Program of Fall 2009 Poster Presentations

1. Stai, Brock. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Hearths In The Gunnison Basin: An Analysis of Content and Wear Patterns.

This paper compares hearths (fire pits) surrounding the Gunnison and Crested Butte area that are used for recreation or hunting and the remnants left behind by their users.  The study takes the purposes of the hearths into consideration by comparing the contents of unburned organic material and manufactured material surrounding recreation only hearths and those hearths used primarily by hunters.  A random sample of areas will be studied.  A cross-comparison for the hearths using SPSS for statistical analysis will be performed to determine any differences or correlations.  Hearths are used for a different purpose in modern society, perhaps some inferences can be made in regards to content left in and around modern day hearth, compared to hearths of ancient societies that once occupied this area.

2. Cahill, Erin . Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Journal Checkout Patterns Between Majors: Savage Library Serials Management Project

The West Wing of Leslie J. Savage Library on the campus of Western State College of Colorado is where the hard copies and back-issues of periodicals are kept.  There are also 1,992 online journals accessible through various databases, but the bulk of checkout activity is in the hard copy section.  The purpose of these statistical analyses was to compare the number and frequency of journal checkouts between the academic majors offered at Western.  To find these statistics, the serials management program was studied.  This program is accessed by 3 West Wing employees only (of the 5 people who work there), so there is some inaccuracy built in to the system.  This study addresses only the information available from those 3 employees.

3. Ross, Nick. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Bone Attrition of Animals After Death

This project is looking at road kill specimens and trying to find correlations between them. Such as whether or not females are struck more than males. Which bones are usually lost and which ones stick around. What percentage of bone is lost through attrition? SPSS will be used to help look at the data and make inferences. The specimens that will be looked at are two mule deer, an elk, a cow, a mountain sheep, a pig, a mallard, an antelope and a fish. Most likely smaller bones will be lost easier through weathering and large meat yielding bones will be lost through scavenging.

4. Markuson, Michelle. Anthropology, Casey Dukeman. Statistical Analysis of Medication Effectiveness

In the medical field medications are our answer, but how effective are they really?  In this study patients with behavioral issues will be compared to average nursing home patients, regarding the number of medications given at one meal.  In addition, the expected effectiveness will be compared to the actual effectiveness as seen by the direct care givers.  A short survey distributed to nurses and certified nursing aides will provide much information on how effective medications for pain and behaviors truly are for our elderly.  Information from studies such as this can help shed light on the effectiveness of western medicine and how they are prescribed.    

5. Boyd, Joshua. Anthropology,  Casey Dukeman. Comparing Experimental Bi-face Reductions to an Archaeological Lithic Reduction Cluster

A lithic reduction cluster, designated feature F1005, located in the Jack Creek Flats study area of the Upper Greybull Sustainable Landscape Ecology project is assumed to be a single event lithic reduction. This lithic reduction cluster provides a means to evaluate what a possible single reduction event may look like and how it may be applicable to other sites in the region. Experimental single event lithic reductions will be compared to the real lithic reduction. Ratios of flake area, flake volume and platform area will be calculated and these be used in conjunction with platform characteristics to run multiple statistical analysis to explore any associations between assemblages. Statistical measures will be used to perform comparisons between experimental and authentic reduction assemblages. It is hoped that these comparisons will enlighten us to the characteristics of lithic reductions in the archaeological record by creating more understanding of single event lithic reductions.

6. Anderson, Thomas. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Hohokam Political Ecology and Vulnerbility

Hohokam is the name given by archaeologists to a prehistoric culture centered along the Salt, Gila, Verde, and Santa Cruz Rivers in the low, hot Sonoran desert of southern Arizona. People of the Hohokam culture inhabited this region between approximately 300 B.C. and 1450. The name Hohokam means “those who have gone” in the language of the O'odham, the contemporary Native American inhabitants of southern Arizona. Hohokam chronology is subdivided into four periods: Pioneer (300–775), Colonial (775–975), Sedentary (975–1150), and Classic (1150–1350). The Red Mountain phase predates the Pioneer period, and the El Polvoron phase post-dates the Classic period. Major changes in the Hohokam culture were seen during the Sedentary period, which led to the classic period. Changes in the Middle Gila river floodplain occurred demonstrated by large down cutting and widening. This period is also defined by its high flood occurrences. This led to the Hohokam cultural change which included the agricultural changes, abandonment of villages, new architecture, and the collapse of the ball court system. These changes are thought to be based on environmental determinism rather than on political ecology and a vulnerability approach. It is more likely that the Hohokam’s transformation to the Classical period was brought on by, economic and political structures which determined to what degree they could cope with disasters, rather than environmental changes alone. ANTH 320

7. Cervantes, Mark. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Interconnections Between Environment and Culture  In The Ute Lifestyle, Related  To The Introduction of The Horse

The Ute people were mostly nomadic, moving with the seasons. This in turn made the Ute tribe more adaptive, because they had to make as much out of the environment as they could. The Ute people were very involved with the environment and their natural surroundings. I would like to closely examine some of their most common traditions that dealt with the environment. I would like to further examine how the Ute people adapted to the mountain region of the Rocky Mountains. I suggest that population growth and the adaption of the Ute people are directly related to the introduction of horses in the early 1600’s. I demonstrate the change in lifestyle of the Ute people before and after the horse was introduced to this indigenous group. ANTH 320

8. Essling, Adam. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Dynamics of Weaving In The INCA Empire and It's Symbolism of Cultural Characteristics

In this paper, I will explore the factors that influenced the organization, allocation and manufacturing of cloth and textile goods in the Inca Empire. In this highly complex society, I explain how thread played a crucial role in gender dynamics, social status and group identity, more so than other cultural characteristics. I argue that clothing was the most important indication of wealth, status and gender of the Incas. As technology has advanced and societies have increased in complexity since the previous millennium, clothing, which has been a basic human necessity of our species’ history in certain climates, has developed into the most measureable social and cultural indicator. ANTH 320

9. Bishop, Kalie.  Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Traditional Pawnee and Ute Ceremonies and Conservation Practices of Ecological and Spirtual Importance

In this paper I explore the different ceremonies practiced by the Pawnee and Ute Indians in regards to their notions of “ecology.”  Both share similar rituals which are still sacred today and have spiritual as well as ecological importance.  I demonstrate the importance of certain ceremonies to each tribe, including rain dances, sun dances, ghost dances, etc. and their symbolic significance.  Many of these dances are still performed today to invoke precipitation, protect harvest, embody rebirth and renewal, and carry on tradition.  This paper, which focuses on the importance of traditional observances, seeks to portray an important part of Native American consciousness.  I think it is valuable to return to the wisdom of the Indians and their conservation methods in hopes to learn from their practices.  I will explore the different ceremonies and conservation techniques in hopes of explaining their ecological importance that still holds true today. ANTH 320

10. Duchaine, Samantha. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Exploration of The Khampa Nomads of Tibet

This paper will focus on the Khampa nomads of Tibet and how their relationship to the environment has created their livelihood as well as their unique culture. Through the published research available I will make conclusions and connections about the delicate balance of adaptation and sustenance in the harsh environment of the high plains of the foothills of the Himalayas. I will explore the Chinese occupation and discuss the implications this has had for the nomads’ traditional way of life. I will utilize my own field experience along with that of a friend, Angela Lankford, who is married to a nomad and raising their child in traditional ways. She has been living just outside of Tibet for over seven years and is working to bring back many of the cultural traditions of the Tibetan people through and artisans’ co-op. examining this intersection of old and new, traditional and contemporary, I will suggest how global influence can affect isolated cultures, and how this ‘tool’ (globalization) can help cultures adapt and evolve to become better suited to their environments, just like their earlier cultural evolution managed to in the more “natural” conditions before a global market. This is significant because we can use this study in turn as a tool to help these isolated and vulnerable cultures retain their significance and sovereignty in this ever changing world. ANTH 320

11. Hill, Daniel. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. The Environments and Adaptations of the Hopu and the Inca

This paper seeks to compare and contrast the livelihoods of the Hopi Indians and the Incas in terms of the relationships they have to their own unique environments. I plan to demonstrate how two different groups that lived in different parts of the world, and had different cultural beliefs and ways of living, managed to face many of the same challenges that enabled them to adapt and to survive. Both cultures built their villages in places of high elevation; the Hopi lived on top of desert mesas, the Inca lived high in the Andes Mountains. I suggest that their methods of irrigation played a major factor in their livelihoods, since the survival of a community depends partly on how well they can produce food. It is my belief that the Inca and the Hopi can demonstrate that living in a difficult and challenging environment can be accomplished with the right resources and the right state of mind. ANTH 320

12. Essert, Jon. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Aleut Indians and their Relationship to The Environment

In this paper, the culture of the Aleut Indians from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska is explored, with particular interest in their relationship with the environment in which they live. I demonstrate that because of an extremely harsh and unforgiving environment containing few resources, the Aleuts have developed a very intimate connection with the environment, which has helped them survive in this harsh country. Evidence of this connection exists in the brilliant ways that Aleuts use the few resources they do have for their benefit, including weaving intricate baskets from grass and constructing waterproof clothing from inedible parts of game animals. Today, the Aleut people have the conveniences of modern dwellings and technology, as well as many other amenities. This has not prevented them, however, from continuing many of their cultural traditions. As they continue teaching past and present Aleut customs to their descendants, it is evident the following generations will continue the Aleut legacy into the future. Having grown up in Alaska a few hundred miles to the East of the Aleuts, I have a unique perspective on just how difficult living in this region can be. In this paper, I hope to demonstrate this perspective by relating the harsh living conditions of Alaska with some unique cultural adaptations used by the Aleuts. Furthermore, the intimate relationship between the Aleut Indians and their environment is demonstrated to show the connection shared with their surroundings and the importance of recognizing this relationship in regards to sustainable living practices. ANTH 320

13. Jacob, Martin. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Water Rights and Irrigation

Balinese water rights are based on a complex system of coordinated use, founded on religion and developed through a long history of sustainable agriculture. Most of the island of Bali is dedicated to growing terraced rice fields with central control by mountain temples. In this paper I examine the process by which religion, Agama Tirtha, has shaped historic water rights and how that has helped to sustain both their culture and food supply. Using anthropologist Stephen Lansing’s research I will interpret how a culture can effectively manage water supplies using intensive but sustainable agricultural practices. In understanding the complex irrigation system controlled by temple schedules, I suggest that their religion and indigenous rights to the island’s water supplies have helped to strengthen and form resilience in the community. Water is controlled and divided according to Subak, an ancient form of irrigation and water allocation based on ceremony and ritual division of sacred water resources. By allowing communities to directly control and manage water, using religious ideology, the people can provide for a surplus existence on this small Pacific island. ANTH 320

14. King, Adrian. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. The Influence of Environmental Ethics on Weather Modification Across Divides of Culture and Time

This paper explores how the ethic a society holds of the environment, and their relationship with it, directly impacts the rationale behind and the technology used in rainmaking and weather modification as a whole. This paper argues that science has replaced religious practices as a potential, and often more effective, means of modifying natural weather patterns in modern society. Using a perspective gained from exploring Native American case studies, including the Eastern and Western Pueblo, comparisons to modern society are established. The environmental ethic of America over the last 100+ years, including a change in perspective, and of China today are used in contrast to a generalized view of the Native American environmental ethic. The adaptations in use today, made available by science and technology, are contrasted to what is known of the environmental impacts of the processes and how they compare to structured irrigation systems. This paper examines changes from using song and dance, to explosives and chemicals, to today’s use of bacteria as a genesis point in snow-making. These techniques relate importantly to the environmental ethic the society holds, and reveal the cultural context of ecological beliefs as related to weather modification. ANTH 320

15. Crum, Alyssa. Anthropology. Lynn Sikkink. Ecological Impact on Clothing Style and Use in Cultures in Differeing Environments

This poster explores the unique clothing styles of various cultures as a means of adaptation to their environments and particular ways of solving ecological problems. The poster will compare  various cultures spanning different latitudes, and examine both casual clothing and ritual clothing as assigned by these societies. Some data from Western culture will be inserted as a contrast to show what differing cultures’ definitions of environment may be. For example, this poster will argue that while the Aleut in Alaska prefer their clothing to be relevant to the physical environment in which they reside, Western fashion relies heavily upon the economic environment, conspicuous consumption, and the lack of copyright in the industry. What the environment is differs greatly from one culture to the next, and is reflected in their clothing.

