Fall 2012 Poster Presentations

Western Celebration of Scholarship Undergraduate Research Symposium

Thursday, December 6, 2012, University Center Ballroom

12:30   Introduction and opening remarks  Dr. Patricia Manzanares-Gonzales




The posters  are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the submitting author. The discipline and supervising instructor are listed after the authors. Because a central goal of the event is to explore the practices of communication and critical inquiry across disciplines in the tradition of the liberal arts, the disciplines and course levels (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) are intentionally mixed. We hope this encourages cross disciplinary interactions as well as providing opportunities for cross class communication and role modeling. Where a poster is part of a specific course project the course number is indicated at the end of the abstract.


1. Alderson, Joelle. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Strategies for Developing a Physical Education and After School Sports Program in Mexico


Youth fitness and exercise are gaining awareness worldwide as an essential part of a healthy lifestyle; however, it can be a challenge to provide opportunities to children in third world countries. Little research has been done to explore strategies for developing a physical education and after school sports program in Mexico. This qualitative study aimed to generate and examine strategies for developing and implementing a physical education and after school sports program for a K-12 school run at an orphanage in Mexico. Methods: Interviews of individuals who are experienced in youth fitness were conducted in person, over the phone, and through instant messenger. ESS


2. Armstrong, Benjamin, Karelia Brown, Spencer Hemker, Michael Knudsen, John Logan, Lawrence Norquist, Sage Smith, and Joshua Whitton. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Assessing the Habitat of Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Against Impacts of Grazing and Future Logging – Road, Beaver Creek, CO



Road Beaver Creek (RBC) is a highly sensitive environment in Gunnison County, Colorado. It is home to Colorado River Cutthroat Trout (CRCT), Oncorhynchus clarki pleuriticus, a species of concern. This species is susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances, such as cattle grazing, road construction and logging. CRCT require gravel substrate with minimal fine sediments to spawn. RBC habitat can be negatively impacted by unregulated cattle grazing and poorly constructed logging/access roads. Our baseline water quality data documents habitat conditions associated with current grazing and road impacts. We collected sinuosity, substrate size, macroinvertebrate samples, width-depth ratio, and suspended solid data at one reference and three study sites. Disturbances were examined at points that were occupied by cattle and road crossings as well as an upstream reference site. This data will be used by managers to examine the effects of road crossing improvements and changes to cattle grazing. BIOL  476.

3. Bailey, Jackson, Steve Culhane, and Nelson Boyer. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Plotting the moon’s orbit.



Do you know how far the moon moves across the sky? Until doing this project we didn’t either. We observed The moon’s orbit between September 19 and October 3. All observations were recorded from the same location between 8:00 P.M. and 9:00 P.M., and almost all of our observation days had clear skies. We began our project at the start of a lunar cycle, and on our first night we observed that the moon was right on the horizon at an azimuth of 250o.  Several days later, on [date] the Moon reached its highest point at an altitude of 70o and an azimuth of 120o the moon ended at an altitude of 30o and an azimuth 80oon our final night. We were very surprised to see how far the moon actually moved. PHYS 110.

4. Bain, Jason, Benjamin Armstrong, Corbin Bennets, and Mat Martinez. Biology. Patrick Magee. Optimum moisture content for efficient compost management.

Moisture allows microorganisms to thrive and decompose plant matter; however, too much moisture can facilitate anaerobic conditions, preventing these organisms to function efficiently. To determine ideal moisture content of compost, we prepared three separate treatment groups and a control group with equal amounts of organic material, each replicated three times. The three treatment groups received 75 mL, 150 mL, and 225 mL of water respectively three days a week for four weeks; the control group received none. We dried all the compost piles to obtain a final mass without influence of water weight.  The 75 mL and 150 mL treatments had significantly less mass than the control.  However the 225 mL treatment showed no significant difference in mass compared to the control.  Likewise, the three treatments showed no significant difference when compared to each other.  This implicates water is necessary in decomposition, however a heavy watering regiment inhibits efficient decomposition. BIOL  302.

5. Blackman, Trevor. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Effect of Advanced Indoor Athletic and Recreation Facilities on Student Enrollment and Retention.

As the emphasis on physical fitness becomes and ever growing phenomenon in the United States, the availability of advanced sport and exercise facilities at collegiate institutions is becoming increasingly prominent factor in students determining attendance. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the addition and construction of an advanced indoor sport and recreation facility have on the rate of enrollment and retention rates at a small Division II university. A qualitative survey will be given to 200 students at a University regarding athletic involvement, exercise habits, and identifying important factors in their own university selection process. ESS 495.

6. Brookens, Kyle, Tim DeLory, Kelsey McCreedy, Kyle Krawczak, and Hannah Giles. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Growth Rate of Brassica rapa is not Affected by Music.


Our first hypothesis was that B. rapa plants exposed to positively sounding music and positive verbal encouragement would increase the growth rate (height, bud production, and biomass) of the plants in both 72-atrazine resistant and susceptible genotypes. Our second hypothesis was that the susceptible genotype would have greater growth rates than the resistant genotype in the control, positive, and negative experimental groups. We used the song “Somewhere over the Rainbow” by IZ Israel Kamakawiwo-ole to serve as the means to expose the plants to positive sounds and the song “Asphyxiation” by I Declare War to serve as the means to expose the plants to negative sounds. The control group was not exposed to any sounds. Growth rate was measured by the mean number of buds produced, height, and biomass. We found no significant differences between the groups. We found that a much larger sample size would be necessary to infer any greater implications of this study. BIOL  151.

7. Brooks, Matthew. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. WSCU Outdoor Adventure Summer Program.

The Gunnison Valley has a vast array of recreation opportunities. These opportunities can be used as a recruitment tool for WSCU to attract prospective students. This program will take advantage of this recruitment tool opportunity and offer a program that will allow prospective students to engage in these recreation opportunities and develop a sense of what the Gunnison Valley has to offer. A unique aspect of this program is that the staff that will be employed to lead this program will be students within the Recreation and Outdoor Education department who are looking to gain more work experience in the field. ROE 491.

8. Bruce, Samantha, Dan Gerrity, Ben Nesbit, Jeramiah Tyrey. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and high-Performance Liquid Chromatography to Test Vanilla Content.

Concentrations of vanillan, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid and ethel vanillin are ingredients in vanilla.  Concentrations of these ingredients were measured in nine different brands of vanilla extract. Concentrations were tested using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). CHEM 306.

9. Brush, Cassidy, Grant Golightly, and Beau Milton. Biology. Amy Honan. Effects of the herbicide atrazine on resistant and non-resistant Brassica rapa


This experiment was designed to test the fitness cost of resistant and non-resistant B. rapa when exposed to atrazine. Leaf count and total height were recorded over a three week period, before and after two atrazine applications. Our hypothesis that atrazine would negatively affect non-resistant B. rapa  was largely not supported because only one significant difference was found between experimental and control non-resistant groups in leaf count at the higher concentration. BIOL 151.

10. Byrne, Matthew, Danielle Lauridsen, Aaron Heredia, and Luke Sample. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Determination of Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations in the Mt. Emmons Iron Fen by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

The Mt. Emmons iron fen is a mineral-rich spring-fed wetland located above the town of Crested Butte along Kebler pass road. The fen is laden with many dissolved metals due to the acidity of iron sulfide, causing the spring to leech cadmium, zinc, and other metals into the water. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), water is unsafe to consume if the concentration of cadmium exceeds 0.005 parts per million (ppm). Zinc is listed as a secondary contaminant, causing cosmetic or aesthetic effects above 5 ppm. The Analytical Chemistry class analyzed the fen water according to EPA methods to determine the concentrations of cadmium and zinc by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of cadmium was found to be nearly three times the acceptable limit, while zinc was below the established maximum. CHEM 306.

