseif we have a better understanding of why the disease is so rampant in some countries while not inothers we may gain a better understanding of how to fight the disease.

77. Stephenson, Charles, ChrisBerry, Brandon Dorr, Robert Payton, Chase Berman. Political Science, Maria Struble. Mexico's drug war and legalfutures:

Inthe last four years approximately 28,000 people have died from the war on drugsin Mexico. Considering the poor
stabilityof the Mexican economy, and a lack of stable government institutions, could thelegalization of marijuana
potentiallystabilize Mexico and bring economic prosperity? We will investigate whether thelegality of medicinal
marijuanawould lower or raise the crime rate in Mexico and the United States byexamining previous data and
lookingat any economic benefits available for the drug lords converting to a legalmedicinal marijuana trade. We expectto find that the rate of violent crimes might decrease while simultaneously,the economy will prosper with
legalizationof medicinal marijuana and trade agreements between countries. While this couldpossibly raise
tensionsand cause more violence, the high demand vs. inadequate supply could make for asuccessful international
export,while also boosting tourism.

78. Dunlap, Andrew , Sam Johnson, Skylar Johnson, Courtney Myer, AlexisMiller. Political Science, Maria Struble. Empowering women through grassroots action:

We examine genderequality by arguing that developed nations must be held accountable forsupplying
resources towards theadvancement of gender equality. We look at Development Alternatives with Women
for a New Era (DAWN) andtheir work with the United Nations. We also look at Diverse Women for
Diversity and their rolein providing for the basic physical needs of women in developing nations. By
investigating theefforts of Central Asia Institute (CAI) we investigate a program that providesthe tools
of education toindividual women to be applied in their own rural communities. Finally, we lookat the
Micro Credit SummitCampaign which focuses on generating small loans for women through first world
funding. We hope to showhow equality must first be thought possible in the minds of both women and men
and then enforced in anurturing public arena before it can be achieved through financial means.

79. Pearce, Melissa, JessicaBarton, Nelsa Burkett and Alexander Hart. Political Science, Maria Struble. Rwanda and DRC: AchievingUniversal Primary Education in the Midst of Violence

Inthe last twenty years violence has plagued various African nations. Rwandaexperienced genocide in 1994 l
eaving800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus dead in 100 days. In the years after, Rwandahas made education
anumber one goal because it is seen as a way to prevent another genocide. Incontrast, the Democratic
Republicof the Congo, has experienced a history that has been violent and tumultuous,making education
difficultto sustain. This project looks at both countries’ progress in achieving theUnited Nations Millennium
DevelopmentGoal of universal primary education by 2015 by comparing Rwanda and theDemocratic
Republicof the Congo in their efforts to achieve this goal despite the violence thateach country has experienced.
Wewill compare data from 1990 to the present to track the (lack) progress inachieving the goal. 

80. Barber, William Todd. Psychology, Roger Drake. Social Skills Interventionsfor Autistic Children

Thispaper examines the different methods and techniques used to enhance the socialand personal life of
Autisticchildren. Many techniques have been formed such as video modeling, peerresponse training, art
therapy,and other creative modern methods. I will also discuss the use of the role ofeducation and the IEP
on how to enhance Autistic children's social lives.

81. Lujan, Aaron, NicolePoleman, Adam Nickerson. Science, Robin Bingham.  Effects of sugar and salton Brassica rapa:

The reason for doing this product was todetermine what happens to plants alongside the edge of the road when
theyare salted in the winter and to figure out the effects in the spring. We usedBrassica rapa for our experiment
andwe added salt, sugar, and a combination of both sugar and salt for the plants.We also used a control group
tocompare the plants with additives to. Our hypothesis was that the plants grownwith additives would be smaller
andless developed than the control plants. Our results refused our hypothesis.

82. Havens, Lorren, KaliKempeks, Olivia Jedlicka, Emily Schmid. Science, Robin Bingham. Comparing Growth ofBrassica rapa Grown in a Greenhouse Versus Under Artificial Light:

Wecompared the growth of Brassica rapa in a greenhouse to under constant light.We measured the height over
two weeks and the second week we measured thebiomass , the number of leaves and the width of each leaf.
Fromour results we found that the plants under the artificial light grew the fastest.

83. Guynn, Tara Spenser Li,Shawn Clapper, Cassie Rebeck. Science, Robin Bingham. A Study of the Effects ofFertilizer on the Brassica rapa Plant:

Thisstudy was based on the effects of fertilizer on the growth of the Brassica rapaplant (also known as the Wisconsin
FastPlant). Our lab group hypothesized that the addition of fertilizer will affectthe plant growth. We then predicted
thatthe addition of the recommended amount of fertilizer pellets would fosteroptimal plant growth. To challenge this, wehad groups with no fertilizer, one, three and five beads. However, threefertilizer beads yielded the shortest leaves andthe shortest plant after week one. After week two, three beads still grew theshortest plant. In none of our experimentsthroughout the two weeks did three beads of fertilizer yield to the highestgrowth rate in length of leaf, numberof leaves, and height of plant. Our hypothesis was not supported by the data,however, based on the rest of ourdata, we concluded that one bead of fertilizer should be planted to achieve thehighest growth rate.

84. Phillips, Alyse, EvanSimmons, Alex Winter. Science, Robin Bingham. Effect of Red Bull,Gatorade, and Tap Water on the growth of Brassica rapa:

TheBrassica rapa, also known as field mustard, was the subject of our experiment.By planting six seeds, with
threefertilizer beads per seed, in three different trays we were able to test theeffects of Red Bull, Gatorade,
andtap water on Brassica rapa. We hypothesized that the plants given Red Bullwould not grow; the plants
givenGatorade would grow, but show more slowly than the plants given tap water. Allthe plants were given
acontrolled amount of water, but at 7 and 14 days the trays were given a threedrop dose of their given
treatment.Measurements for height, width of largest leaf, and number of leaves were takenat 7, 14, and
16days. At 16 days the plants were cut, and at 21 days weighed. All measurements,after the initial seven
days,support our hypothesis. The plants given Red Bull and Gatorade grew, but werenot as healthy.

85. Simpson, Mary Virginia,Caitlin Walker, Cara Walderman, Sunniva Precilia. Science, Robin Bingham. Height difference ofBrassica rapa grown under colored light filters:

Weinvestigated the effect of green, red, and clear filters on plant growth over a3 week period. Brassica rapa
plantswere grown six in each pot. Each pot used different filter for light. Acorrelation between plant height
(Figure2) and different color filter was found . The plants under the clear filtergrew to a higher average height
thanthe plants under the red and green filter. Although the red plants didn’t growas tall as the clear filter plants,
therewas a significant difference of growth than the green plants.

86. Tredway, Rachel. Science, Robin Bingham. Growth of the Brassica rapain Different Types of Soil Found in the Gunnison Basin:

Wethought that the control soil would yield the greatest results; of the soil wecollected we believed that the
frontyard soil would obtain the greatest results. We tested this hypothesis byintroducing the seeds to different
soiltypes for sixteen days. We found that our hypothesis was both correct andincorrect.