16. Geller, Ryan. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Examination of Ancient Aztec Affluence as a Result of Chinampa Farming

This paper analyzes the Aztec practice of chinampa agriculture and its significant role in bestowing affluence to the Aztec people.  I will convey this by researching the history of the “floating gardens” and their functional properties. Research suggests that the chinampa gardens were not actually floating gardens as much as manmade islands. I would argue that chinampas were an agricultural application implemented over many generations of trial and error in the region. In addition to being an outstanding water control system, the practice of creating chinampa gardens explores the art of land creation and augmentation in aquatic environments. This can be significant in comprehending the wide range of anthropogenic water manipulation that occurs in societies worldwide. Examination of Aztec culture suggests many generations of land and water manipulation allowed Aztec peoples of Tenochtitlan to build a complex culture that was ahead of its time.  

17. Bogott, Steven. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Evaluation of Hopi and Tanoan Cultures for Underlying Similarities and The Subsequent Origins of These Shared Cultural Values

In this poster I explore the cultural differences between the western Puebloan Hopi Nation of Arizona and the eastern Puebloan Tanoan of the Rio Grande Valley.  The poster seeks to identify commonalities between the two tribes and uncover the forces that stimulated these similarities.  The Hopi have traditionally inhabited the arid southwest and their cultural values and traditions have evolved to best suit these dry conditions.  The Tanoan of south Texas reside along the banks of the Rio Grande and have evolved different cultural traits that best meet their environmental constraints.  I intend to explore the divergence of these two cultures to uncover any ancestral connections that created similar traditions.  Although water availability differs between the two nations, the underlying cultural traditions that surround water could unlock a shared history between the two geographically different tribes.  I also suggest that periodic trade between the southwestern Puebloans not only served to exchange goods but also traditions, dances, and technology.  This cultural interaction could explain how Hispanic influences moved throughout the greater Southwest into regions where Spanish exploration never reached. This poster will concentrate on a comparison between the two cultures but will seek to uncover underlying commonalities and search for their common origin.

18. Cahill, Erin. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. The Same or Different? Columbia River Indians Pre- and Post- Contact

This paper will examine resource use common to the Umatilla, Nez Perce, and Cayuse Indians of the Lower Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest.  Long considered to be one group, these people regard themselves as distinctly separate bands that may have descended from a common ancestral tribe, but have developed into different peoples, in the same way that siblings consider themselves to be discrete characters having descended from the same parents. The Lower Columbia River Indians are known mainly for their fishing techniques of using scaffolding high above the water, but there are other customs and behaviors that are less well known and yet as vitally important to their survival.  Similarities and differences in each group’s use of resources such as plants, animals, and the corresponding settlement patterns, geographic and political boundaries, tribal customs, cosmology (a group’s philosophical view of the universe), and language before and after 1860 will be the topics of this paper.  These kinds of similarities and differences are significant in that they illustrate a perspective which can be applied to other small groups of people that exist within a larger ethnic category in any given geographic area.  Surveying various sources, I will consider whether and how the data demonstrates a progression of ideas and interests in these particular Native Americans by the researchers who studied them over the years. 

19. Lockyer, Caleb. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Native American Water Rights on The Lower Colorado

This paper will assess the current water issues facing Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, and the unfortunate situation some Indians face with water allotment.  By outlining the specific allocation of water rights on the Lower Colorado River watershed, this paper will show how the Navajo were persuaded to cede their water rights, due to a lack of legal expertise and representationon water resources. Recent water settlements and conflicts have left the Navajo in an unstable position with the future of their water. An irrigation project that was designed to supply the Navajo with adequate water allotment has yet to be fully funded by the federal government, forcing citizens on the reservation to drive to water sources. Using the theories of political ecology, this paper will argue that the desire to dominate resources has left Native Americans in a water crisis. ANTH 320

20. Knopf, Clif. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Analyzing Rain-Making Techniques From a Duel Perspective: Scientific Rationality Versus Indigenous Reasoning

There have been many traditional practices used by Native Americans to control and understand the weather, especially those used for rain. In order to understand human’s relationship with weather’s natural elements this paper explores various kinds of rain management techniques and the rituals in which they’re employed.  The focus of this paper is on a comparison between Shoshone shamans of Utah and the communal rituals of the southern Bolivian community of San Pedro de Condo.  The shared understandings that create a culture greatly influence locals’ perspective of the world around them.  Using a scientific approach, it is difficult to understand the spiritual rituals that people practice to influence their weather. How can this be reconciled with hard-science, comprised of collected data and variance controls?  These two perspectives are rationally not compatible with each other, but accounts I have studied as well as my own research lead me to partially reconcile the seemingly incompatible reasoning behind these rituals.

21. Meldrum, Greg. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Potential Natural Resource For Pigment use Among Gunnison Basin Cultural Groups

Various pigment resources have been exploited by Native American groups for thousands of years.  Archaeological evidence supports an argument for Paleo-Indian pigment usage; while use of pigments in the Southwest and Great Basin regions have been seen throughout Archaic and Historical contexts.  Using a cross-cultural analysis of two Native American Nations, the Ute and the Navajo, I will identify natural resources used for pigment manufacture, the significance of various types of pigment, and the abundance of the resources (mainly focusing on pigment manufacture and specific uses).  I will then use the cross-cultural analysis to find similar resources located within the Gunnison Basin to manufacture my own pigments (or confirm their accessibility).  The potential of various mineral and plant resources in the Gunnison Valley may shine light on the availability of pigment sources for exploitation, as well as show the importance of exotic materials (if any) and their ability to make it to the valley, indicating extensive trade or migration routes. ANTH 320

22. Landreth, Brittany. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Infanticide: A Cultural Solution to an Ecological Problem

In this paper I will examine the use of infanticide as a way to manage a population when there is a shortage of resources. I will demonstrate that infanticide, however unfortunate, has sometimes been necessary for the continuation of the population. By examining case studies of cultures that have practiced infanticide, I will show when infanticide was resorted to and for what reasons. The information provided in this paper is significant because it shows how drastically a shortage of resources can affect a population and it also demonstrates that infanticide can’t always be considered a senseless practice. Many cultures around the world have practiced infanticide which proves that it is not contained to one part of the globe. The Copper Inuit of northeastern Canada, the Cherokee of the United States, the Yanomamo living in South America, the Igbo tribe in Africa, and certain Serbian groups in Yugoslavia all contain histories demonstrating the use of infanticide.

23. Stai, Brock. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Southwestern Agriculture in Arid Conditions, A Model for Gunnison

This paper explores the methods and practices the Hopi and other southwestern people used for growing food in an arid region that gets as little as ten inches of precipitation per year.  Through centuries of selecting for particularly hardy crops, the native people of the Southwestern United States found various versions of corn, squash, and beans that allowed them to sustain a livelihood in the arid region of the Desert Southwest (Bonvillain 1994: 30).  By adopting similar agricultural techniques in the arid regions around Gunnison, perhaps we too could grow crops without much supplementary water.  The benefits of this would be better production of food despite scarce water, providing a local food source, and increasing the diversity in food.  The anthropological implications of this approach are to see whether we can use traditional practices and technology to improve agricultural production in an industrialized agricultural setting.

24. Larson, Nils. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. Traditional Aleut Hunting Practices and The Impacts of Depleted Sea Mammal Populations

This paper argues that Aleut sea mammal hunting resources have become depleted by current and historical commercial fur and whaling industries.  Along with this depletion, through their use as a labor force by these industries, the Aleuts have been forced to depend on the Western cash economy.  Currently Aleuts still participate in subsistence hunting and gathering, but do so to supplement their livelihood.  The effects of diminished hunting and gathering practices and increased dependence on the cash economy will be studied to determine whether or not they greatly impact the cultural practices of the Aleut people.  Areas of study will include current and historical land use practices, hunting practices, and regulations imposed by the Alaskan and federal government.  This paper will help to illustrate how industrial economies that commodify natural resources can have negative effects on the cultural practices and values of native people that are most affected. ANTH 320

25. Withrow, Laura. Anthropology, Lynn Sikkink. The Hopi: The Peaceful Ones Adapt to a Harsh Environment For Survival and Soul-Strengthening

This project will explore the Hopi as a tenacious people who have learned to adapt to a harsh environment as well as the implications for the importance of dry-farming as a means of survival.  It is said that the Hopi purposely chose to come to a land without much vegetation because for them it was a promised land.  As a peaceful people that shun war, the Hopi embrace a difficult existence in a barren land where they can develop their strengths and their souls.
Currently the Hopi Reservation is located in northeastern Arizona among the many buttes that are special to the Hopi as places of worship and where they are able to collect herbs and materials used in religious ceremonies.  Once made up of many different groups, the Hopi are now a single group of people with one language.  It will be shown how the Hopi have long been agricultural village-dwellers that are arguably the world’s greatest dry-farmers.  This statement will be demonstrated through the examples of the different farming methods employed by the Hopi to grow successful crops of corn and beans, as well as their tendency to take advantage of the little moisture available to them through winter snows or summer monsoon rains.  The project will examine the use of terrace irrigation, flood-water farming, and seepage by the Hopi to water their crops.  The implication of this project for modern society is to show how the Hopi have been able to successfully farm in a dry environment which could provide answers for a future threatened by adverse climate change.         

26. Hunt, Jeffery. Anthropology, Heather Thiessen Reily.

Anywhere people gather or consistently spend time together they form groups.  These groups are often based upon common interests and activities.  On a college campus a large contingent of these groups occur by major.  That is, people of similar majors spend time together due to their shared interests.  I explore if along with this perceived time together similar habits develop, more specifically, their hygiene.  I hypothesize that different majors have a definable difference in their hygienic habits (is there an anthropology standard or a psychology standard…etc…).  To investigate this question a hygienic survey was compiled and given to students and teachers across campus. The answers collected were scored on a scale from 1 – 5 and compared statistically.