11. Cannady, Jordan, Ross Davis, and Marty McGrane. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. The Positions of the Setting Sun

This study was done on the movement of setting Sun in Gunnison, Colorado. This takes into account both pictures of the Sun and the azimuth compass measurement. It was done during the passing of summer to autumn so we were able to see changes in regard to season as well. The sun was observed every 4-7 days, including a sketch done on its position. By using a compass, we were able to track the azimuth or degree in which the Sun was setting. The exact time that the Sun disappears is also recorded in this study. PHYS 110.

12. Chipman, Ryan, Sam Wheeler, David Guenther, and Julie Watson. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Planetary Motions of Mars and Jupiter

The objective of our project was to observe and document the motions and positions of Jupiter and Mars over a six week period.  Once a week, as a group, we met out at Hartman’s Rock to observe the planets location according to where they were in the constellations in the sky. We discovered that Mars moved west to east and roughly the same rate each week. Overall we discovered that Mars moved 25 degrees right ascension total.  While we discovered Jupiter was in retrograde motion starting out moving west to east, then towards the end Jupiter started moving east to west. Over the course of six weeks, Jupiter moved 11 degrees right ascension while moving backwards 3 degrees towards the end due to retrograde motion. PHYS 110.

13. Clark, Kody. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. The effects of static and dynamic stretching routines on vertical leap

The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to compare the effect of static and dynamic warm-up routines on vertical leap. Ten state university male football athletes between the ages of 19 and 23 who regularly trained in both aerobic or resistance training, were asked to participate in a static and dynamic stretching routine that targeted the lower body. Each routine was separated by two days. Once each routine was complete, each subject was asked to step onto an electronic mat to test their vertical leap. Each subject was tested three times and then an average was recorded. Each warm-up routine was compared using an ANOVA (p.<.05). ESS 495.

14. Clark,  Hillary. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Effect that Acli-mate® Endurance Sports Drink has on Endurance Cycling Time Trial

The performance claims made by sports drink companies are supported mostly by biased research.  With increasing popularity of sports drinks for exercisers and athletes, research that is non-biased needs to be completed.  This double blind crossover case study sought to test the effect that Acli-mate® Endurance Sport Drink (Acli-mate®) had on endurance cyclists’ performance in a 10-kilometer time trial at high altitude.  Gas analysis was performed on two male trained mountain bikers to determine maximum aerobic performance (VO2max). A 60-minute pre-fatigue cycling bout at 75% VO2max occurred and participants ingested Acli-mate® or Gatorade every 15 minutes.  There were 2 trials; the cyclists ingested one sports drink in trial 1 and then the other sports drink in trial 2.  Immediately following the each pre-fatigue cycling bout, an all out 10-kilometer time trial was completed. ESS 495.

15. Comeau, Jeremy. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Junior Snow Ranger Curriculum Development

Understanding the sequence of human cognitive development, and incorporating progressive teaching styles, is essential for designing scholastic curriculum that promotes further individual growth; socially, physically, and academically.  The Gunnison National Forest Service (NFS) is hosting the Junior Snow Ranger Program (JSRP), partnering with the Gunnison School District (GSD) and Crested Butte Mountain Resort. In the past, the GSD has forgone implementing of the NFS JSRP, due to the lack of the relation to scholastic content in the programs curriculum.  NFS Rangers do not come from a teaching background that they can pull ideas from to design educational materials in an effective manner.  This study will signify the best approach to developing and delivering the JSRPC for fourth and fifth graders in Gunnison. By designing an outdoor experience for students that aligns with the state of Colorado academic standards, this provides the supporting elements to make purposeful connections to JSRP content. ROE 491.

16. Daniels, Germaine.Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. The Effects of Plyometric Training on 40 yard Dash Times

The 40 yard dash has been a measuring tool for many years in sports to determine an athlete’s top speed.  The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to research the effects of plyometric training on 40 yard dash times in male non-athletes (ages 18-24).  In this study 8 male non-athlete regular exercisers were split into 2 groups a control group and plyos group. All subjects ran the 40 yard dash a total of 4 times. All subjects ran two 40 yard dashes as a pretest on the same day. Then the plyo group received plyometric training for 1 month, 2 times a week for 45 minutes. The control group continued their daily exercise regiment. After 1 month both groups were tested again for 40 yard dash times. Data were analyzed descriptively and using a t-test (p<.05).  ESS 495.

17. Dore, Sarah, Ryan Potter, Ryan White, and Nadia Juvera. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. The Setting Sun

In our project, Position of the Setting Sun, our goal was to observe the setting Sun and record its changing position along the horizon over the course of a few weeks. We started on September 9th and ended on October 11th. We went out about three times a week a few minutes before the Sun set and took a compass bearing of the position of the setting Sun when the disk of the Sun was halfway below the horizon. We waited for the Sun to disappear completely behind the horizon and recorded that time. What we discovered was that over time the Sun moved south to north by a few degrees over the time span of our observations. From September 9th to October 11th the position of the setting Sun changed by 16.1 degrees. PHYS  110.

18. Febbraro, Wesley, Sam Bevers, Brandon M. Cary, Aubrey Seiff, Robert Kato, Jacob Puent, Leighton Fearn, Geoff Howard, Alan Debs, Brandon Shuck, Kyla Taylor, and Anthony Apodaca. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Dye Concentrations In PowerAde Zero: Grape Flavor

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in  PowerAde Zero(Grape) using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy, utilizing Beer’s Law. Two dyes were found to exist in PowerAde Zero(Grape). Thin layer chromatography was used to separate the dyes and identify them.  To determine the concentration of these dyes, four standards were made with a known concentration of each dye along with pure PowerAde. These values were used to create an equation relating concentration to % Absorption (based on Beer’s Law). The dyes were found to be Red #40 and Blue #1, and the class average concentration of Red #40 was found to be 1.034x10-5  ± 8.796x10-7 M and the average concentration of Blue #1 was found to be 1.641x10-6 ± 3.354x10-7 M. CHEM 112.   

19. Florian, Jenna.Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Why Do Athletes Stop Participating in Sports?



The purpose of this quantitative descriptive study was to examine why athletes stopped competing in sports from the high school to the collegiate level.  A questionnaire containing yes or no and open and close ended questions was given out regarding sport participation and reason for leaving sports.  There were 50 subjects, 25 men and 25 women.  The subjects were men and women attending a university who were former athletes. The questionnaire was handed out in five classes across a university campus in the Midwest.  The questionnaire was then coded and analyzed descriptively using a Pearson’s r correlation coefficient. ESS 495.



20. Gage, Brian, Forest Hockman, Matt Martel, Morgan Haymens. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution

For our observing project we are looking at artificial light and the reduction of visible stars in the night sky. Our group went to three different locations, first we observed from the edge of town in Gunnison, then we went out to Hartman’s, and lastly we went out past Hartman’s to the Bambi’s trailhead. At each location we looked in eight different directions in a 360-degree view taking observations of how many stars are visible through a cardboard tube. We took note of azimuth and altitude to get a sense of where we are looking in the sky. We concluded that the farther from Gunnison we were the more stars became visible. We also found that we saw less stars when looking towards Gunnison from outside of town. PHYS 110.

21. Gemmell, Matthew.Exercise and Sport Science. Christiana Buchanan. Gatorade 'G series' and Perceived Fatigue among WSCU's Men's Tournament Soccer

After personal consumption of Gatorade on and off the court during high intensity bouts of exercise, excessive amounts of thirst seemed to return after a few minutes of consumption.  Does the use of water versus Gatorade make a notable difference in thirst quenching, hydration, and recovery among high intensity sport participants?  15 male participants between the ages of 18 and 25 were separated into two study groups, each group tasked with consumption of either water or Gatorade for two weeks.  After two weeks, the study groups switched the fluid they consumed.  Before the study began, subjects filled out a pre-study survey.  During the study participants filled out a survey after every practice (10 total practices).  After the two week study, subjects filled out a final survey. Surveys measured diet, fatigue and other supplements.   Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. ESS 495.

22. Gomes, Dylan, Sam Bevers, John Kesler, and Jacob Powell. Biology. Patrick Magee. An Investigation of the Foraging Behavior of Orconectes virilis in the Presence of Oncorhynchus nerka


Crayfish are an important part of trout’s diet (Tay et al. 2010). The dynamic predator-prey relationship of trout and crayfish is important in properly managing both species.  Our study revolves around the specific relationship between the northern crayfish and the rainbow trout. We hypothesized that crayfish will spend more time under cover in the presence of  large trout. This has important implications on a crayfish’s reproductive ability. We approached this question by measuring average time the crayfish spent  in and out of cover with or without the trout present. With this data we ran a T-test to determine if there is any significant difference between the time spent in and out of cover with or without trout present.  Our data showed that there was no significant difference between crayfish cover time with or without trout present (P=0.47). BIOL 302.

Hamacher, Bryan, Matt Martinez, Kyle Graulus, Chelsey Stefan, Ben Sharp, Claudia Strijek, Sarah McClernan, and Nolan Hapeman. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Baseline Stream Assessment for Tomichi Creek at Tenderfoot Mountain in Gunnison, Colorado

This study gathered baseline aquatic data for Tomichi Creek on Western State Colorado University property at the base of Tenderfoot Mountain in the Fall 2012.  Using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols published by the EPA (Stevenson and Bahls 1999) we sampled eight random selected sites for diatoms, within a 100 m transect. We also collected macroinvertebrates using the same protocols using a Surber sampler and dipnet. Geomorphic data were collected to determine Rosgen stream classification.  Water quality and stream classification using diatoms and macroinvertebrates and measures of community structure were determined and analyzed using Ecological Data Application System software and compared to State of Colorado water quality standards. This data will be used as baseline data to assess the success of future restoration in this stretch of Tomichi Creek. BIOL 476.

24. Heck, Daniel, Mary Goodwin, Aaron Gowins, and Stefanie Bolini. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Caffeine, Benzoic acid, and Aspartame in Diet Sodas

In the analytical chemistry laboratory we analyzed caffeine, benzoic acid, and aspartame content for their relative concentrations in common store bought energy and soda drinks. Caffeine, a central nervous system stimulant and diuretic is commonly consumed in a multitude of beverages in foods in the United States. Aspartame is used as an artificial sweetener in many food and drink products. Benzoic acid is a common preservative used often in beverages to preserve shelf life and maximize chemical stability. All three studied chemicals are at least acutely toxic when consumed in exceeded amounts. We determined the concentration of these chemicals in common store bought diet beverages using capillary electrophoresis. CHEM 306.

25. Hunt, Kyona, Jacob Posey, Anglea Vitulli, and Sarah Rodgers. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Effects of Water Level on specific plant Species in Blue Mesa Reservoir

Drought can diminish crop growth, cause war between species for resources, and have large economic impacts. Trends for plants in a normal drought are to decrease in population and density because of the lack of water. Blue Mesa reservoir is currently in a drought situation. Drought can have severe environmental stress on vegetation, which in turn can lead to stress on wildlife that depends on vegetation as a food source. In this study we propose to test the effects of decreased water level in Blue Mesa on certain plant species in the reservoir. We hypothesize that the decreased water level will have significant difference in the density of certain plant species. This will help us to determine if these plant species are beneficial or detrimental to the health of the Blue Mesa Reservoir and those species that indirectly depend on it. ENVS 390.

26. Hunt, Kyona. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. The Northwest's Overload of Natural Resource

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) operates transmission lines and markets for power in Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Montana, and even California and other Western States mainly through dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The BPA in the past has used hydroelectric dams to balance the power grid by ramping up or slowing flow. Currently there is roughly 3,500 megawatts of installed wind capacity in the region. This capacity is expected to increase to 6,000 megawatts in 2013 (Crowe). With the rise of wind energy, the Northwest is facing a problem of too much energy. The BPA has curtailed wind generators in order to avoid overloading the grid. They have had to pay federally subsidized wind generators for their lost income, increasing costs to the consumer. The Northwest is exploring other policy options in order to deal with their excess natural resource of energy. ENVS 370.

27. Jackowiak, Cameron, Charles Spydell, Derek Warner, and Manuel Sena. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Sun Spots

Our project is based around the objective of using sunspots to determine the amount of time that it takes for the Sun to make a full rotation. In order to accomplish this objective, we attached a camera to a telescope and took pictures of the Sun every few days for about three weeks. These photographs revealed dark spots on the surface of the Sun that are known as sunspots. The spots appeared to move to the right and slightly up over time. After we had all of our pictures we transferred all of the sunspots onto one photo to make it easier to measure the distance between them.  From this we found that from our calculations it took the Sun 17 days to make one full rotation when in reality it takes the sun 25 days to rotate once.  This gave us a 32% difference between the actual and what we measured.  We believe that this came from when we were transferring our data as well as the fact that the sun is round and from our pictures we only get a two dimensional view to work with on our measurements. PHYS 110.

28. James, Jared, Corbin Bennetts, Devani Lemmon, Hailey Loeffler, Sarah McClernan, Elise Picard, Landan Schaller, Natalie Tarasar, Gavin Thompson, Kirsten Wenum, and Rebecca Young Honors. Shelley Read. Facing Fear

Fear is inescapable, thus it is important to understand how it can be a tool in our lives rather than an unrecognizable force that could potentially have unintended consequences.  It is possible and necessary to bring fear into conscious awareness to better understand fear and its importance. Through examination of case studies, personal application, and a multi-disciplinary panel discussion with professors, our class developed a methodology for bringing fear from the unconscious to the conscious mind.  This methodology will aid people in recognizing and utilizing fear in beneficial ways. HNRS 200.

29. Kater, Eric, Katie Johnson, Cody Rowe, Jordan Morehouse. Biology. Amy Honan. Morphological Differences Indicate Trade-offs due to Herbicide Resistance in Brassica rapa

Brassica rapa is a mustard plant and is used in many studies due to its fast growth and easy care.  This experiment was designed to observe three morphological differences between thirty atrazine resistant and thirty non-atrazine resistant Brassica rapa plants.  Both groups were placed under the same light and received the same amount of water.  We measured the number of flowers and leaves per plant and also the stem height of each plant.  Our results showed a significant difference between flowers produced and stem height.  The non-atrazine resistant plants produced, on average, a greater number of flowers and had greater stem heights when compared to the atrazine resistant plants. BIOL 151.

30. Kettles, Miriam. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Mentoring Initiative for Children in Rural Kiowa County, Colorado

The influence of mentoring and positive role models in a child’s life has proven to increase the child’s ability to go on to live a productive life that benefit themselves and society. This project based thesis, developed program content for the implementation of a child mentoring program for the rural community of Kiowa County, Colorado, for underprivileged and at risk elementary age children; with the hope that it would grow to encompass middle and high school aged children as well. The development of the content for the mentoring program and the plan for implementation is guided by “Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring,” 3rd Edition. The content of this mentoring program is to address the issues that children in rural communities face often without the support that is available to children in cities and towns. ROE 491.

31. Killorin, Rachel. Exercise and Sport Science.Christina Buchanan. Exploring the experiences of female students enrolled in extended studies yoga courses at a college in the Rocky Mountains

The positive physical and psychological benefits of regular participation in yoga have been identified through out numerous demographical populations. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of female students enrolled in extended studies yoga courses at a small college in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Methods: Subjects were recruited from each of the extended studies yoga courses that were offered during the semester of fall 2012. Questionnaires were distributed to the participants twice throughout the semester via email. The participants completed the questionnaires and returned them via email to the researcher. The data gained from the completed questionnaires were descriptively analyzed and one-on-one interviews were then conducted with several participants following the return of their questionnaires. Questionnaires and interviews were coded for themes. Results and Conclusion: Anticipated upon full analysis of the completed questionnaires and interviews. ESS 495.