27. McPherson, Stephanie, Ben Musson, Jerret Swarr and Ryan Geller. Biology, Pat Magee. Common Raven Activity in Varying Levels of Human Disturbed Sagebrush Environments

This experiment explores Corvas corax, the common raven, population distribution in Gunnison Valley sagebrush environments. The experiment intends to analyze whether or not anthropogenic land alterations have significant impact on Corvas corax population distribution. Our hypothesis suggests that ravens occur in greater numbers and more frequently in areas of greater anthropogenic disturbance. We tested this hypothesis by collecting data on the raven populations in areas that exhibit high (dump), medium (Hartman’s Rock), and low (sagebrush east of town) of human disturbance.     

28. Bingham, Robin A.  and Anurag A. Agrawal. Biology. Ecological Genetics of Herbivore-Specific Included Defenses in Common Milkweed

We tested some prerequisites of specific coevolutionary interactions and a long-standing prediction of plant defense allocation using a quantitative genetics approach to investigate induced defenses in common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) to two specialist caterpillars (Danaus plexippus and Euchetias egle)Latex, a potent defense of milkweed, showed nearly five-fold variation among genetic families and more than doubled in response to herbivory by D. plexippus; this response was four-fold stronger than the plant response to  E. egle. In contrast, both herbivores equivalently induced cardenolide concentration (an average increase of 26%). We found heritable variation for the induced plant responses and there was a genetic correlation between the responses induced by the two herbivores for cardenolides, but not for latex. We found no genetic correlation between investment in latex and cardenolides in any of the treatments.  Finally, using a bias-corrected Monte Carlo procedure, we found strong evidence for a genetic tradeoff between constitutive and induced cardenolides, but not for latex.  As natural selection by specific herbivores varies in space and time, we expect that latex and cardenolide traits in milkweed will evolve independently, with the expression of cardenolides showing less specificity, as well as being constrained by a tradeoff between constitutive and induced defense

29. Bernier, Kathryn, Mindy Larum and Josh Stupka. Biology, Patrick Magee. Aging Pellet Groups of Cervus Elaphus. Analysis of Color and Moisture Content

Many studies use the indirect method of pellet group count to estimate population density due to difficulties in obtaining accurate visual population surveys (Michling 1979, Ratcliffe 1987, Plumptre 2000, Buckland et al. 2001).  Based on limitations discussed in literature, we sought to develop a standard method for aging elk pellet groups, hypothesizing that time and habitat type would affect external and internal pellet color along with moisture content.  We collected fresh elk pellets and allowed them to age in three simulated elk habitats: sagebrush steppe, aspen forest, and conifer forest.  Internal and external color was measured twice a week for five weeks using the Munsell Color System.  Moisture content was analyzed once a week comparing weights before and after drying.  We found no difference in color over the five week test period.  A longer study duration is required to develop a standard aging method. 

30. Martin, Jacob, Matt Toensing and Brandee Wills. Biology, Patrick Magee. Effects of Disturbances on Riparian Vegetation Density, Allochthonous Input, and Macroinvertebrate Populations in The Lower Tomichi Creek Ecosystem

The effects of human disturbances on riparian vegetation density, allochthonous input, and macroinvertebrate populations on two sites on lower Tomichi Creek, Gunnison, Colorado, USA were studied to determine the effects on stream health.  For both sites, five fifty meter transects were randomly chosen parallel to creek flow and estimated for shrub density and overall cover.  A biomass collector was used to collect allochthonous input which was dried and weighed.  Macroinvertebrates were collected and identified to be used as bioindicators of stream health.  The undisturbed site had a higher shrub density and overall cover, more allochthonous input, and a greater diversity of marcoinvertebrates, including macroinvertebrates that are indicators of good stream health.  This indicates that the undisturbed site is healthier then the disturbed.

31. Swick, Zeb. Biology, Becky Sears. Soil Compaction

Soil compaction interferes with plant growth and increases erosion. Soil compaction occurs when the properties of moist soil are pressed together by large animals or machinery. (NRCS, 2001)  This experiment measured the soil compaction of grazed rangeland and non-grazed rangeland. After statistical analysis, the comparison of the two test areas showed no difference in compaction with a P-value of .18. The results rejected the hypothesis that soil compaction is more prevalent on grazed rangeland than non-grazed rangeland. However, other studies have shown soil compaction is much greater on rangeland grazed by cattle than areas not grazed by cattle. (Burgess, 2001)

32. Harrison, Houston, Edward Rutledge, Michael Napoli and Colton Porter. Biology, Becky Sears. Magnesium Chloride Effects on Roadside Vegetation

Magnesium Chloride (MgCl), is used as a dust control and soil stabilizer. After studying and collecting data on 6 roads, 3 with MgCl and 3 without, we found a considerable difference in the vegetation density.

33. Fabrikant, Nikki, Jordan Kennedy and Dawson Stuki. Biology, Becky Sears. Cochetopa Creek Spill Affects Macroinvertebrate Populations

In September of 2009 the Cochetopa creek was polluted by a citric acid spill.  12330 gallons of highly concentrated acid was spilled into this creek decreasing the water quality greatly (BLM, 2009).  We went to the site of the spill to test the amount of macroinvertebrates living in the stream, a measure of water quality.  We tested above, at and a few miles downstream from the spill site and found that the spill negatively impacted macroinvertebrate populations.

34. Crosby, Amanda, Elizabeth Tarrant, Kayla Wilson and Liz Cave. Biology, Becky Sears. Impact of Fecal Coliform on Macroinvertebrate Populations

In this experiment, three rivers in the Gunnison Valley were tested in attempts to determine the impact of fecal coliform on macroinvertebrate populations.  Macro invertebrates are key indicators of stream quality and have an important role in river ecosystems. Fecal coliform has been shown to have negative impacts on mammals, so we hypothesized it would have negative impacts on the invertebrate populations as well.  The results from this experiment did not support the hypothesis.

35. Krankkala,Scott, Patrick Erley and Mike McCarthy. Biology, Becky Sears. Aspen Growth in Natural and Human Triggered Avalanche Paths

Avalanches are a devastating and powerful occurrence and have the ability to dislodge trees and structures.  Most avalanches in the backcountry are natural, meaning they are triggered by animals or the snowpack itself, and are generally very large in size but infrequent.  In ski areas, however, avalanches are purposefully triggered with bombs to make the slopes safe for skiers, meaning they are smaller in size but more frequent.  We studied the density and height of aspen trees in the runout zones of prominent avalanche paths in and around the Crested Butte Mountain Resort.  We found the aspens at the base of the natural slide paths to be taller and at a higher density than those at the base of the human triggered avalanche paths.

36. Cotter, Jordan. Biology, Becky Sears. Effect of Colored Lights on Plant Growth

Plants use several wavelengths of light to grow. Each individual wavelength has the potential to either help or hinder a plant’s growth in specific areas, including leaf and flower growth (Gardening Under Lights). The purpose of this experiment was to determine which color of light was the most beneficial to the growth of a plant. After covering the plants with different colors of cellophane to simulate colored lights, the plants were allowed to grow for four weeks before they were uprooted and measured. The data gathered did not match the hypothesis at all; the blue plants were surprisingly the smallest and weakest of all four groups, even though research gathered beforehand suggested that blue was a very useful color to plants. However, the remaining three groups grew mainly as expected in the hypothesis.

37. Britton, Taylor, Christopher Esterlein, Tyler Graves, Elissa Hoitt, Tyler Smith
. Biology, Becky Sears. Presence of Instinctual Magnetic Orientation in Cattle of the Gunnison Basin

Many of Earth’s marine and terrestrial creatures, including wild ungulates (hoofed animals) like deer, and elk can use the magnetosphere to navigate across long distances.  A German study concludes that both cattle and deer herds displayed a general North-South orientation during a wide variety of light and weather conditions and even and night (Begall and others 2008).  The primary species of domesticated ungulate in Gunnison County is the Hereford-Angus crossbreed cow and is the rancher’s choice as it has shown resilience in the extremely cold climate of this area.  A study was conducted in the fall of 2009 in which 500 cows were observed under various weather and light conditions to see if these distant evolutionary cousins of the wild ungulates still possess the capabilities of their ancestors to orient themselves along magnetic field lines.  Factors such as wind, sun direction, cloud cover, topography and time of day were controlled for in order to ensure quality sample variance.  

38. Barker, Kristin, Alecia Lambert and Taylor Morrow. Biology, Becky Sears. Effects of Dams on the American Dipper

The American Dipper is commonly used as an indicator species of water quality.  This carnivorous bird hunts aquatic prey such as caddisfly, mayfly and stonefly larvae in rocky, fast-moving waters. In this study, the population density of dippers upstream and downstream of a dammed reservoir was observed and recorded. Due to the decreased availability of nutrients and substrate downstream of the reservoir, fewer numbers of dippers were found downstream compared to upstream. The results suggest that dams and reservoirs can negatively affect the health of the associated river system.

39. Mahaney, Sean, Rachael Berg and Charles Martinez. Biology, Becky Sears. Nutrient Effects on Brassica Rapa Plants

It is essential for all plants to receive the proper nutrients, water and carbon dioxide in order to survive. We examined the role of the nutrients nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous on the growth and development of Brassica rapa plants. We believed that fertilizer with all three nutrients would make Brassica plants grow the highest and have the most flowers and seed pods. Surprisingly, we could not accept our hypothesis because after three weeks of observation we found that the plants growing in nothing but the potting soil and tap water grew the highest and had the most flowers and pods.

40. Harrison, Brandi and Andrea Reams. Biology, Becky Sears. Do Distance from Agricultural Land Affect the Distribution of Introduced Grasses and Sagebrush?

Crested wheatgrass was originally introduced to the United States from Siberia during the Great Depression to resist the drought, produce hay of excellent quality, and also provide for grazing. We examined a hillside next to a field where crested wheatgrass was introduced, and had spread up the hill. Plant densities were measured up the side of the hill, and evidence showed that there was more crested wheat grass than sagebrush at the lower part of the hill, near the field, and less crested wheat grass higher up the hill. Also there was more crested wheatgrass near the trail.