32. Knudsen, Michael. Biology. Kevin Alexander. Nutrient Loading in Wilson Creek

Wilson Creek, a braided channel of the Gunnison River, is the delineation for habitat protection established by the Van Tuyl Management Plan in Gunnison, CO.  Wilson Creek is subject to nonpoint source pollution from ranch agricultural operations, recreation, and historic degradation of riparian habitat.  Discharge measurements, along with grab samples of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and E. coli, were taken at varying locations of Wilson creek throughout 2012 to assess nutrient loads and document its current condition.  All three pollutants tested well below the State of Colorado water quality standards during 2012.  The grab sampling suggests a strong correlation between elevated pollution levels and temporal periods of testing.  Middle Site 2, which was closest to ranch headquarters, had a much higher E. coli and Nitrate levels than Site 1.  This suggests that ranch headquarters, with high live-stock concentration, may be a contamination source.  Wilson creek can be considered healthy and functional. SCI 499.

33. Knudsen, Michael, Zoe Smith, and Colby Birchfield. Biology. Patrick Magee. Aspen Stand Density at Varying Elevations in the West Elk Wilderness, CO

The hot, dry summer of 2012 in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado may have affected stand density.  Aspens (Populus tremuloides) are extremely important to the ecosystem and there is much speculation about what stands are effected and why.  Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that Aspens on south facing, low-elevated slopes will have a low stand density.  The study area consists of six aspen stands selected at three varying elevations on the Storm Pass Trail in the West Elk Wilderness of Gunnison, CO.  Each stand consisted of three transects that ran 100m long.  Among these transects, four random numbers were chosen representing sample points. DBH and distances were measured to determine tree stand density (10,000 m2 / (mean point-to-tree distance)2.  It was determined that lower elevated north facing slopes had the largest tree densities.  The data supports the hypothesis that south facing slopes have a lower density. BIOL  302.

34. Mancebo, Rhonda. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Comparison of online media coverage of the 2012 summer Olympic and Paralympic games

The media plays a large role in the reinforcement of values and beliefs of a society. The sporting world and media greatly depend on each other for their success. The coverage of sporting events impact viewers’ perception and beliefs of the athletes. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to compare popular internet media coverage of the 2012 summer Olympic and Paralympic games held in London. Articles were examined from the online archive at ESPN.com . Data were analyzed by coding for themes. ESS 495.

35. Mancebo, Rhonda. Psychology. Roger Drake.      The impact of PTSD on soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan: Effective assessment and treatment strategies

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are resulting in many veterans suffering from severe injuries and mental health problems. Soldiers are being exposed to intense fighting resulting in exposure to severe stress, adversity, and trauma. When soldiers are unable to process this information, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may present itself. The number of veterans returning from these wars suffering from PTSD is overwhelming and causing a strain on the medical system to provide and care for these men and women adequately and appropriately. The Veteran Affairs (VA) system is being overwhelmed, resulting in many veterans seeking help from general medical practices and therapists. Medical professionals in any field should have a basic understanding and knowledge of PTSD. This paper focuses on describing the symptomatology of PTSD as an aid to effective assessment tools and treatment strategies to provide the best care to these veterans. PSY  498.

36. Manci, Michael, Jorge Benitez, Luke Fontenot, and Pablo Payan. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Counting the Stars

The objective of these observations is to determine the amount of stars visible under different lighting conditions.  By counting the stars in a limited area of the sky using a cardboard tube, we can apply that data to an equation to calculate a good estimate of the total number of visible stars at that location.  As we took our observations, we found that distance from the city and choosing a location with a hill between the city and that location  produced better conditions for star observation. PHYS 110.

37. McDowell, Emma. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Dependence on Pre-Workout Supplement for Male Recreational Weight Lifters

The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyze the psychological and physiological effects of  pre-workout supplements on male recreational weightlifters located on several collegiate campuses in the west. This was to further understand why this population participates in taking pre-workout supplements. Prior to participation, subjects signed an informed consent form with details and precautions of the study. Subjects were then given a 17 item survey to fill out and return to the researcher. Based on the responses the subjects gave, further research was done to investigate the possible side effects of pre-workout supplements. These researched side effects were compared to the responses the subjects gave on the survey to see if there was any correlation between the actual side effects and how the subject reported they felt.  Surveys were analyzed descriptively. ESS 495.

38. McNeely, Sophie. Exercise and Sports Science. Christina Buchanan. Effects of Beetroot Juice on Performance

The discussion of inorganic nitrate and its known health benefits has lead to amplified interest in nitrate supplementation via beetroots to increase exercise efficiency and serve as an ergogenic aid. The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect of a two week protocol of beetroot juice supplementation as a post-workout recovery drink on highly trained collegiate distance runners. Pre and post-VO2 max tests were performed on five male Division II cross country runners. Following a protocol of 3 minute increments beginning at 6 minute mile pace, 0% grade moving to 5:20 mile pace with 6% grade over 15 minutes. Each subject consumed 1 cup of beetroot juice three times a week for two weeks within 30 minutes following their regular afternoon workouts on empty stomachs, between the testing dates. Data were analyzed using a paired t-test. ESS 495.

39. Milbrodt, Teresa and Don Seastrum's class. English and Art. Teresa Milbrodt and Don Seastrum. Seeing Poetry

Students in Teresa Milbrodt’s ENG 205 class submitted original poems to students in Don Seastrum’s Honors ART 105 for consideration as inspiration for their artwork.  Seastrum’s students discussed color theory, including the concepts of harmonious color, color extension, and how to use color to create unity in artwork.  The students selected two poems to use as a basis for their artwork, and created one composition as an aesthetic reaction to each poem.  One composition needed to reflect harmony through color, and the other needed to reflect how to create emphasis (extension) through color.  Students also had to integrate the elements of line, form, and shape into their compositions, and write a brief essay explaining how they designed the composition based on the poem.  Selected students will read their poems and essays, while images of the compositions are projected on a screen. ENG 205 and ART 105.

40. Montgomery, Graham, Mark Ditmore, Jermaine Rodney, Kaeli Pfenning, Dean Mills, and Isaac Quinn. Computer Science. John Peterson and Andrew Keck. Robotics and Visual Motion Tracking I

By doing research in the field of robotics and vision we gain a whole new perspective on computer programming. The ability to watch ones code interact with the physical world is very exciting, but the field of robotics is growing every year. With advancements and funding in space, medical, gaming and many other robots we have great opportunities to learn about computer programming in general.  By using pre-built robots and software modules we can develop our own tasks for robots to preform and new ways to control the robots using visual motion tracking.  Gaining the knowledge and experience from logic programming of robots, a further understanding of computers and how we interact with them can be found. CIS 392.

41. Montgomery, Graham, Mark Ditmore, Jermaine Rodney, Kaeli Pfenning, Dean Mills, and Isaac Quinn. Computer Science. John Peterson and Andrew Keck. Robotics and Visual Motion Tracking II

By doing research in the field of robotics and vision we gain a whole new perspective on computer programming. The ability to watch ones code interact with the physical world is very exciting, but the field of robotics is growing every year. With advancements and funding in space, medical, gaming and many other robots we have great opportunities to learn about computer programming in general.  By using pre-built robots and software modules we can develop our own tasks for robots to preform and new ways to control the robots using visual motion tracking.  Gaining the knowledge and experience from logic programming of robots, a further understanding of computers and how we interact with them can be found. CIS 392.