41. Keller, Kyle and Brian Letzler. Biology Becky Sears. Effect of Common Fertilizers on Lettuce and Brassica Plants 

Fertilizer is the means of supplying essential nutrients to produce taller, fuller plants (Lowe's, 2009). Both Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) and Brassica rapa (Wisconsin Fast Plants) are angiosperms that grow from a single seed and are known for their rapid growth rates and ability to survive. This experiment compared the effects of Miracle Grow and Shultz Blend fertilizers on these two angiosperms. Although the data did not support the hypothesis that Miracle Grow would produce taller plants that Shultz Blend, and the control group would produce shorter plants that either fertilizer, other studies have shown that the proper long term use of fertilizer can produce, taller and fuller plants than just potting soil alone. (Celine, 2009)

42. McMonigle, Mitch, Amber Summer, Keesa Lanius and James Shotwell. Biology, Rebecca Sears. Effects of Acid Rain on Brassica Rapa Plants

Acid rain is precipitation containing higher than normal levels of nitric and sulfuric acids.  The formation of acid rain is a result of both natural and man-made sources; volcanoes, decaying vegetation, and combustion of fossil fuels are prime examples.  We wanted to understand if high atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are harmful to the Brassica rapa plant.  Thirty-six Brassica plants were divided into three groups of twelve; one being the control group receiving plain tap-water, and the other two receiving tap-water with elevated levels of sulfuric acid.  At the end of four weeks the control group was thriving while both of the experimental groups were in poor health.  It was obvious that the imitation acid rain had detrimental effects on the development of the plants.              

43. McCoy, Kimberly, Corina Hesse, Fletcher Davis and Laurie Lemieux. Biology, Becky Sears. Temperature Fluctuation in Ovulating and Nonovulating Females

Women’s basal body temperature, BBT, fluctuates throughout the month based on menstrual cycle and hormonal levels.  In comparison, non-ovulating women’s BBT also fluctuates, but randomly.  In this study we measured the basal body temperature of 5 non-ovulating women, 6 ovulating women, and 3 men of various ages as a control group. We found that women experience a decrease in body temperature at the onset of their monthly cycle.  When ovulation begins, approximately 2 weeks after the first day of the menstrual cycle, body temperature increases and remains heightened until menstruation begins. Temperatures fluctuate for the ovulating women, but have a steady average for the non-ovulating women, and control group.

44. Hughes, Kaytlin, Alyssa Keith, Ashleigh MacLennan and Cristin Joiner. Biology, Becky Sears. Blood Oxygen Saturation in Runners Versus Rock Climbers

Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxemia) can lead to hypoxia in human cells, limiting ATP production and potentially leading to cellular death. Normal blood oxygen levels are 95-100 percent. We hypothesized that runners would have higher levels of oxygen in their blood, due to the aerobic nature of their exercise, as compared with anaerobic climbers. We used a pulse oximeter to measure the saturation of oxygen in the blood of ten runners as well as ten rock climbers. We found that the average blood oxygen level of rock climbers after performing was 93.8 percent.  We found the average blood oxygen level of the runners’ tested to be 91 percent. This rejects our hypothesis. This might be due to the subjects tested in the fitness center who may not have been consistent runners. 

45. Gilchrist, Ianetal. Biology, Becky Sears. Macroinvertebrate Distribution of Coal Creek

Coal Creek has been heavily polluted by mining activity. We tested the water quality using Macroinvertebrates as an indicator of the level of toxicity. Samples were taken at four sites along a ten mile stretch, gathering algae-, macro invertebrates-, and water samples. We observed that the Mt. Emmons Waste Water Treatment Plant has created a gap in the quality of the water system; promoting higher macroinvertebrate populations below it, with lower populations above the plant.

46. Wahl, Cassie and Greg Benedict. Biology, Becky Sears. Morphological Adaptations on South and North Facing Cacti Spines

Spines on brittle prickly pear cacti (Opuntia fragilis) are important because they provide protection from predators. The bigger the spines, the better protected the cactus is from its surroundings. Without spines, the cactus would be vulnerable to dangers of the outside such as cactus wrens and aphids.  We believe that increased sunlight exposure produces more energy which leads to larger spines. To test this we took measurements of cacti from a south facing slope and a north facing slope to determine whether sunlight has an effect on the size of spines. We found that the north facing slope has longer spines while the south facing slope has thicker spines.

47. Noland, Justin, Monica Shunk, Philippe Tolme, Clayton Weaver and Stacy Weaver. Biology Pat Magee Macroinvertebrate Indicators of Bridge Effects on River Ecosystem Health in the Gunnison Basin

Macroinvertebrates have differing tolerance to pollution and can be used as indicators of the health of streams.  Runoff from roads and bridges can increase the level of pollutants in an adjacent body of water.  The study was conducted at five different bridges located on Spring Creek in Gunnison County, Colorado.  Macroinvertebrate samples were taken at multiple sampling locations upstream and downstream of the five bridges studied.  The samples were identified to the family and were assigned a Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) value, with low PTI values indicating poor water quality.  We found that PTI upstream of the bridge was significantly lower than the PTI downstream the bridge.  Variables such as depth of the water and speed of the river’s flow may have factored into the results.

48. Fryer, Zoe, Cayla Vidmar, and Rob Hicks. Biology, Jessica Young and Jonathan Coop. Early Warning Biological Monitoring on the Van Tuyl Ranch 

Using the Center for Holistic Management’s guide to monitoring, Early Warning Biological Monitoring, our group for ENVS 390 will obtain 400 data points to inform stakeholders of the health and diversity of the Van Tuyl Ranch as well as give future monitoring groups the baseline information they need to decipher increasing, constant, or decreasing health. Additionally, we are determining the affect of manmade irrigation on the variety of grass species and soil conditions throughout the ranch. Our direct focus is on four meadows in the upper terraces that are currently used for cattle, horse, pig, and chicken grazing by Parker Pastures. Our study will provide the Parker’s with the appropriate information they deem necessary for ranch operations. Meanwhile, the information will also provide the City of Gunnison with a baseline of current ranch health in order to determine future plans for the Van Tuyl property. 

49. Engel, Theo, Aleshia Fremgen, Marcella Fremgen, and Jeremiah Rummel. Wildlife Biology, Ecology, Dr. Patrick Magee. A Beaver (Castor Canadensis) Tree Harvesting Size-Distance Relationship

The relationship between tree diameter cut by beavers and distance from their lodge was measured at three parallel drainages in Gunnison County, Colorado.  Ten-meter ranges were established in concentric rings surrounding the lodge.  In each range, the numbers of trees harvested by beavers were recorded based on the diameter.  ANOVA tests were run on every site to compare the number of tree sizes harvested within a ring, but there was no significant difference in tree size for different distances from the lodge.  The stump density in each ring was also tested using ANOVA, and again there were not statistically significant results.  These data do not support the hypothesis that smaller trees will be harvested farther from the lodge.  Limitations include the circular study of a linear habitat and slight variations in vegetation and topography.

50. Collins, Christian and Anthony Cook. Chemistry, Jarral Ryter. Heavy Metals in Crested Butte Water Supply

This experiment was done to test the levels of poisonous heavy metals, cadmium and zinc, in Crested Buttes water supply.  This was accomplished using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The expected levels of cadmium in coal creek were anywhere from 1-2 ppb and 10-30 ppb in the fen. The zinc levels were to range anywhere from 3000-5000 ppb. The experimental levels in the fen where close to the expected level while the levels in coal creek where lower than expected.

51. Ballard, Lisa, Taylor Britton, Laura Brooks, Naomi Cazares, Patrick Erley, Brandi Gonzales, Natalia Guerrero, Sarah Herbert, Deanna Hilgemann, Elissa Hoitt, Kaytlin Hughes, Grace Kennedy, Rachel Killorin, Danielle Lauridsen, Tony Luehrs, Ian McBride, Claire McDonough, Amy McMillin, John Naglak, Rebecca Oeding, Aara Parrett, Caleb Ramsey and Cassie Wahl. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Concentrations of Common Food Dyes in G2 Gatorad

The purpose of this lab was to identify the dyes (Blue #1, Red #40 and Yellow #5) present in grape Gatorade G2 and their concentrations. To identify the dyes, we used chromatography paper to separate the dyes. The chromatography paper experiment singled out red #40 and blue #1 dye. The dyes presence was confirmed using a scanning spectrophotometer that also provided the wavelengths with maximum absorbance. Using the UV Vis (Agilent model # 8453), we found that the absorbances matched red and blue peaks on the standard dyes.  Data collected from the Spectronic 20 was used to create a standard curve. Our calculations showed that the average red dye concentration was 3.27 x 10-6 M and the average blue dye concentration was 8.54 x 10-6 M.

52. Collins, Christian and Anthony Cook. Chemistry, Jarral Ryter.  Analysis of Cadmium and Zinc in the Mount Emmons Iron Fen and Coal Creek Above Crested Butte.

Mount Emmons Iron Fen is a natural feature that drains into Coal Creek above Crested Butte, CO. The water in the fen highly acidic from sulfide minerals and therefore metals are leached from the underlying rocks. Samples were collected from the fen, along the drainage of the fen and in Coal creek below the fen. Zinc and cadmium were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Our results agreed with previous analysis of the fen. Coal creek showed much lower levels of both metals as the water is diluted from other sources.

53. Donahue, Emily, Lisa Goldman, and Dayne Allbrandt. Chemistry, Jarral Ryter. Comparison of Flavor Compounds in Five Commercial Vanilla Extracts Using HPLC and GC-MS with SPME

The main components found in vanilla extracts are vanillin, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid.   Tests were run to compare the concentration of these three ingredients present in five different types of vanilla.   The vanillas chosen represented a range of costs and various markets.  The purpose was to decide if a link between cost and quality existed and to what extent.  The vanilla extracts were tested using both High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with solid phase micro extraction (GC-MS with SPME).  The results for both methods were compared to ensure quality and accuracy of results.  Comparison showed that results using the HPLC and the GC-MS with SPME were comparable.

54.  Barker, Kristin, Trevor Blackman, Kylie Bower, Erin Cahill, Carolyn Chotvacs, Alex Degenstein, A J Di Rocco, Logan Eure, Alex Hostiuck, Chris Jones, Emma Lenhart, Sean Mahaney, Nicholas Moyer, Dustin Nazer-Coleman, Levi Peery, Holly Perry, Kaeli Pfenning, Brent Roberts, Tyler Rose, Kyle Smith, Madeline Swain and Erin Webber. Chemistry, Anne Ryter. Determining Concentration of Dyes in G2 Low Calorie Lemon Lime Gatorade 

The experiment used three different methods to determine the identity and concentration of the dyes in G2 low-calorie, lemon-lime Gatorade. One method used was paper chromatography in which a concentrated dot of Gatorade was placed on a piece of chromatography paper. When the paper was placed in water, osmotic movement separated the different dyes in the beverage. The second method used a visible spectrophotometer to determine the absorbance and emitted wavelengths of Red #40, Yellow #5 and Blue #1 as well as the Gatorade itself. The final method used a Spec-20 to determine the absorbance of dyes in standard solutions. From this data, a standard curve was produced and the resulting lines of best fit indicated the concentrations of each dye in the Gatorade based on their absorbance values.  We determined the Gatorade consisted of the dyes Blue #1 and Yellow #5, and there was a higher concentration of yellow dye.

55. Reed, Michael , Kendric Evans, and Alan Cleary. Computer Science, John Peterson. Computer Vision and Robotics

Western State's robotics team is using a toy truck, known as A.J. (Automated Jeep), outfitted with a controller that allows a laptop to interact with on-board servos directly controlling the steering and speed of the truck.  A camera provides input to a vision system used to steer A.J.  Using this system, we can demonstrate range based color spectrum blob tracking, contrast based shape detection,  edge based scene recognition, blob size speed control, and simple navigational tasks.