42. Moorhouse, Janelle, Dakota Becker and Carolyn Spencer. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Baseline Data Collection:  Lower Tomichi Creek Stream Channel and Riparian Vegetation Monitoring

Agriculture is vital to the survival of humanity, especially considering the quantity of meat devoured by people in the United States.  Some of the meat consumed comes from livestock that graze on federal lands in major US watersheds and their tributaries.  Because the floodplain of Tomichi Creek in the Gunnison valley is used largely for cattle production, the impacts of cattle grazing are apparent, yet have not been fully explored. In order to understand how livestock grazing impacts the surrounding riparian ecosystem, we must further explore cattle’s effect on perennial vegetation.  In doing so, we can determine whether decreased cattle grazing would improve the presence of perennial vegetation, and whether there is any change in stream bank conditions.The purpose of our study is to gather baseline data in order for future classes to monitor the condition of the enclosed/exclosed areas. ENVS 390.

43. Murray, Taylor. Psychology. Roger Drake. The Short and Long Term Physical and Psychological Effects of Domestic Violence on Women and Their Children

Domestic violence is an issue that is all over the world, affecting people, particularly women in many different ways. It is important that this issue is taken seriously, and that there are plenty of resources for women to go to when they are in trouble. Women that have been abused have handled it in several different ways--either staying with the abuser hoping it will go away, getting help and risking being abused even more for saying something to law enforcement, or leaving and going far away from the abuse and risk losing all of their possessions. There are four different types of abuse, which includes sexual, emotional, physical, and financial. Domestic violence can cause short and long term effects. These effects include anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as others. Unfortunately, domestic abuse will affect one in four women in their lifetime, so it is important to have plenty of resources available to those who will be affected by it. Children, 90 percent of the time, are in the same room or the room next door.  Children affected by this abuse face behavioral, social, and emotional problems, as well as long term effects. PSY 498.

44. Murray, Taylor. Psychology. Roger Drake. Variables Affecting the Obedience to Authority: Morality vs. Conformity

Obedience to authority was a study done by Stanley Milgram where he had a teacher and a learner in a classroom. The teacher gave the student a list of words to memorize, which the learner would tested over. The teacher was told that each time the student got a wrong answer there would be a shock sent to the learner. Little did the teacher know, the shock wasn't real. This study looks at different variables that affect the teacher to being obedient. The first variable was the sex of an individual. For example, females tend to be more obedient than men, therefore the teacher would send more shocks regardless of how bad the student hurt. It is also culturally less appropriate for females to harm others than males, so in this case the women would not want to hurt the student. Another variable is situational differences. If the teacher could hear the student crying and hurting, then more than likely they will not continue to shock them. Another variable is social projection and this is when people believe that their opinions are always correct. This study is important in other ways, such as recognizing people's intentions with certain things that they do. It is in everyday situations. PSY 457.

45. Norris, Matthew, Sidney Bare, Molly Smith, and Dakota Brown.  Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Visible Stars and Light Pollution

The objective of this project was to look at stars with different sources and amounts of light pollution and record the number of stars visible from three different locations. When viewing from a rural setting, more stars are visible. When in a more urban area, such as in town, stars are much less visible, due to the amount of light pollution, as well as the amount of light interference. Our procedure involves  stargazing on a night with little to no moonlight. We visited three different locations, observed stars through cardboard tubes, and recorded the number of visible stars. Our results concluded more stars are visible from a rural location than an urban location. PHYS 110.

46. Orr, Katlyn. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan and Ashwin Patel. Biofeedback and Classical Ballet Turnout

The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental study was to measure the effect of using biofeedback in combination with verbal instruction on teaching proper ballet turnout technique to young ballet dancers.  This study investigated the relationship of muscle tension of the hips with knee alignment and foot placement in a basic ballet position.  20 dancers with a mean age of 12 years and mean dance experience of 3 years were used.  Each dancer underwent two conditions.  The conditions were verbal instruction or verbal instruction and biofeedback interpretation instruction before executing a demi plie.  The subjects were exposed to each condition in a random order.  The angle of the feet, knee alignment deviance and biofeedback reading were recorded.  Data were analyzed using a paired sample t-test.  ESS 495.

47. Orth, Dale, B. Ammon, J. Averill, A. Beason, H. Boomershine, J. Brotherton, E. Chapman, C. Chism, S. Evans, K. Haugen, D. Johnson, M. Lambert, A. Prentiss, S. Raines, and C. Zelko       Chemistry. Dale Orth. How Much Dye Do You Drink?

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in a commercial drink using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy with Beer’s Law.  After placing a concentrated sample of G2 Gatorade on chromatography paper, we observed different colors as water diffused up the paper.  These colors represented different dyes, and to determine their concentrations we made standards of dye and tested these in a Spectronic 20 Genysys for percent transmittance and solved for absorbance of each standard.  We graphed concentration relative to absorbance with a standard curve and obtained an equation for the line of best fit.  Using the slope of this line and the calculated values for absorbance we determined dye concentration through Beer’s Law, A=ℇLC, where ℇL = slope. We determined the concentration of Blue Dye #1to be 7.78x10-5 g/L and the concentration of Yellow Dye #5 to be 4.69x10-5 g/L. CHEM 112.

48. Orth, Dale, J. Arellano, A. Buniger, C. Bunker, J. Echter, C. Fry, D. Garbee, J. Hagar, R. Jackson, D. Kaszuba, E.J. Kreis, M. Martinez, M. Ostler, L. Personne, J.T. Pickert, M. Ritacco, C. Rivas, K. Roos, Z. Schank, T. Trachte, and M. Zimmerman Chemistry. Dale Orth. To dye or not to dye?  That is the concentration

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identity and concentration of dye in Jones green apple soda using paper chromatography, visible spectroscopy, and Beer’s Law. The dyes blue #1 and yellow #5 in the soda were determined by measuring the absorption spectrum and performing a paper chromatography using concentrated soda. Each dye was diluted in 100mL of water using 5mL, 10mL, 25mL, 50mL, and 100% standard of the dyes individually and placed in the Spectronic 20 where the %T was determined at the wavelength of blue #1 and yellow #5. Using the %T, the absorbance was calculated and a standard curve was produced to determine the concentration of yellow and blue dye in the soda. The concentration of blue #1 was 2.14 mg/L and the concentration of yellow #5 was 0.122 mg/L. CHEM 112.

49. Parenti, Michele, Mudgett, Lamb, Giavasis. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Almont Triangle Sage Brush Assessment

In November 1991, the Forest Service, Colorado Wildlife Commission, and the Bureau of Land Management, started a study that would assess the Gunnison Basin’s vegetation condition, specifically, Sage Brush. This data will be used to draw conclusions of the productivity of the basins environment. Our group monitored the Sage Brush at the Almont Triangle area, in the exact locations of prior BLM studies. Our methods included: finding previous sites from 1994 using photos and GPS coordinates, the site was marked with a rebar, we drew out 100 ft. of transects and measured the Sage Brush. We recorded and compared the data from the 1994 to see if there were any changes. The H0 is there will be no change in Sage Brush vigor. The HA is that there will be change in the Sage Brush vigor from 1994 to the present. The purpose for this study was to have current data for the BLM and USFS, to address problems through this data selection for future ecological management in the Gunnison Basin. ENVS 390.

50. Parenti, Michele. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Denver Public Schools and Environmental Curriculum


Nature-Deficit Disorder is a syndrome that people get from alienation from the natural environment. It isn’t a formal disorder but more of a series of physiological and behavioral insufficiencies. People are usually subject to this disorder in urban environments. I believe that these behaviors can be harmful to the person, community, and the environment in which they live. The Denver Public School (DPS) System doesn’t have the best performance or reputation, because of a very low graduation rate of only 60%. I think this might be due to Nature-Deficit Disorders. The disorder has the power to sway students in a direction of no motivation, specifically, to pursue the world beyond the city. The Denver Board of Education is the policy-making body for the district. Its powers and duties are established in state law. I urge a revisal to the DPS Board of Education’s policy to include more of the environment in everyday curriculum. ENVS 350.

51. Pena, Gautier and Megan Purdy. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Tracking the Moon

Our moon project consisted in the studying of the Motions and phases of the moon by  observing the moon for 15 days. Analyzing and taking measurements of altitude and Zenith, we also Identified the moons features as it went through its phases. We graphed our observations of positions to conclude how fast the moon travels relative to the stars; to determine the orbited epoch of the moon. PHYS 110.

52. Posey, Jacob. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Wind Farms off the California Coast

One of the key aspects to our species is that we are in constant growth, and with that increase in population comes a greater need for power.  In an attempt to create a lesser ecological footprint, while maintaining the electricity needs of our population, there have been great advances in wind power.  Since the infrastructure for these wind power harvesters is so enormous, one question that enters every planners mind is where to put these huge structures.  The policies that will be presented in this brief have to do with introducing wind farms in offshore regions mainly along the California coast.  These policies will also explore what other uses these structures can have when they are placed out into the ocean. ENVS 350.

53. Proctor, Gabriel.Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. What methods can distance runners take to reduce mental and physical stress


Studies claim that physical and mental stress effect most athletes. The purpose of this study was to focus on what measures distance runners can take to avoid being mentally and physically exhausted. Methods: 38 subjects consisting of male and female collegiate runners ages 18-24 will be chosen to determine how stressed they were by filling out a questionnaire. Results: 55% slept more than eight hours a night, 39.5% six to seven hrs a night, and 5% less than six hours a night.  The average exercise of the 38 runners per week was 13.15 hours. The number one cause of stress of these runners was school at 47.4%, 55.3% of runners said yes they had a lot of homework.  Conclusion: according to the survey these athletes were in constant stress due to the high mileage they run, school and their personal life. ESS 495.

54. Rosso, Matthew and Emily Herbert. Business Administration. Michael Vieregge. 'Green' and 'Sustainable' Hotels

Being ‘Green’ and ‘Sustainable’ was at one point in time an option for hotel owners and operators. The literature suggests that today’s travelers prefer hotels engaged in ‘Greening’ efforts. Additionally, increasing utility and operational costs push hotel owners/operators to save on energy bills.  To facilitate these changes industry standards are necessary. This study utilized a survey proposed for ‘Greening Certification’ by the American Hotel & Lodging Association for US hotels and applied it to hotels in the Gunnison Valley. This area is characterized as a fractured hotel market with mostly small and/or independent properties. In personal interviews of six hotel owners/operators suggest that most hotels are engaged in some ‘Greening’ efforts, but do not follow complete certification programs. These findings seem to suggest that formalization of efforts could lead to cost savings and more interestingly to certifications that could be used in marketing efforts. BUAD 334.

55. Ryter, Anne, J. Atwood, L. Beall, C. Carrigan, M. Danner, M. Dix, Y. Dominguez, R. Donnelly, R. Dowson, K. Haven, T. Jeute, M. Medina, B. Milton, J. Prince, T. Puralewski, W. Scott, A. Simon, R. Tarczy, B. Vasterling, Chemistry. Anne Ryter. Boost up the Dye: Identification and Concentration Determination of Dyes in Amp Energy Boost Grape


We determined the identities and concentrations of dyes in Amp Energy Boost Grape using paper chromatography, scanning spectroscopy, and visible spectroscopy using Beer’s Law. Paper chromatography determined that Red#40 and Blue#1 were present. Next we used a sample of the beverage to find the absorption spectrum of the solution using a scanning spectrometer.  The wavelength of the maximum absorbance for the Red#40 and Blue#1 was 512nm and 632nm respectively. We made a standard curve for the blue and red dyes.  The percent transmittance of various concentrations of each dye was measured using a Spectronic 20 and then we calculated the corresponding absorbance.  Finally, the concentration of each of the dyes was determined using by the absorbance of each dye and the equation of the best fit line from the Beer’s law plot. The concentration of the Blue#1 was 1.20x10-5M and Red#40 was 5.21x10-5M. CHEM 112.

56. Ryter, Jarral, Dan Heck, John Gowins, Mary Goodwin, and Stephanie Bollini. Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Analysis of Caffiene, Aspartame, and Benzoic acid in diet sodas and energy drinks

In the analytical chemistry laboratory we analyzed caffeine, benzoic acid, and aspartame content for their relative concentrations in common store bought energy and soda drinks. Caffeine, a central nervous system stimulant and diuretic is commonly consumed in a multitude of beverages in foods in the United States. Aspartame is used as an artificial sweetener in many food and drink products. Benzoic acid is a common preservative used often in beverages to preserve shelf life and maximize chemical stability. All three studied chemicals are at least acutely toxic when consumed in exceeded amounts. We determined the concentration of these chemicals in common store bought diet beverages using capillary electrophoresis. CHEM 306.

57. Ryter, Jarral, Chemistry. Jarral Ryter. Dye Concentrations In PowerAde Zero: Grape Flavor

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in  PowerAde Zero(Grape) using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy, utilizing Beer’s Law. Two dyes were found to exist in PowerAde Zero(Grape). Thin layer chromatography was used to separate the dyes and identify them.  To determine the concentration of these dyes, four standards were made with a known concentration of each dye along with pure PowerAde. These values were used to create an equation relating concentration to %Absorption (based on Beer’s Law). The dyes were found to be Red #40 and Blue #1, and the class average concentration of Red #40 was found to be 1.034x10-5 ± 8.796x10-7 M and the average concentration of Blue #1 was found to be 1.641x10-6 ± 3.354x10-7 M. CHEM 112.

58. Ryter, Anne, K. Brown, V. Currie, A. Dewhirst, K. Fisher, B. Fulton, J. Higgins, C. Irmiter, A. LaFortune, P. McGuire, T. Meisman, E. Richardson, K. Romero, Z. Schrieber, M. Sharkey, J. Simkins, N. Smith, T. Timperley, K. Welsing, A. Wolpern. Chemistry. Anne Ryter. The "Grape" Truth

The purpose in this lab was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in Big K Grape Soda.  In order to do this, we identified how many dyes were present by using paper chromatography.  The colors blue and red separated as the water absorbed through the paper.   Next, we had to identify the absorbance of the grape soda. Using scanning spectroscopy, we determined the maximum absorbance wavelength of each of the dyes in the soda. We created 100ml solution of   5, 10, 25 and 50 mL of both red and blue dyes to determine the relationship between concentration and absorbance.  We set the Spec 20 spectrometer to the maximum absorbance wavelength and measured our standard solutions.  We found the concentration of both dyes in our given sample of Big K Grape Soda using Beer’s Law. Concentrations were 1.84x10-5M for blue and 8.22x10-5M for the red. CHEM 112.

59. Saeman, Brittany. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Uranium Mining in the Grand Canyon

Uranium is a valuable resource in today’s society, used to create nuclear power.  Uranium is found in low concentrations in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.  There are many harmful consequences for the environment that come from mining uranium.  Most importantly is the toxic pollution of the body of water from which it draws the resource.  Regardless of these threats the environment, there are lots of proposed claims to uranium mining.  There were many locations along the Grand Canyon that were proposed, which would have a negative impact on the waters of the Colorado River.  On January 9, 2012, the Obama administration announced a 20-year ban on new mining claims on public land near Grand Canyon National Park. Though the ban will not affect about 3,000 existing claims in the area, it will make sure that there are no future claims throughout the Grand Canyon. A principal stated reason for the ban was to forestall possible contamination of Colorado River water resulting from a mining accident.  There are arguments for and against this policy put in place by the president which will both be presented. ENVS 370.