56. Brown, Sean.  Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema, Scott Drum. Physiological and Subjective Effects of Different Methods of Load Carriage while Running

PURPOSE: To investigate changes in physiological and subjective variables while carrying various loads and running. METHODS: This study compared control (CON) to running with 1 handheld bottle with 24 oz of fluid + gel (1BOT) (2 lbs); 2 handheld bottles each with 24 oz of fluid + gel (2BOT) (3.5 lbs total); and a Nathan™ backpack holding 64 oz of liquid, gear, and 2 gels (PACK) (6.5 lbs total). Subjects (N = 5) underwent a treadmill VO2max test and 2-3 days later for 4 x 20-minute runs (randomized to CON, 1BOT, 2BOT, and PACK) at approximately 63% of VO2max based on pace (min·mi-1). Each running bout was separated by 5-minutes of passive recovery with ingestion of 24 g of carbohydrate + 16 oz of water. Comparisons between CON and the load conditions were conducted using a one-way ANOVA with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Versus CON, the greatest significant mean differences (p < 0.0004), respectively, occurred during the 2BOT condition for HR (135 ± 12 vs. 141 ± 12 bpm), RPE (9.9 ± 1.0 vs. 11.7 ± 1.1), VO2 (41.3 ± 2.9 vs. 43.3 ± 3.4 ml·kg-1·min-1), and VE (77.7 ± 6.3 vs. 83.7 ± 8.0 L·min-1. CONCLUSION:2, and VE. The heavier PACK seemed to be more economical compared to 2BOT. CON was perceived as the easiest condition with the lowest reported values. Therefore, while competing in ultra endurance races, it might be optimal to carry light loads, close to center mass. Results indicated that 2BOT elicited the greatest HR, RPE, VO

57. Meyer, Rose. Exercise and Sport Science,  Kathleen Kinkema, Ashwin Patel. Motivation Levels of the Female Athlete in Concurrence with the Different Phases of the Menstrual Cycle 

 The purpose of this study was to see if there are differences in motivation and emotional energy during the three phases (follicular, ovulation, luteal) of the menstrual cycle.  Questionnaires were given to fourteen women on a volleyball team in a small school in the Rocky Mountains.  They were given twice a week over the course of one month and specifically asked about physical and emotional motivation over a seven point Likert scale.  Athletes were also asked to name the first day of their last menstrual cycle.  Upon collecting and analyzing the responses, there was been no significant difference in motivation over any of the phases.  The conclusion that was reached is that every woman is an individual and has different physical and emotional responses to the menstrual cycle.

58. Ball, Karissa. Exercise and Sports Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Eating Disorders in Female Collegiate Athletes Created By Pressure from the Media, Coaching Staff, and Comparison with Other Women

Objective: To explore intercollegiate female athletes’ weight control habits based on a) coaches and administration, b) media and c) comparison to other women. Participants: I am surveying twenty nine NCAA Division II athletes between the ages of eighteen and twenty one. The participants are active in two different sports at the same university.
Method: The girls participating will be asked to fill out a Body Mass Index questionnaire along with an Eating Attitude test and a Social Physique Anxiety Scale. Results: NA Conclusion: NA

59. McAuliffe, Erin. Exercise and Sports Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Man, I feel like a Woman

The purpose of this research was to establish and understand the various benefits of strength training in women.  To understand these benefits, a pre questionnaire was given to fifteen women members of a local Curves for Women facility.  The women were then required to work out and participate in the strength training program three times a week for three weeks.   Following the three weeks the duplicate post test questionnaire was given to the women.  The answers were compared to locate various benefits the women experienced during the three weeks due to their strength training regimen.  The results and conclusions are still in progress. 

60. Zink, Brendan. Exercise and Sports Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Transmeridian Travel and Athletic Performance

Traveling across time zones, also known as transmeridian travel, can have many effects on athletic performance.  Humans have a circadian rhythm, also known as a body clock or 24-hour cycle, which the body’s functions follow.  Changing to a different time zone can throw these functions off sync.  This literature review will look at cases of transmeridian travel and the way it has affected athletic performance and will also discuss some possible solutions to minimizing the detrimental effects that transmeridian travel can have on performance.  Encompassed under the circadian rhythm are systems such as the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, metabolic system, gastrointestinal system, hormones, and psychological states.  If an athlete or team will be traveling long distances and changing time zones, these changes need to be acknowledged by the athletes, coaches, and trainers in order to perfect their athletic performance.  

61. Tomkins, Jesse. Exercise and Sport Science-Clinical, Dr. Kathleen Kinkema. Comparison of BMI, Body Composition, and Physical Activity Habits between Developmentally Disabled and Normal Adolescents

Purpose:  The focus of this study was to examine and compare the physical activity habits and overall body composition of a selected student population of developmentally disabled children versus the average body composition and physical activity habits of children without a developmental disability. Methods:   The primary data collection was focused on the overall body composition of the subjects.  The secondary data collection will focus on the physical activity patterns of all of the subjects participating in the study.  More specifically, the number of subjects will included no less than ten and no more than 20 total subjects.  Each subject had to meet the criteria of: being diagnosed with a least a mild developmental disability, be a male who falls between the ages of eight to twenty-one, and must be enrolled in a private special education program.  The body composition was measured through the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the three site Skin Caliper Instrument test.  The type of physical activity (what specific sport or activity did they participate in) and overall time of the physical activity (duration in minutes) was also recorded.  These recordings continued over a process of one to two weeks.  Once the recordings are completed, along with the recording for overall body composition, they can be compared on the state and national level to the physical activity patterns of males of about the same age with and without developmental disabilities. Results/Conclusion:  In progress.

62. Verdun, Alexandra . Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kathleen Kinkema. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) and Effectiveness of Various Treatment Strategies

Repeated eccentric muscle movements performed frequently in physical activity or sport can cause muscle sprains, strains, muscle contusions, swelling, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which is the focus of this study. The effects of DOMS often last only a few days however, because muscle function and athletic performance are likely to be effected, it is important to minimize the duration of these injuries. In this study I researched several treatment and prevention methods in reference to their ability to counteract the effects of DOMS. Research based efficacy was found in the use of active recovery and with certain types of massage, however most strategies were found to be ineffective. Select collegiate athletic teams were then surveyed on their individual experiences with different treatments and their perceived effectiveness for each. The results from the surveys are being analyzed and will be compared with the physiological effectiveness of each technique based on the research studies reviewed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences between research based efficacy and perceived effectiveness by athletes using these modalities to treat or prevent DOMS in order to help reform common treatment practices if necessary

63. Harris, William. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. Benefits of Endurance Training for the Power Athlete

Purpose: To determine if concurrent strength and endurance training will improve an athlete’s performance more than strength training alone.  Methods: This study is an experimental study using two similar athletes; both athletes will perform a Wingate power test, and a Bruce protocol test; the Bruce Protocol will be a time to fatigue test.  Both power output and endurance will be measured; however one athlete will undergo concurrent strength and endurance training period while the second athlete will only perform a strength training program. Data: Will be collected through the use of pre training, Wingate and Bruce protocol test, and a post training Wingate and Bruce protocol test. Results: Pending

64. Gass, Eliza. Exercise and Sport Science, Scott Drum, Kathleen Kinkema. A Diet’s Impact on Exercise

The purpose of the study was to compare the impacts of two different diets on a VO2 maximal test.  The two diets being compared were a high carbohydrate diet and a high protein diet.  There were a total of three subjects in the study, all of whom were around the same athletic ability and size.  The high carbohydrate diet consisted of 80% carbohydrates, 10% fats, and 10% proteins while the high protein diet consisted of 40% carbohydrates, 30% fats, and 30% proteins. The two diets were planned out specifically to the needs of the individual participant as well as the goal of the study.  Each subject completed three VO2 maximal tests, one at a baseline test, one after a week of consuming a high carbohydrate diet, and one after a week of consuming a high protein diet.  The hypothesis is that the subject will have a higher VO2 max after consuming a high carbohydrate diet.  The results of the study are still being analyzed to draw a final conclusion.

65. Hobin, Dan. Exercise and Sport Science, Kathleen Kinkema. To Find Athlete's Perceptions of How Creatine Helps with Recovery Compared to Research Findings and its Benefits for Recovery.

The aim of this study was to find athlete’s perceptions of how creatine helps with recovery compared to my research findings about its benefits for recovery.  The methods I used were gathering data from athletes who have used creatine in the past, or are currently using creatine. There were fifteen participants in the study and the sports they compete in are wrestling, basketball, football, and track. Results were interesting because thirteen out of fifteen participants would take creatine again and on my rating scale of creatine regarding recovery the results leaned towards being beneficial. I used a rating scale from 1-5, (5 being very beneficial) and most of the subjects said 4 or 5, meaning creatine did help them with their recovery.The data I gathered from researching this subject also suggested that creatine is beneficial for recovery although I did find a few cases that said creatine didn’t help with recovery. Overall both research gathering suggests that creatine is beneficial with recovery.

66. Hockett, Daren. Exercise and Sport Science, Dr. Kathleen Kinkema. Music & Exercise
The purpose of this study was to compare exercise with and without music.  The music was chosen by the subjects.  The music that the subjects chose was music that they thought motivated them.  There were three subjects involved in the study.  All three subjects were active healthy individuals.  The biggest variable that the subjects were different in was their age.  A ventilatory threshold test was done to find a point where there was a constant demanding work load on each individual.  When the ventilator threshold was found the subjects ran at their desired speed and grade until they could not run anymore. This was done twice, once with music and once without.  The days that the subjects ran with music and when they ran without were randomized.  The hypothesis of the study was that subjects will be able to run for a greater amount of time with music opposed to without.

67. Crockett, Buck, Chelsea Lloyd and Rob Santangelo. Environmental Studies, Dr. Coop and Dr. Young. Time of Day Effects on Waterfowl Populations in Two Different Riparian Habitat Zones on the Van Tuyl Ranch in Gunnison Colorado.

There are two types of waterfowl that commonly use the wetland areas in the Gunnison valley, dabbling or diving ducks.  What type of waterfowl and species are found on the Van Tuyl Ranch in two different water environments during morning and evening periods?  Data sheets recorded the waterfowl’s sex, age status, time of day, abundance, on land or in flight, and type of duck (dabbling or diving).  The evidence in the first comparison (Chi=1.333, p=0.248) led to the acceptance of the first null hypothesis: no significant differences in populations of waterfowl during morning or evening observation times.   For the second comparison (Chi=14.815, p=0.0001) evidence supported the second active hypothesis: There will be a significant decrease in waterfowl populations between diving ducks in fast moving water and dabbling ducks in still water environments on the Van Tuyl study areas. Key words: Female athlete, eating disorder, bulimic, and body dissatisfaction.