60. Sampson, Brian, Jeremy Dole, Kyle Graulus. Biology. Patrick Magee. Predator Frequencies in Riparian and Sagebrush Habitat in the Gunnison Basin

The purpose of this study is to examine and understand preference to habitat when it comes to predators in the Gunnison Basin. We compared two major habitats that are located in the basin, one be riparian and the other sagebrush. Our hypothesis was that there would be more frequencies of predators in the riparian habitat than that of the sage brush. To record predator presence three transects in each habitat were established. In each transect three sampling sites were created to pick up tracks and spread 100 meters apart from one another. Various meats were then used as the lure and placed in the center of each site. We found that the predator frequency recorded was much higher in the riparian habitat over the sage brush. There for we concluded that the data supports our hypothesis. BIOL 302.

61.Savarese, Nicole. Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Quantitative Study looking at the Academic, Athletic, and Social pressures of NCAA and Club Sport Athletes at a small Rocky Mountain University

The current quantitative study looked at the academic, athletic, and social pressures placed on NCAA and Club sport athletes at a small Rocky Mountain University.  This study was an online survey given to all athletes at this University via their student email.  The participants were all college athletes and included males and females 18-24 years old. All subjects must have been taking at least 12 credit hours.  There are approximately 41 survey questions.  Once completed the results were analyzed descriptively and using Pearsons r correlation coefficient (p < 05). ENVS 495.

62. Schaefer, Mason and Makensey Jones. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Leadership Development Curriculum for Partners Mentoring Association

Developing leadership in youth has shown to improve self-esteem, critical thinking and group work skills, and equipping student with the necessary skills to become successful adults (E.G., Gookin & Leach, 2009; Graham, 1997; Martinek & Hellison, 2009). The Partners Mentoring Association sees a need for a leadership development curriculum for the underprivileged youth within their association and the communities of Gunnison, Crested Butte, and Lake City, Colorado as they aim to accomplish the same task of giving their students tools to succeed in life. They see that an effective leadership curriculum implemented into their program will strengthen their organization and help them more thoroughly prepare kids to make the right decisions. Our task was to design a curriculum that meets Partners’ needs and will be effective for the types of students that utilize their program. ROE 491.

63. Sharp, Benjamin, Johnson, Gordon,  Norquist. Biology. Patrick Magee and Stephen Griggs. Goldfish Behavioral Patterns in Different Environments with Exposure to Foreign Vibration


Fish use two different types of hearing, involving their inner ear and lateral line system. A fish’s hearing allows them to detect nearby threats and helps determine the best possible escape route. This study will provide insight on frequency introduction to inner ear and lateral line responses of gold fish. We hypothesize the fish will respond to the introduction of frequency vibration based on their orientation and placement in the tank. Three tanks were set up with different environments and three goldfish were placed in each tank. Different frequencies were produced directly above each environment for thirty seconds. Data was collected on the behavior of the fish individually and in groups. P  Values were calculated for the fish’s behavior in terms of orientation, placement, and grouping. The data allowed us to reject our original hypothesis. Our findings show that the introduction of frequencies doesn’t alter the behavior of fish. BIOL 302.

64. Skaja, Amanda. Psychology. Roger Drake. The Psychology of Environmentalism: How to Reach People

I am not only a Psychology major, but also and Environmental Studies major. In many of my environmental studies classes we have discussed how we can get people to just listen to what we are saying about how they are damaging the environment. Then it hit me, as a psychology student we talk about ways people are motivated, so what if I looked at the ways people could be motivated to care about doing things that are pro-environment. I found a few articles of really good previous research that has been done on the topic, and I compiled it into one document. I learned how education plays a role, emotions, religious backgrounds, morals, previous engagements in nature, and the effect of giving to nature and getting something in return. I believe that this paper is currently the best compiled guide to reaching the most amount of people when it comes to motivating and changing their minds to more favorable, pro-environmental behaviors. Examples of the kinds of behaviors worth changing are: turning lights out when not in use, recycling, buying sustainable products (which are often labels, so its easy to find), and using public transportation, bikes, or legs instead of cars. PSY 498.

65.  Smith, Jordon, Torie Boyle, Mark Chalberg, and Nathaniel. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Light Pollution when Looking at the Stars  


The goal of the project was to see how big of an impact light pollution had on how many stars are visible to the naked eye. The project took place in three locations: just outside the university center, in the parking lot of Hartman Rocks, and in Hartman Rocks away from the streetlights. Our results showed that light pollution greatly impacts how many stars are seen in a night as more stars were visible in the location furthest from direct light. PHYS 110.

66. Smith, Sage, Nolan Hapeman, Michael Dix, and Strijek. Biology. Patrick Magee and Kevin Alexander. Streamside vegetation correlations with coarse particulate organic matter and biomass in Tomichi Creek, Gunnison County, Colorado

Our study site lies about eight miles west of Gunnison, Colorado along Tomichi Creek.  We posed two questions: (1) Do changes in streamside vegetation correlate with significant differences among adjacent macroinvertebrate populations? and (2) how far does allochthanous coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM)  travel downstream before it is captured by a substrate?  We studied four 100 meter reaches of Tomichi Creek, two largely devoid of streamside vegetation, and two with nearly continuous streamside vegetation.  For each reach, we collected and dried CPOM samples, macroinvertebrate samples, and observed the downstream transport of leaf-like paper cuttings released into the stream.  Our results show a significant difference in dried macroinvertebrate biomass between vegetated and non-vegetated reaches of stream (p= .05148).  We found no significant difference in dried CPOM weights between vegetated/non-vegetated reaches and our paper- release experiment showed that most allochthanous material in Tomichi Creek travels more than 100 meters before substrate capture. BIOL 302.

67. Stefan, Chelsey, Dylan Markley and JT Pickert. Biology. Patrick Magee. Does lure size determine predator size in trout species in the Gunnison Basin?       

Does using a different size lure have an effect on the frequency and size of the fish caught? We hypothesized that smaller fish would come to smaller lures, and larger fish would come to larger lures. We conducted our experiment at Blue Mesa Reservoir west of Gunnison, Colorado.  A total of three days, one location chosen each day, and a total time of three hours per day were fished.  Rotations in group member position were made after each hour, with each of the three group members having a different size lure, small, medium or large.  Each trout caught was identified to its species and its length measured.  We tested our hypothesis that there was no difference in fish size with relation to lure size.  We did not reject the null hypothesis (F= 2.039, P= .0124, n= 29).  We did not find evidence that lure size was related to fish size. BIOL 302.

68. Stuchlik, Bartolomej. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Developing a Major in Outdoor Industry

The outdoor industry is constantly evolving through the sports, events, products, and consumers’ recreational interests, through this evolution the demand for outdoor industry professionals is at a high request. It is interesting to note that for a $646 billion industry that produces 6.1 million in jobs, there is no undergraduate major or educational institutes that provide an educative degree that is focused on the skills and requirements to best prepare students to become an industry professional. This project-based thesis proposes the need and curriculum, including courses and additional competencies, which are aimed to prepare students to be a competent and driven force in the outdoor industry. ROE 491.

69. Stupka, Josh. Recreation & Outdoor Education. Brooke Moran. Gunnison Whitewater Park Master Plan Update

The Gunnison Whitewater Park (GWP), a unique recreational resource of the Gunnison Valley, offers recreational opportunities for fishermen, rafters, kayakers and general users while also providing a venue for the annual Gunnison River Festival.  Since its implementation in 2002, the GWP has experienced ongoing renovations, as needed, to offer an ideal recreation area for users. Currently, further development of the GWP is outlined in the 2010 Master Plan partly aimed towards the enhancement of existing amenities and the addition of new amenities to encourage different users to utilize the park while maintaining the rustic nature of the park.  As an avid kayaker and frequent user of the GWP, I seek to update this Master Plan with further improvements to the ultimate attraction and enjoyment of current and future users, utilizing a menial budget and simultaneously maximizing potential sustainable development.  ROE 491.

70. Timperley, Tanner.Exercise and Sport Science. Christina Buchanan. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Effects on Competitive Anxiety

The purpose of this study was to take a quantitative view of the effects Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) has on competitive anxiety. The subjects where fifteen male Collegiate Basketball players (18-24 years old). Subjects completed the Illinois Competition Tests (ICT) which used the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory 2 (CSAI-2) to determine the subjects’ competitive anxiety level before and after using PMR. All subjects completed three questionnaires. First, subjects filled out the ICT to determine competitive anxiety. The following day subjects performed PMR and filled out the ICT directly afterwards. Then subjects went to basketball practice. After practice the subjects filled out an open-ended questionnaire to determine thoughts and processes of PMR. Data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. ESS 495.

71. Vandahl, Michael, Wilson, McGraw. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Sagebrush Health along Recreation Trails in Gunnison Valley

Recreation trails are a big part of the Gunnison valley. They can also be harmful the health of sagebrush along those trails. The purpose of our project is to examine the health of sagebrush along recreation trails due to trail erosion. We are measuring the height and width of sagebrush along trails as well as percent ground cover in meter squares. We are examining recreation trails located in the Signal Peak area as well as Hartman’s to see how recreation affects sagebrush health. Our null hypothesis is there will not be an effect on sagebrush from trail erosion. We are setting up meter squares every five meters along a 50 meter transect. We are still in the process of data collection and analysis. The data we have collected so far shows that sagebrush is more frequent ten meters away from the trail than along the trail. ENVS 390.

72. VanIwaarden, Loreen, Josh Hartner, Jordan Woodyard, Kalvin Winter. Physics. Suzanne Taylor. Seasonal Motions of the Big dipper


The goal of our project was to see how the big dipper moves as the seasons change. The procedure for this observation is once a week we were to take a photo of the big dipper at the same time (9:00pm) in the same spot (football practice field). We used a simple digital camera with a tripod, and took 13 second exposures of the big dipper. Along with taking pictures, part of the procedure was sketching and creating an excel sheets and graphs with the information collected. The results that we obtained were, with every week the big dipper rotated and moved down towards the northern horizon with each week we captured the difference.  At 9 o’clock the big dipper appeared to have moved about one degree north each week. There was a week where the weather was too cloudy to take a picture and so with in the week we skipped we saw a very distinct movement. You will see that in the pictures of weeks 5 and 7. As to every other picture the big dipper just moved slightly. PHYS 110.

73. Via, Zachary, D. Brocksmith, E. Cleary, M. Dailey, E. Damge, Z. Dutra, H. Giles, G. Goll, M. Hart, C. Lowe, X. Martin, D. Perez, C. Rada, A. Randall, H. Schneider, A. Sherpa, C. Singleton, A. Smith, C. Stefan, T. Sua, M. Visconti. Chemistry. Anne Ryter. Just Dye

The purpose of this lab was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in commercial drinks using paper chromatography and visible spectroscopy using Beer’s Law. We determined which dyes were present in the Low Calorie G2 Grape Gatorade by placing a small sample in the SpectroVis, and the absorption spectrum was then compared to the known spectrum of Red # 40 and Blue # 1 dye. We then determined that blue and red dyes were present in the Gatorade drink by using chromatography paper.  Finally, we calculated the concentration of the dyes in the drink using a Spec 20 and Beer’s Law. For Red #40 the wavelength was set to 501 nm and for Blue #1 wavelength was set to 631 nm. The average concentration of dye in the Gatorade drink for Red # 40 was 4.85E-5 and for Blue #1 was 1.07E-5. CHEM 112.

74. Via, Zachary, R. Fenske, D. Ginsburg, M. Higgins, J. Kesler, P. King, L. Kittel, K. Klein, L. Martinez, C. Moore, H. Reycraft, D. Riddel, A. Roberts, K. Russell, B. Sampson, V. Schoultz, A. Templeton, J. Theisen, D. Vensel, C. Vincent, M. Wiggin. Chemistry. Anne Ryter. Power Dye      

High concentrations of dyes in food and drinks have been known to cause health complications such as allergies and in some cases tumors (Jacobson and Kobylewski 2010).  The purpose of this experiment  was to determine the identities and concentrations of dyes in Grape Powerade, which contains Blue1 and Red40. This was done by utilizing paper chromatography, visible spectroscopy and the Spectronic 20.  Five dilutions were made for each dye and transmittance data was collected. Using Beer’s Law, a standard curve was produced comparing absorption and concentration. A linear equation was derived from the standard curve to calculate concentrations. The drink was then tested and the average concentrations were found to be 3.86E-6 M for Blue1 and 1.41E-5 M for Red40. CHEM 112.

75. Woolman, Ashley. Environmental Studies. Jeffrey Sellen. Inner City Aquaponics

My poster will be about a policy brief I wrote for an aquaponics system in downtown Denver, Co. My policy brief is for the organization  Denver Urban Gardens who supports organic community gardens in Denver.  DUG works with neighborhoods to offer resources for a community garden. My policy brief discusses ways DUG can get an aquaponics system and fix a "food desert" area through low-cost leases of city owned property and tax incremental financing to help start-up costs. ENVS 350.

76. Woolman, Ashley, Karen Howe, Leslie Lauck. Environmental Studies. Jonathan Coop. Sustainable campus student initiatives

  We constructed a professional educative brochure to about all the different student-led sustainable initiatives on campus. It provides the history of each initiative (who implemented it and when), facts and stats (how much waste is reduced/reduced CO2), and exactly what it does. ENVS 301.

77. Zerr, Whitney, Miles Peterson. Angela Vitulli, Tim Zant, Ross McGee, Drew Gillespie, Jeremy Dole. Biology. Kevin Alexander. The Effect of Beaver Activity on Confluence Parcel Restoration

The confluence parcel on Coal Creek, Crested Butte, Colorado was purchased around 1991 by the Crested Butte Land Trust.  Their goal is to maintain and restore the wetlands in this area.  We collected data above and below four beaver dams to see the effect of beaver dams throughout the wetland. We analyzed macroinvertebrate biodiversity, hydrology, beaver activity, and beaver pond water storage. The macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed using EDAS. Select physico-chemical parameters were studied using a Hydrolab while beaver activity was indirectly surveyed. Water storage was calculated using the geometry of a cone and macroinvertebrates were identified down to lowest practical taxon. We saw significant increase in dissolved oxygen and a decrease in water temperature below beaver dams. The average beaver pond held 401.127m3 indicating substantial later season water storage.  Our study indicates that beavers play a vital role in the restoration of this property. BIOL 476.

78. Bain, Jason, Kristin Barker, John Beene, Colby Birchfield, Seth Bott, Karelia Brown, Cody Butero, Michael Coleman, Michael Dix, Jessie Dodge,  Brett George, Nolan Hapeman, Pamela King, Lance Kittel, Michael Knudsen, Cassie Krzeczowski, John Logan, Ross McGee, Gwen McGlothlen, Lawrence Norquist, Daniel Piquette, Benjamin Sharp, Sage Smith, Skylar Swedberg, Joshua Whitton.  Biology. Robin Bingham. Rocky Mountain Flora

This is a course focused on field identification of plant species common to the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. Each week we explored different plant communities and also collected specimens to identify using additional resources available in the lab. Each student was required to turn in a collection of 20 different species, representing a minimum of 15 different plant families. Ten plants in this final collection were mounted on herbarium sheets. Students learned proper mounting techniques and methods for curating herbarium specimens. BIOL 353.