68. Enright, Caitlin, Julia Fitting, and Danielle Slaby. Environmental Studies, Dr. Johnathan Coop and Dr. Jessica Young. Narrowleaf Cottonwood Tree (Populus Angustifolia) Stand Structure on the Van Tuyl Ranch in Gunnison, CO

Introduction: Narrowleaf cottonwood trees (Populus angustifolia) are an integral component of the woody riparian ecosystem of the Gunnison Basin.  In such semi-arid environments cottonwoods serve as the dominant riparian tree species; however they are often subject to degradation from livestock production, tree harvesting, and clearing.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize the woody riparian vegetation and assess the health and population structure of narrowleaf cottonwood stands on the Van Tuyl Ranch. Methods: Current (2005) and historic (1950) aerial photographs of the Van Tuyl Ranch and GIS software were used to assess historic changes in woody riparian cover.  Ground truthing confirmed the accuracy of mapped woody riparian areas.  Thirty random plots of 100 m2 were located and cottonwood trees were measured for height and circumference.  Cottonwood seedling and sapling counts and counts for other woody riparian species were collected.  Stand/Class structures will be created for the stands across the ranch. ENVS 390

69. Sillstrop, Jason. History, Dr. Lewis. “Hamburger Hill,” a Representation of History in Film 

In an attempt to sweep the A Shau Valley in Vietnam, the 3/187th infantry battalion under the command of LTC Honeycutt were directed to clear and occupy Dong Ap Bia, a mountain whose highest point rose to almost 970 meters. The film, “Hamburger Hill” was made in 1987 to recreate the capture of Dong Ap Bia, later nicknamed hamburger hill because of the damage that was done by American and Vietcong soldiers. “Hamburger Hill” is an adequate representation of the daily struggles that young American soldiers had to go through while fighting in the Vietnam War. “Hamburger Hill” also portrays the ten day struggle that the 3/187th went through to claim Dong Ap Bia, which was later criticized as a “pointless” effort. The film suggests the individual struggle of each soldier before and after Dong Ap Bia was captured, with underlying messages, concerning for example, African American involvement in the Vietnam War. HIST 402

70. Guzman, Daniel . History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. Downfall

My research is to critically  analyze and interpret the German made film “Downfall” which looks at the final days of Adolf Hitler  in his bunker in Berlin at the end of the war. The film is based on Hitler’s personal secretary Traudl Junge and her accounts with the German leader and his final days in the bunker. I want to present the historical accuracy and how the film depicts the turmoil that is Berlin 1945. I also want to look at what kind of relevance it has on our generation which might not grasp the complexity of what happened in Hitler’s final moments or the collapse of the Third Reich.

71. Brendsel, Lyndsay. History, Dr. Wallace Lewis. From Hell: A Contribution to the Understanding of Jack the Ripper

My poster will depict the contributions made to the historical understanding of the Jack the Ripper murders, which took place in London in 1888, by the film From Hell. This movie was released in October 2001, was directed by brothers Albert and Allen Hughes, and starred Johnny Depp as Inspector Abberline and Heather Graham as Mary Kelly. Considered a horror film, From Hell still educates audiences on one of the darkest times in London’s history.  The film uses many artistic liberties to complete this still unsolved murder mystery while using actual photos and evidence from the time to help tell the story. I will also use both positive and negative criticisms from the film and history communities to show exactly what is thought about this movie as historically valuable.

72. Knopf, Clifton F. History, Dr. Lewis, Dr. Thiessen-Reily and Dr. Stewart.

Empire of the Sun is an artistic masterpiece adapted from the novel that provides insight into World War Two, as seen through a young boy’s view, played by Christian Bale, as he is being held captive by the Japanese in International China.  Released in 1987 by Steven Spielberg, the film received less interest in the United States than it did in England, though it was nominated for six Oscars.  Criticisms have been made over simple historical and editing mistakes and the amount of focus within the prison camp, with little attention paid to war events.  Strengths of the movie rely on the human condition experienced through Bale’s character as he makes a life within the camp during a world at war and the artistic expressions Spielberg provides, such as cameos from actors like John Malkovich and Ben Stiller, and visual and sound effects that provided the film with three British Academy Awards for best cinematography, sound and music.  The movie’s greatest impact was that it was the first Hollywood movie filmed in Communist China and its awareness of Japanese occupation of China before the war. 

73. Parr, Tim. History, Dr. Lewis. Enduring Cultural Memory and its Respective Affects on History 

The Roman historian Tacitus chronicled Germanic customs, beliefs, and ideals that have endured as cultural memory passed down from generation to generation. This cultural memory is deeply rooted in traditions, customs, and values.  It has affected much of Germanic society, art, style, day to day life, and beliefs for the past millennia, helping to shape government, society, history and its respective views.

74. Browning, Josh. History, Wally Lewis. Lord of War

Lord of War is a film about modern warfare, illegal arms trafficking, and sanction busting that came out in 2005.  The movie uses current and recent conflicts around the world to bring awareness to the issues involving guns and wars.  The main character, Yuri Orlov (Nicholas Cage), is based on a composite of two Russian arms traffickers, Leonin Menin and Viktor Bout.  It points out connections between human suffering that people in affluent countries may not realize their governments play a part in.  Most guns come from the US and Russia, promoting wars and exploitation of resources.  It shows the moral gray area of today’s world where the same people who supply guns may also supply humanitarian aid.

75. Young, Michelle. History, Lewis. Vietnam Through a Lens 

Over the years people have looked at the Vietnam conflict in many different ways. One way in which people observe history is through photographs. During the Vietnam Era many photographs shed light on the war’s dark reality.  Four photos in particular illustrate much of the controversy that surrounded Vietnam. The first image inspected illustrates the significance of the anti- war protests, the second, an image of the Thich Quang Duc self-immolation by burning, illustrates active opposition to the war within Vietnam. The third image illustrates the United States’ use of chemical weapons. Finally, perhaps the best known photo from Vietnam illustrates the horror of the war with a naked girl running in terror after experiencing chemical warfare. These photos still influence the way people view Vietnam decades after they were taken.

76. Cooper, Jordan. History, W. Lewis. “Braveheartedly” Challenging Great Britain

Many people of the Western world view Great Britain as a nation which brought modernity to cultures throughout the world, though it is less known the brutality used against the native peoples. The 1995 Mel Gibson film, Braveheart, challenges the notion of the heroic British conquerors by telling the 13th century Scottish invasion by the British from the view point of a Scotsman who fights alongside the Scottish hero William Wallace. Bravehart is significant as it challenges the most common historical portrayals of Great Britain as a benevolent nation to those it conquered.

77. Honors Forum . Honors, Heather Thiessen-Reily. The Value of Death 

Nobel Prize winning novelist Rabindranath Tagore wrote, “Death’s stamp gives value to the coin of life, making it possible to buy with life what is truly precious.”  But while death gives value to life, is there a value to death itself? The fall 2009 Honors Forum explores this question through six academic lenses: Economics, Social Sciences, Literary Analysis, Art, Science and Anthropology. The students engage with a multitude of approaches to determine death’s value including economic models; social science analysis of military funerals and the media’s role upon society’s perspective of death in the military; use of death to further scientific knowledge; representations of death in literature; the motif of memento mori and its evolution into modern day bereavement photography; and the cultural and commercial value of rituals associated with death in three cultural groups. We’ve found that this topic is truly something to die for—and hope you do too.  HNRS 200

78. Carson, Heather. Math, Bob Cohen, Jeremy Muskat.

In quantum theory there are many interesting problems which cannot be solved. Computing the exact energy levels associated with an atom as simple as helium is impossible, therefore there is a need for methods that will help us compare different approximations. For this poster presentation we will look at one such method, the variation method. I will present the mathematical framework needed to understand the derivation of the method, and then demonstrate how the method can be used to systematically bound the ground state energy of a system.

79. Ross, Nick and Steven Ristorcelli. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Effectiveness of Motion Sensor Lights in the Residence Halls 

The purpose of this study is to compare the different types of motion sensors for lighting purposes and see how much energy usage will be decreased in the residence halls of the college.  We will be comparing different companies and the type of technologies that they are using, as well as the cost of each company.  We will also be looking at the environmental benefits of using motion sensors, and comparing that to the energy output and the costs associated with energy bills from the residence halls of the school.  We will be comparing our school with other schools that are taking the lead in sustainability,  and companies who have switched over to motion sensor lights to see how much of an energy reduction they have seen and also the reduction in energy costs after switching over.  Finally we will look at the sustainability of the motion sensors themselves.

80. Van Gorder, Drew. Outdoor Leadership/Resort Management. A Skiers Guide to Resort Living

The purpose of this project was to compile information for skiers living a ski bum lifestyle. Data entails average income for entry jobs, price of living, annual snowfall, price of season passes and job availability for 4 different resorts including Whistler, Jackson Hole, Alta and Alyeska. OLRM 491

81. Macy, Michelle and Jarod Watkins. Outdoor Leadership/Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Water Conservation Techniques Practiced at The Wine Bar and Other Local Businesses in The Gunnison Valley

This project explores detailed measurements of water usage in the Wine Bar in Gunnison, CO.  The desired outcomes are to calculate areas of excess water use and reduce unneeded surplus.  This task will done using water volume meters that will calculate the total usage of water coming out of each individual sink, and conducting research during business hours.  Calculated research will pinpoint areas using more water frequently and steps involved to lower these numbers.  Cooperation with the City of Gunnison and the Office of Resource Efficiency will determine water use and practices.  Application of higher quality methods through staff training and more efficient water products will be applied.  This valuable information will result in sustainable practices through widespread conservation procedures that can be reflected upon other businesses.       

82. Coots, Timon and Emily Givan. Outdoor Leadership/Resort Management, Dr. Brooke Moran. A Feasibility Study: Nature-Based Chemical Dependency Treatment Program

The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of operating a nature-based chemical dependency treatment program and center near Lexington, Kentucky.  This project entailed investigations into the viability of the following areas: 1.) Program, 2.) Finance, 3.) Management, and 4.) Environmental Sustainability.  The results of this project will inform a decision whether to pursue this business.

83. McKean, Andrew. Outdoor Leadership/Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Energy Transfer: Kinetic to Electric

Creating electric energy from kinetic motion can be achieved by retrofitting common exercise equipment. The company ReRev advertises that “a typical 30-minute workout produces 50 watt hours of clean, carbon-free electricity.” This company will retrofit the machinery in a gym depending upon the amount of machines and the volume of use. Although the amount of energy yielded may seem novel, the technology could provide a powerful educational tool to those who use the equipment. This technology could be a useful tool to get individuals thinking about energy production, loss, and transfer; and the role that they play in that process. Many other colleges and universities across the United States have installed similar technologies for the same reason. In the future Western State College may be a good candidate for this equipment.

84. Johnson, Blaine and Corey Dusin. Outdoor Leadership/Resort Management, Brooke Moran, Scott Travis. Energy Loggers

We have compared companies offering energy loggers, which monitor how much energy is used by buildings. We have looked at other schools that have energy logger systems, such as CC, UNC, CU, and CSU to figure out the best option for the Western State College.  The energy loggers would help benefit the school by allowing the Western State students to have live access to all of the energy usage of each building.  The energy loggers would give the school a bottom line in regards to energy and help aid our goal to reach the Presidents Climate Commitment.

85. Wilder, Eli. Outdoor Leadership/Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Wilder Guiding

The purpose of this project was to develop a professional image for Wilder Guiding L.L.C., a fly fishing guide service by creating a website, logo, and business cards. This project entailed researching existing industry websites, site visits, and persevering through the trials and tribulations of technology. Marketing materials will be displayed.

86. Holton, Jason. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Dr. Brooke Moran. One Day, One Step

 This project entailed researching the energy use and thus emissions reductions possible by reducing the current five-day school week at Western State College to a four-day school week.  This initiative is designed to help WSC meet the President’s Climate Commitment.  Over the past semester I have analyzed the school’s recent energy use data as well as data collected during the 1990’s when WSC was using a four-day school week.  I have also used the energy data from Kelley Hall to better estimate current per day of week energy consumption here at Western.  In addition to research here at WSC, I have been following the outcome of the State of Utah’s decision to switch to a four-day workweek for most state workers.    My findings have indicated that this initiative would be successful in reducing carbon emissions at Western State College and could be compounded greatly in conjunction with other actions.

87. Jones, Kyle and Josh Bollish. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Sustainable Land Use Education

Every year Western State College gets hundreds of incoming freshmen and transfer students from all over the United States to come learn in a very unique place. Many students are introduced to things they are not used to in their everyday lives. This area offers thousands of acres of public land that students like us are able to use at anytime. With that said it is our responsibility to respect these lands without having someone watching over our shoulder all the time. We want to educate incoming students to Western on where to go to find information on public lands and how to use these lands in the most sustainable way. We plan on giving this information out by email to start and also create a packet that new students receive upon arrival.

88. Ruiz, Rachel. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. An Examination of Sustainability Initiatives on College Campuses Throughout the United States

Sustainability initiatives are becoming more and more common at Colleges and Universities throughout the United States. In an effort to bring more of these initiatives to Western State College, I will be working with the Sustainability Action Committee, mainly under the Sustainability Education & Outreach Subcommittee. I will be doing an examination of various colleges and universities throughout the United States in an effort to find sustainability practices, initiatives, and ideas that can be brought back to Western State College to be used in the upcoming years. My poster will detail my findings and will include the following: sustainability practices currently underway at other colleges and universities; sustainability initiatives found to be successful, as well as those initiatives found to be unsuccessful and why; ideas on how to incorporate these ideas to fit WSC and the Gunnison community.

89. Christopher, John. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Qualitative Research for General Manager Position at a Beach Resort

This qualitative research project is to help me explore my horizons for one day being a General Manager of Beach Resort in the future. Gaining insight and helpful knowledge from General Managers from Beach Resorts in a form of a questionnaire that was sent to them via e-mail. The General Managers have been randomly selected from all over the continental United States, as well as surrounding countries. The answers to these questions will hopefully point me in the right direction that I need to head into shortly after graduation. Themes generated from these questionnaires will be shared and discussed.

90. Ophaug, Erik.
Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Examining our Environment, Experientially

The purpose of this project is to examine the effectiveness of experiential education and the experiential learning cycle in application to beginning the development of student-constructed philosophies concerning human-impacts on the environment, and how to improve upon facilitation of the Experiential Learning Cycle toward this goal.  This was conducted through several stages of literature review and reflection, and the facilitation of multiple groups through the Experiential Learning Cycle.  Directly following these facilitations, informal group interviews were conducted to discern what was effective and what was not.  Reflections on this information yielded the discovery of strong potential for learning and growth in respect to the development of personal philosophies within this method.  Also revealed was the fine line that must be walked to achieve this learning and growth due to a wide array of factors that can make facilitation of this process difficult.

91. Weiss, Elizabeth. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Environmental Education for Young Students  

 In the past it has been thought that primary school-aged children are not cognitively advanced enough to form ethical opinions about the environment.  Today we are seeing evidence that when lessons are presented in a developmentally appropriate way environmental learning can start as young as kindergarten.  The purpose of this project was to create an environmental curriculum for primary school-aged students at One Room School House in Gunnison, CO.  The curriculum stressed nature bonding, ecological principles, a creation of personal ethics for students.

92. Kelly, Ryan. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Paul Tame. Leadership Strategies Relating to The American Colleges & Universities Presidents’ Climate Commitment 

The American Colleges & Universities Presidents’ Climate Commitment is an aggressive and voluntary pledge to initially cut carbon emissions by 20% by 2020 with an ultimate goal of zero emissions by 2050; Western State College of Colorado is one of 560 institutions that is committed to attaining this goal. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into leadership challenges and successes regarding campus buy-in from leaders and directors at five different institutions, including WSC. Analysis of interviews and associated findings are aimed at informing WSC’s strategies for leadership and garnering buy-in with the ultimate goal of cutting carbon emissions.

93. Metz, Noah. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Riding our Way into a Better Valley

This project based inquiry focused on bike community programs around the nation, how these programs benefit the communities and what steps were taken to make them thrive. The information that was gathered came from the following communities: Aspen (Colorado), Iowa City (Iowa), Platteville (Wisconsin) and Fort Collins (Colorado). If these steps are accomplished our community will have a greater access to non-motorized forms of transportation, while reducing the valley’s carbon emissions. This aim will alien with the universities goal of cutting the emissions down eighty percent by 2050. 

94. Olsen, Kristen. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Dr. Brooke Moran. Electric Trucks: ZAPTRUCK XL a New Friend to Facilities

Smart Design and new innovative technologies are serving the Western State College campus to become a more “green” campus. This project is designed around revamping the entire Western fleet. This is the start of a large-scale plan. By the end of the spring semester a portion of the facilities services fleet will be electric. The vehicle that has been on the forefront of discussion for this endeavor is the ZAPTRUCK XL by Zap! (An electric car company). Western has received a grant for $100,000 (thanks to Andrew Jenkins) for this specific cause. I am working in coordination with Paul Morgan, Director of facilities services, Andrew Jenkins, VP of finance and Administration, and Aspen Electric Cars to purchase such a vehicle. I am currently in the process of purchasing one of these vehicles for trial use.

95. Albanese, Evan and Adam Wadas. Outdoor Leadership and Resort Management, Brooke Moran. Sustainable Operation Plans for the Brick Cellar 

The aim of this project was to aid the Brick Cellar Bar and Sushi Bistro in becoming more sustainable. This entailed researching historical annual gas and electric use and devising methods of reduction. Areas of focus were on heating the building and water and electric use associated with appliances and lighting. Potential options for future solar and on-demand water heating plans with also be researched.

96. Baran, Andrew, Courtney Bock, Amanda Crosby,, Chritopher Esterlein, Sheree Friedel, Miles Gorham, Daniel Heck, Trista Hetland, Kyle Keller, Druvis Keuten, Alison Kicklighter, Keesa Lanius, Selena Leitner, John Logan, Matthew McConnell, Stacy Lee Norris, Ben Rideout, Cotton Scriminger, David Sugnet, Amber Summer, Holly Tangeman and Jeremiah Tyrey. Physics, Steve Griggs. Determination of Dye Identity & Concentration in Purple Powerade

The concentrations of dyes in grape powerade were found using paper chromatography, scanning spectrometry, and photospectrometry. A standard curve was found from standards of blue and red dye solutions, known as Beer’s Law. We used this equation to calculate and predict concentrations in the grape powerade, since the absorbance of colors in the drink was known. Scanning spectrometry found the wavelengths of the dyes in the drinks, which were used to achieve maximum absorbance from the photospectrometer. Paper chromatography showed the gradient of dyes in the drink. The averaged class results for the concentration of blue dye # 1 and red dye #40 are 4.40E-6 ± 0.355E-6, and 1.39E-5 ± 0.0279E-5, respectively.  Blue dye has no major effects on the human body and an unknown toxicity, however red dye has more known chronic problems and toxicity of >10000mg/kg.

97. Andrews, Alyssa, Tayler Birdsall, Aaron Boyers, Kevin Brooks, Kimberly Caron, Ian Fischer, Berenice Gonzalez, Kyle Graulus, James Haag, Hallie Hardrick, Robert Hollis, Christin Joiner, Kellyn Kirch, Scott Krankkala, Rebecca Laughlin, Andrew Maxcy, Mark Mikos, Terence, O'Neill, Julianne Payton, Sarah Schmitz, Harrison Simons, Dorothy Steams and Matthew Toensing. Physics, Steve Griggs. Determination of Dye Identity and Concentration in Grape Soda Using Visible Spectroscopy

This experiment indentified and determined the concentration of dyes in “Big K” grape flavored soda using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy. Paper chromatography indicated the two dyes in the beverage were Red and Blue.  Standards were FD&C Red #40 at 3.71E-5M and FD&C Blue #1 at 5.39E-6M.  The Spectronic 20 measured the absorbance and was set to a wavelength of maximum absorbance for each dye present.  The maximum wavelengths were determined using a scanning spectrophotometer to measure the absorption. The absorptions were compared to those found in a diluted drink solution and the maximum absorption was determined.  The maximum absorption found by the scanning spectrophotometer of FD&C Red #40 was 512 nm and FD&C Blue #1 was 633 nm.  A standard curve was produced.   Finally the original concentration of each dye in the beverage, which was 5.16E-5 for FD&C Red #40 and 1.37E-5 for FD&C Blue #1.

98. Bowker, Shaun, Samantha Bruce, Emily Clark, William Curry, Brett George, Teresa Gorrod, Rosalie Hernandez Haga, Benjamin Jackson, Brian Letzler, Ross McGee, Mitchell McMonigle, Janelle Moorhouse, Keri O'Malley, K K Roeder, Luke Sample, Tyler Smith, Buckie Thornock, Teslyn Visscher, Angela Vitulli and Herb Zumberge.  Physics, Steve Griggs. Determination of Dye Identity and Concentration Using Visible Spectroscopy

The purpose of the experiment was to identify dyes in Gatorade Rain Berry Flavored beverage and determine the concentration of the dyes.  The identities of the dyes were ascertained through submitting beverage samples to a scanning spectrophotometer, which showed peak absorbance of each dye in the beverage compared to absorbance of known solutions of Red #40 and Blue #1.  The beverage sample was submitted to paper chromatography, confirming the presence of blue and red.  Five different concentrations of the dye were measured as standard solutions in the Spectronic 20.  Absorbance was calculated from percent transmittance.  Beer’s Law, A = εLc which compares absorbance and path length, was used to calculate the concentration of each dye.  A class average and standard deviation were produced, showing that Blue Dye #1 was present at a concentration of  4.98x10-7 ±1.23x10-7 M, and Red Dye #40 was present at a concentration of  7.11x10-6 ±1.13x10-6 M. 

99. Pennel, Tyler, Tyler Magee and Drew Wasmund. Political Science, Maria Struble. Effectiveness of the United Nations’ Poverty Reduction Strategies

The United Nations (UN) is a vast organization with many agencies. The size of the UN hinders its ability to achieve goals.  This presentation will show information on how effective agencies operating under the UN are at reducing poverty. In explaining how the UN attempts to reduce poverty, we will examine two specific agencies: the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). By looking at the ways that these agencies attempt to alleviate poverty, we will be able to evaluate how effective the results are. Also we will analyze how UNICEF and UNDP consider only the mainstream view of poverty and leave out alternative views that could be more effective.

100. Vong, Cindy, John Finkbiner and Grayson Stewart. Political Science, Maria Struble. Environmental Degradation in China

Environmental degradation has been an issue of increasing concern as factors like pollution have sped up the effects of global warming. The consequences of environmental neglect have be found around the world. In a country as vast as China, with a growing population and economy, the fate of their environment remains unclear. The purpose of research on environmental degradation in China is to see how factors like increasing population and economic status affects the future of their natural resources. By providing background information, information that is sufficient to support discussion topics, and illustrating the facts that could help reverse what has been done, this presentation will present a unique view on the China’s environment concern. Though China is a vast country, it is believed that despite those factors, with awareness to the environmental impacts, the fate of their nature can change and adapt to better accommodate for a greener world.

101. Popp, Elise, Lawson Davis and Stephanie White. Political Science, Maria Struble. Israeli War Crimes

Since the United Nations General Assembly created the separate states of Israel and Palestine in 1947, conflict over land and resources has been constant.  A recent 576-page report issued by the United Nations stated that Israel committed war crimes between the dates of December 27th, 2008 and January 18th, 2009 during its Operation Cast Lead, which targeted Palestinian rocket squads in the Gaza Strip.  This paper addresses the war crimes mentioned in the U.N.’s report and how the United States and Iran are perpetuating this violence. Furthermore, it will be shown that propaganda tactics like fear mongering in election campaigns and the use of weapons such as white phosphorous bombs on civilian populations have been endorsed by the U.S. and therefore will not be prosecuted by the international community.  This paper also suggests that, as South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu and former U.S. President Jimmy Carter have asserted, Israel is tragically an apartheid regime.                  

102. Lindsey, Max, Cameron Ainsworth and Louis Fredricks. Political Science, Maria Struble. Opium Trade in Afghanistan

The opium industry in Afghanistan is responsible for a majority of the funding for illegitimate groups and terrorist organizations. Economic conditions force many to turn to opium as a source of income. This presentation is going to look at how the poppy production in Afghanistan leads to violence, corruption, and terrorist organizations, as well as what is being done to stop this growing problem.  The presentation will first describe the nature of the problem; secondly it will identify any action the Afghan government is taking to help stop the opium production; then it will look at international help being given to Afghanistan. Finally, it will evaluate whether any of these efforts are having a positive effect on these issues. We are expecting to find that there are some efforts to address this problem, but the corruption and lack of substantial government in Afghanistan drastically limits the effectiveness of any positive actions. 

103. Miller, Rebecca, Alex Clayton and Matt Johnston. Political Science, Maria Struble.

Certain IMF policies have both direct and indirect influences on the presence and degree of corruption in some African countries such as Liberia and Sudan. The IMF policies that affect and influence corruption in these countries involve the principle of neo-liberalism and are manifested in specific policies like structural adjustment and public financial management. The presence of corruption in these African countries will be quantified using sources like Transparency International and the Global Corruption Barometer to determine the varying degrees of corruption in the countries of Liberia and Sudan, and also to help analyze and define terms such as kleptocracy and narco-kleptocracy.

104. Anderson, Whitnie. Psychology, Roger Drake. Peoples’ Compliance with Accident Prevention Tools

My purpose of this research paper was to connect people’s driving abilities with accident prevention.  I used two articles, which looked at different people’s driving in two types of conditions, road rage, and speed limit compliance.  This paper was also trying to show how people’s compliance with speed limits eliminated accidents.  It can be found that when drivers’ obey rules they have fewer accidents on and off the job. Kim McCoy ---Women’s basal body temperature, BBT, fluctuates throughout the month based on menstrual cycle and hormonal levels.  In comparison, non-ovulating women’s BBT also fluctuates, but randomly.  In this study we measured the basal body temperature of 5 non-ovulating women, 6 ovulating women, and 3 men of various ages as a control group. We found that women experience a decrease in body temperature at the onset of their monthly cycle.  When ovulation begins, approximately 2 weeks after the first day of the menstrual cycle, body temperature increases and remains heightened until menstruation begins. Temperatures fluctuate for the ovulating women, but have a steady average for the non-ovulating women, and control group

105. Warren, Megan. Psychology, Roger Drake. Effectiveness and Techniques of Organizational Training and Evaluation 

Many business and organizations spend vast amounts of time and money to effectively train new and current employees for their position in the company.  It is important that the organization takes an active interest in staying up to date on current methods of training and remain knowledgeable about the subject matter they are trying to communicate.   Training methods, career development and planning and evaluation of organizational training programs are an integral part of the success of the future of the employee and in turn, the employer.  The effectiveness of different employee training techniques and post-training evaluation can help ensure employee knowledge and job satisfaction.

106. Mayberry, Domini. Psychology, Roger Drake. Infidelity and the Role It Plays on Relationships

A (dating) relationship can be considered an emotional bond and connection between two individuals. A marriage is just that, except now it becomes a social institution where the individuals decide to make such a bond official by legally becoming (typically) “man and wife”. Infidelity is a breaking of that bond. There are two types of infidelity, sexual and emotional. “Sexual infidelity refers to sexual activity with someone other than one’s long-term partner; emotional infidelity occurs when one’s partner channels resources such as romantic love, time, and attention to someone else” (Shackelford, LeBlanc, Drass, 2000, p. 644). “The part of infidelity that comes into focus is the reconstructing of relationships between everyone in the family, but the greatest threat of reconstruction is with the couple themselves” (Levine, 2005, p. 147). Infidelity will be dissected and analyzed in areas that involve explanation of marital infidelity, reactions to infidelity, reasons/factors for infidelity, forgiveness and the presence of the apology, and finally, couple’s therapy.

107. Vollmer, Cecelia. Psychology, Roger Drake. Self Image: Bulimia Nervosa Among Young Women

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors. The most common form is defensive vomiting, sometimes called purging; fasting, the use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and over exercising are also common. I would like to explain different aspects involving BN and hopefully answer questions for myself as well. I am focusing on young women with the disease and covering topics such as pregnancy with BN, athletics and BN and also what is being done to help and prevent BN in schools today. It is important to remember that there is no one cause for Bulimia and it is ignited and fueled by many different situations and aspects of young girls’ lives.

108. Haring, Morgan. Psychology

 Childhood Mood Disorders and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have been increasingly prevalent among children and adolescents. There has been a highly accepted practice of medicating this age group as a primary form of treatment. Through my research I have explored why diagnoses amongst this age group is so common within the last 10-20 years. Difficulty in proper diagnosis perpetuates tension within the fields of Psychiatry and Psychology. There are unknown long-term consequences of medicating this age group due to a lack of research. However many short-term effects seem sufficient enough to look for less invasive treatment. The media and insurance companies only seem to perpetuate the problem to say the least.  Exploration of alternative treatment concludes my paper.

109. Anderson, Jacob, John Maley, Chloe Masseria and Lia Coleman. Science, Robin Bingham and Allen Stork. The Effect of Different Colored Light on the Height of Brassica Rapa

The study we conducted was to determine if plant growth is affected by different colors of light to which it is exposed.  Our hypothesis was that the natural colored lighting would allow the most substantial growth of our study plants (Brassica rapa).  We exposed 16 Brassica rapa plants to different lights including red, green, blue and natural lighting with a total of 4 plants under each.  All plants were germinated and grown from seed.  At the end of the growing period each plant’s height was measured.  The plants that were grown in the natural colored light grew the highest with an average of 16.63cm. The plants that grew under the red colored light had the least growth with an average of 7cm. The hypothesis that the natural colored light would cause the Brassica plant to grow more on average was supported in our experiment. In conclusion, the natural light causes the Brassica rapa plants to have the highest average plant height.

110. Berger, Kelly, Holly Midcap, Ruth Montano and Jordan Owens. Science, Robin Bingham and Allen Stork The Effect of Different Watering Solutions on the Height of Brassica Rapa

This study was conducted to determine if watering plants with different solutions would have an effect on their height.  We hypothesized that plants exposed to either sucrose solution or water would grow well, while those exposed to salt or vinegar would not. We planted two Brassica rapa seeds in each of 16 pots. These were divided into four groups each receiving 1M soulutions of sucrose, salt, vinegar or water (control). We grew the Brassica rapa plants watering them every three to four days.  After a three week period we measured the total length of the plants. To ensure that our measurements were as accurate as possible we inserted the ruler 1cm into the soil of each pot before measuring the plant.  The average height for the control was 20.13cm, vinegar averaged 16.13cm, sucrose averaged 1.7cm, and the salt exposed plants did not grow. We rejected our hypothesis that growth of plants exposed to sucrose would be comparable to our control. We also did not expect the plants exposed to vinegar to grow as well as they did. In conclusion, salt exposure at the concentrations used in this experiment kill Brassica rapa seeds, sucrose exposure allowed plants to grow mimimally, and vinegar significantly stunts plant growth.

111. Kielian, Katie, Giovanni Bowers, and Adam Petty. Science, Robin Bingham and Allen Stork. The Effect of Pot Size on Plant Height and Stem Width

This study was conducted to determine if pot size, resulting in a greater amount of soil would affect plant growth.  We predicted that the larger the pot the better the plant would grow.  We used three different size pots; eight four inch diameter pots and four pots each of three inches and two inches.  Throughout the next few weeks all of the plants were watered the same and received the same amount of light.  At the end of the experiment the plants in the four inch pots had the tallest average plant height, which was 289mm.  The three and two inch pots had average heights of 226mm and 156mm, respectively.  Also, the average stem width was greatest in the four inch pot (1.4mm).  The three inch pot had an average width of .75mm and the two inch pot average stem width was .52 mm.  These data support our hypothesis that in larger pots plants will grow better.

112. Mast, Jessica, Sarah Koch and Lauren McNally. Science, Robin Bingham and Allen Stork. The Effects of Different Soils on the Height of Brassica Rapa

We investigated how different soils affect the growth of Brassica rapa plants. Our hypothesis was that the soil made for Brassica plants would grow taller plants compared to the other three soils. Our methods were to plant 16 different plants, each with 2 fertilizer beads and 3 seeds. We used four different types of soils, and randomized the pots to reduce spatial effects on plant growth.  The soils included a compost mix, the special Brassica mix, a soil from Hartman Rocks and another from a location by the school underneath a tree. The plants that grew the most were the ones with the special Brassica mixture. Next, were the compost followed by the two other samples. A total of 8 plants grew in this soil with an average height of 7.3 cm. The second most fertile soil was the compost soil with 8 plants total and an average height of 1.8 cm. The third most fertile soil was from Hartman Rocks, with 4 plants total and an average height of 1.3 cm. The least fertile soil was from the school underneath a tree with a total of only  2 plants and an average height of 0.47 cm. Brassica plants grew best in the soil specifically designed for their growth.